JNR Class 9600
The Class 9600 is a type of 2-8-0 steam locomotive built by Japanese National Railways from 1913. The Class 9600 was the first type of locomotive to be mass-produced by Japanese manufacturers; the Class 9600 were popularly known as Kyuroku, were extensively used for freight service throughout Japan. From 1923 to 1939, Kisha Seizō, Nippon Sharyō, Hitachi built 39 9600s for the Government General of Taiwan; the Taiwan Government Railway classified them 800 class before 1937, they were classified D98 after 1937. After World War II, they were taken over by Taiwan Railways Administration, they were classified DT580. One engine, DT619, is being rebuilt by combining parts of scrapped locomotives after the war. To alleviate a severe motive power shortage on the Central China Railway, JNR locomotives were converted from Japanese narrow gauge to standard gauge and shipped to China. 251 Class 9600 locomotives were sent for use on both the Central China Railway and the North China Transportation Company. Others were rebuilt to metre gauge for operation on Yunnan's Kunming -- its branches.
As of 2014, 43 Class 9600 locomotives are preserved at various locations in Japan. Number 39685, built in 1920, has been preserved outdoors in Chuo-ku, Saitama since 1972, but was scheduled to be removed and cut up in September 2016 due to the prohibitive cost of restoration. Japan Railways locomotive numbering and classification
China Railways FD
For the class named FD during the cultural revolution see China Railways QJThe China Railways FD class of locomotives were 2-10-2 steam locomotives of the Russian FD locomotive type imported from Russia and regauged for use in China. The FD class locomotives were imported from Russia from 1958 to provide main line freight motive power for the Chinese railways. Over 1000 units were acquired and remained in service until 1985; when imported the class were designated YH, but after the breakdown of Sino-Soviet relations during the Cultural revolution the class were renamed FX. In 1971 the class were returned to the original designation'FD' of soviet Russian origin. FD number 1227 is preserved at the Shenyang Railway Museum. FD number 1653 is preserved at Huhhot Railway Bureau. FD number 1979 is preserved at the Beijing Railway Museum. Russian locomotive class FD
Liuzhou is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. The prefecture's population was 3,758,700 in 2010, including 1,436,599 in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts, its total area is 18,777 667 km2 for built up area. Liuzhou is located on the banks of the winding Liu River 255 km from Nanning, the regional capital. By road, it is about 167 km to Guilin, 167 km to Hechi, 237 km to Nanning, 373 km to Fangchenggang, 448 km to Beihai. Swimming in the river is a tradition of the city; the river is green, but sometimes in summer, floods from the mountain areas upstream bring sediment which colors the water yellow. In early 2012, a cadmium spill upstream caused serious pollution worries; the river can be deep. The depth is 60–70 metres but can as deep as 90 metres before it floods over the wall. In 2000 a bus, with 78 passengers, fell over the side of a bridge, into 27 metres of water. Liuzhou has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters and long hot summers, humid conditions year-round.
The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.6 °C in January to 29.1 °C in August, while extremes have ranged from −0.3 to 39.0 °C. Rain is both the heaviest and most frequent from May to August, when nearly two-thirds of the annual rainfall occurs; the Liujiang men are among the earliest modern humans found in East Asia. Their remains were discovered in the Tongtianyang Cave in Guangxi. Liujiang man is a Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens sapiens. Liuzhou has a history of more than 2,100 years; the city was founded in 111 B. C. when it was known as Tanzhong. In 742 A. D. it became known as Longcheng, after the Long River, before changing to Liuzhou after the Liu River in 1736. The most famous historic figure is Liu Zongyuan, a poet and politician in the Tang Dynasty and who died in Liuzhou, he is commemorated by a park in the city. Liuzhou was the site of Liuchow Airfield, used by Nationalist Chinese and American Army Air Forces in World War II, it was captured by the Japanese army on 7 November 1944 during the Battle of Guilin–Liuzhou and recaptured by Nationalist Chinese forces on 30 June 1945 prior to the Second Guangxi Campaign.
Liuzhou has direct administration over 10 county-level divisions: 5 districts, 3 counties and 2 autonomous counties: District: Chengzhong District（城中区） Liunan District（柳南区） Liubei District（柳北区） Yufeng District（鱼峰区） Liujiang District（柳江区） County: Liucheng County（柳城县） Luzhai County（鹿寨县） Rong'an County（融安县） Autonomous county: Rongshui Miao Autonomous County（融水苗族自治县） Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County（三江侗族自治县） Liuzhou is the second largest city in Guangxi and is the region's industrial center. According to statistics issued by the Liuzhou government in 2015, the city’s GDP was 231.1 billion yuan. Among important companies based in Liuzhou are: LiuGong - a multinational construction machinery manufacturer SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile - a joint venture between General Motors, SAIC Motor and Liuzhou Wuling Motors As with much of Guangxi, the landscape around Liuzhou is a mix of rolling hills, mountain peaks and karst scenery, it is an ideal base for exploring the minority villages in the area. Rongshui: Rongshui Miao Autonomous County is located in the north of Liuzhou prefecture, 118 km away from Liuzhou and 168 km from Guilin.
The territory is inhabited by Miao, Dong, Han nationality. Dayaoshan scenic area is in 154 km from the city of Liuzhou, it has a scenic area of over 500 km2. Sanjiang lies to the north of Liuzhou near the Hunan border, it is surrounded by picturesque ethnic minority villages. LiuZhou Industrial Museum was set up on the original site of the former Cotton Textile Factory No.3, opened in 2012. Liuzhou Airport provides flights to major cities in China. Liuzhou has extensive rail connections with the rest of China. Hunan-Guangxi Railway, Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway Railway and Guizhou-Guangxi Railway make Liuzhou the center of freight transportation in Guangxi. China National Highway 209 Liuzhou is the headquarters of the 41st Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two army groups that comprise the Guangzhou Military Region responsible for the defense of China's southern coast and its border with Vietnam. Liuzhou appears in the Chinese saying 生在苏州, 活在杭州, 吃在广州, 死在柳州. Born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in Liuzhoubecause, in the past, the city was known for its coffins, made from firwood, camphor wood, sandalwood, which are said to preserve the body after death.
Guangzhou's "Cantonese" cuisine is famous worldwide, Hangzhou is known for its prosperity and the beauty of its location. Suzhou is reputed to have the most beautiful people in China, so the line is sometimes given as "Marry in Suzhou...". Today many tourists buy miniature coffins, about 3 to 30 cm long, as good luck charms; the coffins are inscribed 升官发财 which means'get promotion and get rich". The second and fourth characters are homophones of 棺材 meaning'coffin'; some miniature coffins are used as caskets to hold the ashes of ancestors. Liuzhou was the home of Li Ning, gymnast and
China Railways JF6
The China Railways JF6 class steam locomotive was a class of 2-8-2 steam locomotives for freight trains operated by the China Railway. They were built in Japan and Manchukuo between 1934 and 1944 for the South Manchuria Railway, the Manchukuo National Railway, the North China Transportation Company. Needing a replacement for the Sorii-class locomotives transferred to the Manchukuo National in 1933, Mantetsu ordered the construction of replacements for use on light freight trains and for shunting duties; the result was the Mikasa class, a smaller, lighter version of the Mikai-class 2-8-2s in service, 43 were built in Japan for Mantetsu in 1934 by Kawasaki, Kisha Seizō, Nippon Sharyō. Numbered 1400 through 1442, the last 22 - 1421 through 1442 - were built with a sloped tender designed to allow greater rearwards visibility during shunting operations; some were fitted with a booster engine for use on mountainous lines. 26 of the design were built in the same year for the Manchukuo National, which designated them Mikaro class.
Numbered 6600 through 6625, these were known as the "National Small Mika", distinguishing them from the Mikana-class "National Big Mika" introduced the previous year. After some modifications to the design, another 22 were built in 1935 for the Manchukuo National. Under the unified classification system of 1938, the Mantetsu Mikasa and Mikaro classes, the Manchukuo National Mikaro classes were grouped together and classified Mikaro class. To operate on its North Chosen Line in the north-eastern part of Korea, Mantetsu ordered a number of locomotives designed to burn the low-calorie lignite found in abundance in Korea. To accomplish this, the area of the firegrate was increased by 0.5 m2 as compared to that of the Mikasa class. Along with the Puresa-class 2-6-2 tank locomotives and the Pashisa-class 4-6-2 passenger locomotives, Mantetsu's Mikaro class formed the backbone of the power in use on the North Chosen Line. Although the Mikaro class was based on the Mikasa design, care was taken during the design process to maximise the number of parts shared between the Mikaro and Pashisa class locomotives.
The Mikaro class entered production in 1935, with 22 being built between and 1938, for use on the North Chosen Line. As more were built after 1938, they were put into service on other Mantetsu lines as well, between 1935 and 1944, a total of 58 numbered 1480 through 1499, 11400, 11401, were built for Mantetsu by Kawasaki, Kisha Seizo, Nippon Sharyo, Mantetsu's Shahekou Works, the Dalian Machine Works; the Manchukuo National ordered the new design with the larger firegrate, taking delivery of 171 between 1936 and 1944. Like the Sorisa-class, they were fitted with a regauging device to allow operation on Russian 1,524 mm gauge lines, in anticipation of a possible Japanese invasion of the Soviet Far East. Given the Mikaro classification too and numbered 6648 through 6699 and 16600 through 16638, in the 1938 unified numbering system they became Mikaro class 549 through 629. In addition to the five diverted from the Manchukuo National, 72 Mikaro class locomotives were built by Kisha Seizō for North China Transport in 1938−1939 and 1943−1944.
A number of Mikaro-class locomotives were loaned to the West Chosen Central Railway in 1944–45 to alleviate power shortages on that line. At the request of the Kwantung Army, the Dalian Machine Works built a single experimental condenser version of the Mikaro class in 1941; this was numbered ミカク501, as a Manchukuo National unit. A flue gas turbine was installed in front of the locomotive's chimney, with the exhaust pipe leading to a condenser on the tender, where the steam was cooled down and recycled into water again, to allow for operations over long distances without having to take on water. In tests, Mikaku 501 recorded 1,600 km without taking on more water, but the design was never put into production. Of the 320 Mikaro class locomotives owned by Mantetsu and the Manchukuo National Railway, at the end of the Pacific War 20 were assigned to the Dairen Port Railway Bureau, 38 to the Mukden Bureau, 32 to the Jinzhou Bureau, 68 to the Mudanjiang Bureau, 29 to the Harbin Bureau, 50 to the Qiqihar Bureau, whilst a further 75 were loaned out to other railways in China.
These 312 locomotives were handed over to the Republic of China Railways in 1945. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, China Railways designated these the ㄇㄎ陸 class in 1951, in 1959 they were reclassified 解放6 class. A final batch of five JF6 were built in China between 1958 and 1960; the Mikaro class locomotives inherited from Mantetsu, the Manchukuo National and North China Transport, along with the five built new after the war, were numbered by China Railways in the 3001−3475 range. Although Chinese sources quote a number series of JF6 300
Enshi is a county-level city in and the seat of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, in western Hubei province, People's Republic of China. The prefecture's legislature and judiciary are seated here, as well as its CPC and Public Security bureau; the entire county-level city of Enshi has an area of 3,967 square kilometres and a population of 780,000. The earliest records of Enshi start in 770bc. At that time the area was a State known as Bazi until 476b. From 475 to 221 it became a county, after which it was assumed into the Chinese Dynasties starting with Qin. Three subdistricts: Wuyangba Subdistrict, Liujiaoting Subdistrict, Xiaoduchuan Subdistrict Five towns: Longfeng, Banqiao, Sancha Eight townships: Xintang Township, Hongtu Township, Shadi Township, Taiyanghe Township, Tunbao Township, Baiguo Township, Bajiao Dong Ethnic Township, Shengjiaba Township Other area: Mufu The city is built alongside the Qing River and is surrounded by forest-covered mountains; the city has many hotels and spas.
Restaurants here in general cater for Chinese tastes. The food in Enshi is spicy and includes many "Hot Pot" style dishes as well as smoked pork and chirzo style sausage meat, spicy fried potatoes and lamb skewers. There is a beautiful Forest Park in Enshi which offers splendid scenery and views of the city as well as an amusement park. There is an out-door cafe in the park with hammocks. During the summer months there is white water rafting tours available on the river; the City Center has a shopping district catering for most tastes. There is a local night club located under the "shelter bridge" called the "Soho Times". In earlier 2013 Enshi's economy appeared to be booming with many multistory building construction sites in operation; the city is home to University. Agriculture in and around the city is strong with all available land being used to grow vegetables. There are two hospital campuses in the city, many banks and shops; the city has a tobacco factory. Enshi has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, with short, cool winters, humid summers, high humidity year-round.
The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 5.0 °C in January to 26.7 °C in August, while the annual mean is 16.18 °C. More than two-thirds of the annual precipitation of 1,470 millimetres occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 12% in January to 50% in August, the city receives only 1,212 hours of bright sunshine annually. Enshi Xujiaping Airport Yiwan Railway China National Highway 209 G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway, which crosses the Qing River near the city over the Qingjiang Bridge. Official website of Enshi government
China Railways AM2
The China Railways AM2 class steam locomotive was a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotives operated by the China Railway, built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in the United States in 1879. These locomotives were built for the Imperial Railroad of North China, which became known as the Peking−Mukden Railway, subsequently the Beining Railway. After the Japanese occupation of northern China, the collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China nationalised all railways in its jurisdiction, creating the North China Transportation Company in 1938 to operate the railways in the region; the NCTC designated these locomotives'Ameni class. After the end of the Pacific War, these locomotives were passed on to the Republic of China Railway. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, China Railways designated them ㄚㄇ2 class in 1951, subsequently AM2 class, in Latin letters instead of Zhuyin script, in 1959
An adhesion railway relies on adhesion traction to move the train. Adhesion traction is the friction between the steel rail; the term "adhesion railway" is only used when there is need to distinguish adhesion railways from railways moved by other means, e.g. by a stationary engine pulling on a cable attached to the cars, by railways which are moved by a pinion meshing with a rack, etc. This article focuses on the technical detail of what happens as a result of friction between the wheels and rails in what is known as the wheel-rail interface or contact patch. There are the good forces, e.g. the traction force, the braking forces, the centering forces, all of which contribute to stable running. There are the bad forces which increase costs by requiring more fuel consumption and increasing maintenance, needed to address fatigue damage, wear on rail heads and on the wheel rims, rail movement from traction and braking forces; the interface between the wheel and the rail is a specialist subject with continual research being done.
Traction or friction is reduced when the top of the rail is wet or frosty or contaminated with grease, oil or decomposing leaves which compact into a hard slippery lignin coating. Leaf contamination can be removed by applying "Sandite" from maintenance trains, using scrubbers and water jets, can be reduced with long-term management of railside vegetation. Locomotives and streetcars/trams use sand to improve traction. Adhesion is caused by friction, with maximum tangential force produced by a driving wheel before slipping given by: Fmax= coefficient of friction × Weight on wheelUsually the force needed to start sliding is greater than that needed to continue sliding; the former is concerned with static friction or "limiting friction", whilst the latter is dynamic friction called "sliding friction". For steel on steel, the coefficient of friction can be as high as 0.78, under laboratory conditions, but on railways it is between 0.35 and 0.5, whilst under extreme conditions it can fall to as low as 0.05.
Thus a 100-tonne locomotive could have a tractive effort of 350 kilonewtons, under the ideal conditions, falling to a 50 kilonewtons under the worst conditions. Steam locomotives suffer badly from adhesion issues because the traction force at the wheel rim fluctuates and, on large locomotives, not all wheels are driven; the "factor of adhesion", being the weight on the driven wheels divided by the theoretical starting tractive effort, was designed to be a value of 4 or higher, reflecting a typical wheel-rail friction coefficient of 0.25. A locomotive with a factor of adhesion much lower than 4 would be prone to wheelslip, although some 3-cylinder locomotives, such as the SR V Schools class, operated with a factor of adhesion below 4 because the traction force at the wheel rim do not fluctuate as much. Other factors affecting the likelihood of wheelslip include wheel size and the sensitivity of the regulator/skill of the driver; the term all-weather adhesion is used in North America, refers to the adhesion available during traction mode with 99% reliability in all weather conditions.
The maximum speed a train can proceed around a turn is limited by the radius of turn, the position of the centre of mass of the units, the wheel gauge and whether the track is superelevated or canted. Toppling will occur when the overturning moment due to the side force is sufficient to cause the inner wheel to begin to lift off the rail; this may result in loss of adhesion - preventing toppling. Alternatively, the inertia may be sufficient to cause the train to continue to move at speed causing the vehicle to topple completely. For a wheel gauge of 1.5 m, no canting, a centre of gravity height of 3 m and speed of 30 m/s, the radius of turn is 360 m. For a modern high speed train at 80 m/s, the toppling limit would be about 2.5 km. In practice, the minimum radius of turn is much greater than this, as contact between the wheel flanges and rail at high speed could cause significant damage to both. For high speed, the minimum adhesion limit again appears appropriate, implying a radius of turn of about 13 km.
In practice, curved lines used for high speed travel are superelevated or canted so that the turn limit is closer to 7 km. During the 19th century, it was believed that coupling the drive wheels would compromise performance and was avoided on engines intended for express passenger service. With a single drive wheelset, the Herzian contact stress between the wheel and rail necessitated the largest diameter wheels that could be accommodated; the weight of locomotive was restricted by the stress on the rail and sandboxes were required under reasonable adhesion conditions. It may be thought. However, close examination of a typical railway wheel reveals that the tread is burnished but the flange is not—the flanges make contact with the rail and, when they do, most of the contact is sliding; the rubbing of a flange on the track dissipates large amounts of energy as heat but including noise and, if sustained, would lead to excessive wheel wear. Centering is accomplished through shaping of the wheel.
The tread of the wheel is tapered. When the train is in the centre of the track, the region of the wheels in contact with the rail traces out a circle which has the same diameter for both wheels; the velocities of the two wheels are equal, so the train moves in a straight line. If, the wheelset is displaced to one side, the