Harbin Brewery is a Chinese brewery founded in 1900 in Harbin, China. As China's fourth largest brewery and its oldest one, it has a leading position in Northeast China and owns the Hapi beer brand. Harbin has increased its annual beer production capacity to over 1 million tons and has become a giant in China's beer industry after its successful reform and listing on the Hong Kong stock market; the brewery is owned by Anheuser–Busch InBev, which has helped to export Harbin beer to European and North American markets, but in comparison to Tsingtao Beer or Zhujiang Beer its share in these markets is minor. In the North American market, Harbin beer was first sold in ethnic Chinese supermarkets, begun to expand to other Asian supermarkets, such as ethnic Korean supermarkets like Market World and Freshia; the history of Harbin beer dates back to 1900, when a German citizen of Polish origin, Jan Wróblewski from Tarczyn in Prussian Poland, founded a brewery in Northeast China, which he named after himself.
The initial objective of the Brewery was to supply Russians working on the Trans-Manchurian Railway project started in 1898. In 1908, the company was renamed Gloria. In 1932, the brewery was renamed Harbin Brewery Factory, when it went into joint control of Chinese and Czech nationals. In 1946, after the Soviet Red Army captured Manchuria, the company was controlled by Soviet nationals, who called it Quilin Stock Company Limited; this situation prevailed until 1950 when Stalin ordered the return of Chinese assets, ownership was returned to the Chinese government. The Chinese operated it as a state-owned entity. Driven by the famine the company became the first to brew beer with corn instead of rice, in 1959. Through the 1960s, the company focused on investing to improve its technology, in 1973 it installed its first sterilization machine in Heilongjiang Province. In June 2003, SABMiller acquired a 29.6% equity stake in Harbin. In 2004 it was taken over by Anheuser-Busch after a bitter takeover battle with SABMiller.
Harbin Beer is a 4.8% abv pale lager. It uses European and Chinese “Qindao Dahua” hops, two-row malt, German yeast. Hapi and Golden Hapi. Harbin Heart and Harbin Premium Lager. One of Harbin's beers is a wheat beer. List of Chinese companies Yanjing Beer Tsingtao Beer Zhujiang Beer Beer and breweries in China Takeover battle RateBeer
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers less than those of a province. Shenzhen, which follows the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County became a city in 1979, taking its name from the former county town, whose train station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the railway between Canton and Kowloon. In 1980, Shenzhen was established as China's first special economic zone. Shenzhen's registered population as of 2017 was estimated at 12,905,000. However, the Shenzhen Municipal Party Committee estimates that the population of Shenzhen is about 20 million, due to the large unregistered floating migrant population living in the city. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s and has been ranked second on the list of ‘top 10 cities to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet. Shenzhen's cityscape results from its vibrant economy - made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of "reform and opening-up" in 1979.
The city is a leading global technology hub, dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley. Shenzhen hosts the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous multinational companies such as JXD, Hytera, CIMC, SF Express, Shenzhen Airlines, Hasee, Ping An Bank, Ping An Insurance, China Merchants Bank, Tencent, ZTE, Huawei, DJI and BYD. Shenzhen ranks 14th in the 2019 Global Financial Centres Index, it has one of the busiest container ports in the world. The earliest known recorded mention of the name Shenzhen could date from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty. Local Hakka people call the drains in paddy fields “zhen”. Shenzhen means “deep drains” as the area was once crisscrossed with rivers and streams, with deep drains within the paddy fields; the character 圳 is limited in distribution to an area of South China with its most northerly examples in Zhejiang Province which suggests an association with southwards migration during the Southern Song Dynasty. Due to the city's growing economy in the technological industry, the city has been referred by media as "China's Silicon Valley".
The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed in the Shenzhen area are shards from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty onwards, the area around Shenzhen was a center of the salt monopoly, thus meriting special imperial protection. Salt pans are still visible around the Pearl River area to the west of the city and are commemorated in the name of Yantian District; the settlement at Nantou was the political center of the area from early antiquity. In the year 331 AD, six counties covering most of modern southeastern Guangdong were merged into one province or "jun" named Dongguan with its administrative center at Nantou; as well as being a center of the politically and fiscally critical salt trade, the area had strategic importance as a stopping off point for international trade. The main shipping route to India and the Byzantine Empire started at Guangzhou; as early as the eighth century, chronicles recorded the Nantou area as being a major commercial center, reported that all foreign ships in the Guangzhou trade would stop there.
It was as a naval defense center guarding the southern approaches to the Pearl River. Nantou was a major naval center at the mouth of the Pearl River in the Ming Dynasty. In this capacity it was involved in 1521 in the successful Chinese action against the Portuguese Fleet under Fernão Pires de Andrade; this battle, called the Battle of Tunmen, was fought in the straits between Shekou and Nei Lingding Island. This area was involved in the events surrounding the end of the Southern Song dynasty; the imperial court, fleeing Kublai Khan’s forces, established itself in the Shenzhen area. Lu Xiufu, the then-chief minister, realized all was lost and knew the Mongolian forces would soon take over the area, he preferred suicide instead of the emperor being captured which might have brought shame to the dynasty, he jumped off a cliff with Emperor Bing, aged 7, the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty strapped to his back, killing both. In the late 19th century the Chiu or Zhao clan in Hong Kong identified that Chiwan, an area near Shekou as the final resting place of the Emperor and built a tomb for him.
The tomb, since restored, is still at the same location. Contrary to a common misconception of Shenzhen being a fishing village prior to becoming a city, Shenzhen was a regional market town, the county town of Bao'an since 1953. In November 1979, Bao'an County was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province, it was renamed Shenzhen, after Shenzhen town. The administrative centre of the county stood around present location of the Dongmen. Shenzhen was singled out to be the first of the five Special Economic Zones in May 1980; the SEZ comprised an area of only 327.5 km2 of southern Shenzhen, covering the current Luohu, Futian and Yantian districts. The SEZ was promoted by Deng Xiaoping and created to be an experimental ground for the practice of market capitalism within a community guided by the ideals of "socialism with Chinese characteristics". In 1982 Bao'an County was re-established; the county was converted to become Bao'an District, out of the Special Economic Zone.
Shenzhen was promoted to a Sub-provincial City in March 1983 and w
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Kweichow Moutai Co. Ltd. is a partial publicly traded, partial state-owned enterprise in China, specializing in the production and sales of Maotai liquor, together with the production and sale of beverage and packaging material, development of anti-counterfeiting technology, research and development of relevant IT products. Its A shares were listed in the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 2001, it is one of the few listed companies. Kweichow Moutai is a subsidiary of Kweichow Moutai Group, which in turn is owned by the Guizhou Provincial People's Government, it is the world's most valuable liquor company, surpassing Diageo since April 2017. Official website Kweichow Moutai Overview at World Indicium
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Hangzhou Wahaha Group
The Hangzhou Wahaha Group Co. Ltd. is a private group of companies, the largest beverage producer in China. The company is headquartered in Zhejiang province. "Wa ha ha" signifies "laughing child". Wahaha has 150 subsidiary companies and 60 manufacturing bases scattered throughout China. Wahaha employs about 60,000 staff; the company was a local government owned sales company founded in 1987-8. For most of the time since creation, it has been run by Zong Qinghou, who exercises operational control over the day-to-day operations. Wahaha has its origins in the sales department of the Shangcheng District School in Hangzhou, founded in 1987. A factory, the "Hangzhou Wahaha Nutritional Foods Factory", was created in 1989 to tap a niche in the market for a "children's liquid nutrient" 兒童營養口服液. Although there were 38 producers of liquid nutrients on the market, none were for children; the advertising campaign struck a note with single child Chinese parents, was a runaway success. In 1991, the factory was merged with the ailing "Hangzhou Canned Food Factory" in a social restructuring, but which increased the overheads of the business.
In May 1992, Wahaha raised CNY236 million internally in order to start the Hangzhou Wahaha Food City Co. Ltd. and to finance the construction of Wahaha Food City, in Hangzhou. Due to inexperience in project management, cashflow became a problem, as construction was delayed for 6 years; this company holds the interests of the employees' union. It changed its name to ZHI at an EGM in August 2001. During the period from 1992 to 1994, WHH shifted the company away from health drinks to other products. During this period it launched a sour plum drink, alcoholic beverages and pseudo-medicinal potions, but these would successively fail. In 1994, the company acquired three insolvent companies in Sichuan, established its first factory in Chongqing. A local manufacturing base enabled the company to reduce distribution costs to western China. Once talks had started with Danone, capital became available once again for the company. WHH struck gold with it. Over the next three years, WHH would acquire 40 more companies in 22 different provincial cities, transforming it into one of the largest beverage companies in China.
In 1995, Peregrine Investments Holdings introduced Zong to Danone, discussions about the creation of a joint venture began. The Wahaha trademark was assigned to the main joint venture vehicle on 29 February 1996, a joint venture agreement was signed on 28 March 1996; the "foreign partners" took 51%, while the "Chinese partners" held 49%. Groupe Danone and Peregrine together invested US$70 million in return for the stake in five joint venture WHH companies with the exclusive rights of production and sales of products under the Wahaha brand; when Peregrine collapsed in 1998, Groupe DANONE acquired its stake in the JVs, became majority owner. The business had grown into 39 joint venture entities by 2007, the total injected capital amounts to USD131 million. Since April 2007, Wahaha has been engaged in a public dispute with its JV partner. Danone has accused Zong of selling identical products using the Wahaha brand outside of the joint ventures, demands a 51% stake in these; the matter was closed on 30 September 2009.
Since the dispute began, Wahaha has launched products under different brands. Earlier the company released new beverage products under the name of Nutri-Express Drink and Wahaha Smoothie. U-Yo Milk Coffee has now been launched with a "Qili" logo; the producer was a new company rather than the Wahaha Group. More products are to be rebranded with the new logo. Wahaha branded products include milk drinks, soft drinks, bottled water, bottled tea, fruit juice and its flagship yoghurt beverages, its largest facility is located in Hangzhou's Xiasha Economic and Technological Development Zone, where one-third of the company's production occurs. Wahaha dealers advertises nationally; the company has 35 provincial sales offices, 2,500 sales team employees, Its distribution is nationwide. Wahaha is one of 3 brands which has few distribution gaps in rural China, with more than 2 million sales outlets across the country. Distributors are responsible for capital and delivery; the company maintains two grades of distributors: more than 1,500 first-level dealers that need to meet distribution targets and manage large networks and capital.
Distributors' franchise areas are delimited to ensure no poaching between areas, are guaranteed by forfeitable deposits lodged with Wahaha. The distribution has given "Future Cola" a close third in national market share through its domination of rural China, its tertiary and secondary cities. According to PRC government statistics, Coca-Cola held a 24 percent market share in 2003, whilst Future Cola's market share is 70% of that of Pepsi, its products are available in major Chinatowns. The Hangzhou Wahah Group Co. Ltd. is 29.4% owned Zong, 26.4% by the employees and management as represented by Zhejiang Wahaha Industries Joint-stock Co. and 46% by Shangcheng District Government. Zong's shares are controlled by British Virgin Islands registered Ever Maple Trading Ltd. through Hangzhou Hongsheng Beverage Co Ltd. Maple's legal representative is Zong's daughter Zong Fuli. Whilst the group has many subsidiaries, both local and foreign registered, there are a number of entities which are private companies owned or controlled by Zong.