A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, adult theaters, are found. Areas in many big cities around the world have acquired an international reputation as red-light districts; the term red-light district originates from the red lights. Red-light districts are mentioned in the 1882 minutes of a Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting in the United States; the Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known appearance of the term "red light district" in print as an 1894 article from the Sandusky Register, a newspaper in Sandusky, OhioAuthor Paul Wellman suggests that this and other terms associated with the American Old West originated in Dodge City, home to a well-known prostitution district during the 19th century, which included the Red Light House saloon. This has not been proven, but the Dodge City use was responsible for the term becoming pervasive. A widespread folk etymology claims that early railroad workers took red lanterns with them when they visited brothels so their crew could find them in the event of an emergency.
However, folklorist Barbara Mikkelson regards this as unfounded. One of the many terms used for a red-light district in Japanese is akasen meaning "red-line". Japanese police drew a red line on maps to indicate the boundaries of legal red-light districts. In Japanese, the term aosen meaning "blue-line" exists, indicating an illegal district. In the United States during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the term "sporting district" became popular for legal red-light districts. Municipal governments defined such districts explicitly to contain and regulate prostitution; some red-light districts are places which are designated by authorities for legal and regulated prostitution. These red-light districts were formed by authorities to help regulate prostitution and other related activities, such that they were confined to a single area; some red-light districts are under video surveillance. This can help counter illegal forms of prostitution, in these areas that do allow regular prostitution to occur.
List of red-light districts Media related to Red-light districts at Wikimedia Commons
The Xinhai Revolution known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar; the revolution consisted of many uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang uprising on 10 October 1911, the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement; the revolution ended with the abdication of the six-year-old Last Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912, that marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era. The revolution arose in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing; the brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui.
After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration; the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland both consider themselves the legitimate successors to the Xinhai Revolution and honor the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, modernization of China and national unity. 10 October is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC. In mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, the day is celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing imperial court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a conservative court culture that did not want to give away too much authority to reform.
Following defeat in the Second Opium War in 1860, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861. In the wars against the Taiping, the Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional imperial troops proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local armies. In 1895, China suffered another defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War; this demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform; the reform was abruptly cancelled by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a puppet dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms; the Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish Han led government; the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first Chinese manhua, who became one of the core founders of the South China Morning Post.
Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui was established in Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894; the Huaxinghui was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, inspire the other provinces to rise up"; the Guangfuhui was founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Tao Chengzhang. Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was from Guangfuhui. There were many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui in Sichuan and Hanzudulihui in Fujian, Yizhishe in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. There were criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang.
Sun Yat-sen himself came in cont
Merchant Street Historic District
The Merchant Street Historic District in Honolulu, was the city's earliest commercial center. Bounded by Fort Street at the southeast end and Nuʻuanu Avenue at the northwest, its older, low-rise and stone buildings, surrounded by contemporary, concrete high rises, serves as an open-air, human-scale architectural museum of the city's commercial development between the 1850s and the 1930s, its architectural styles range from nondescript 19th-century commercial through Richardsonian Romanesque and Mission Revival. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Directly to the north is another historic district; the earliest structure is Melchers Building at 51 Merchant Street, built in 1854 for the retail firm of Melchers and Reiner. Its original coral stone walls are no longer visible under its layers of stucco and paint, it now houses city government offices, not private businesses; the Kamehameha V Post Office at the corner of Merchant and Bethel Streets was the first building in Hawaiʻi to be constructed of precast concrete blocks reinforced with iron bars.
It was built by J. G. Osborne in 1871 and the success of this new method was replicated on a much grander scale the next year in the royal palace, Aliʻiōlani Hale; the old post office building was separately added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. The Bishop Bank Building at 63 Merchant Street was the earliest of the Italianate structures on the street, built in 1878 and designed by Thomas J. Baker, its distinctive features include a corner entrance, arched windows and doors, fine masonry work, brick pilasters below an ornamental cornice and parapet along the roofline, all of which are obscured to some extent by its current exterior of monotone white stucco. In 1925, Bishop Bank moved to much larger quarters along "Bankers Row" on Bishop Street, changed its name to First Hawaiian Bank, now one of the largest in the state; the T. R. Foster Building at 902 Nuʻuanu Avenue was built by Thomas R. Foster, one of the founders of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company. In 1880, Foster had purchased the estate of the renowned botanist William Hillebrand, bequeathed to the city as Foster Botanical Garden at the death of his wife, Mary E. Foster, in 1930.
The architectural style of the two-story T. R. Foster Building resembles that of the one-story Royal Saloon Building across the street, built in 1890 on the site of a former corner bar. Both are modestly Italianate brick buildings, with pilasters and balustrades along the streetside rooflines; the Royal Saloon ceased to be a bar during Prohibition, but both buildings were renovated during the 1970s and now house O'Toole's Irish Pub and Murphy's Bar & Grill. The bare stone face of the tiny Bishop Estate Building at 71 Merchant Street is a fine example of the stolid Richardsonian Romanesque style, popular when it was built in 1896, its architects were Clinton Briggs Ripley and his junior partner, C. W. Dickey, a well-connected local boy with a fresh degree in architecture from M. I. T. and it housed the executive offices of not only the Bishop Estate, but the Charles Reed Bishop Trust and the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Constructed of dark lava from the Estate's own quarries, its notable features include arches above the lower door and window frames, four rough stone pilasters on the upper level, a corniced parapet along the roofline.
The Judd Building at the corner of Merchant and Fort Streets combines elegant features of Italianate architecture with businesslike functionalism. Designed by Oliver G. Traphagen, newly arrived from Duluth, Minnesota, it boasted Hawaii's first passenger elevator when it opened in 1898. A fifth floor was added on top in the 1920s, the interior was remodeled in 1979, the ground floor has been reconfigured. However, the exterior of the middle three floors reflects Traphagen's original design, with arched windows, simulated keystones, decorative wreaths and floral designs. Built on land that used to house the medical offices of Dr. Gerrit P. Judd, the new building served as the first headquarters of Alexander & Baldwin, of the Bank of Hawaii until 1927; the bank bought the building in 1998, A&B repurchased it in 2000. Overseas branches of the Yokohama Specie Bank were chartered to act as agents of Imperial Japan; the Honolulu branch was the first successful Japanese bank in Hawaiʻi. The building at 36 Merchant Street dates from 1909 and was designed by one of Honolulu's most prolific architects, Henry Livingston Kerr, who considered it not just his own finest work, but the finest in the city at the time.
The brick and steel structure is L-shaped, with a courtyard in back. Its Italianate design includes a triumphal arch over the main door, copper window casings, glass wainscoting, marble trim, paintings inside by a local artist. Bank personnel received Japanese-speaking, Chinese-speaking, English-speaking customers in separate areas. On the day that Pearl Harbor was bombed, the building was taken over by the Alien Property Custodian, the first floor became a warehouse for confiscated possessions, extra showers and holding cells were installed in the basement to accommodate up to 250 drunken military personnel; the bank's former customers spent years trying to get their money back, never managed to collect interest on their old deposits until the 1960s. The building was renovated in the 1980s by local restoration architect Spencer Leineweber and became home to Honolulu Magazine from 1982 to 2001, it serves as a preschool and childcare center. The last significant old structure in the d
Isaac Davis (Hawaii)
Isaac Davis was a British advisor to Kamehameha I, one of European settlers that helped form the Kingdom of Hawaii. He arrived in Hawaii in 1790 as the sole survivor of the massacre of the crew of The Fair American, he along with John Young became advisors to Kamehameha. He brought western military knowledge to Hawaii and played a prominent role during Hawaii's first contacts with the European powers, he was known to the Hawaiian as ʻAikake. Isaac Davis was born about 1758 in Wales, he was a seaman on the American schooner Fair American, commanded by Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe, engaged with a larger companionship, the Eleanora, in the maritime fur trade between the Pacific Northwest and China. In 1790, the Eleanora was under Captain Simon Metcalfe, when one of his skiffs was stolen by chief Kaʻōpūiki at Honuaula on Maui, he punished the Hawaiians killing more than 100 Hawaiians at Olowalu. Metcalfe once mistreated Kameʻeiamoku, a high chief on the island of Hawaii, one of the sacred pio twins, by whipping him.
The humiliated Kameʻeiamoku swore vengeance on the next ship to arrive. He attacked The Fair American at Kaʻūpūlehu, under the command of Metcalfe's 18-year-old son, Thomas. Thomas and all of the Fair American’s crew were killed, except for Isaac Davis, the sole survivor of the attack, tied to a canoe and left nearly dead, it is said. An alternative historical account that originated in a Hawaiian language newspaper in the early 20th century states that Kamehameha did not kill the crew of the Fair American. In March 1790, Simon Metcalfe left his boatswain, John Young and sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands without knowing that his son had been killed; the Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha. Davis was nursed back to health by an American beachcomber named Isaac Ridler. Like his friend Young, Davis assisted Kamehameha in his dealings with foreigners and in wars of conquest. Davis was given the Hawaiian name ʻAikake, after the way that the Hawaiians tried to pronounce Isaac, from /ˈaɪzək/ to /ˈaɪzɑkɛ/, Isaac"eh", to /ˈaɪkəkɛ/.
He was given the status of a high chief and married a relative of King Kamehameha I. He was appointed Governor of Oʻahu, owned estates on Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, the Big Island Davis first married Nakai Nalimaʻaluʻalu, a chiefess with whom he had one daughter in 1797, Sarah Kaniʻaulono Davis, named after his sister Sarah in Wales. Kale Davis lived in Honokaula, had six children and died in 1867. After Nakai died in the ukuʻu plague, Davis married Kalukuna, a relative of Kamehameha, in Honolulu, founded a prominent family in the islands, they had two children. His son George Hueu Davis was born on 10 January 1800, his daughter Elizabeth "Betty" Peke Davis was born on February 12, 1803. His son had many descendants, his daughter Betty married the son of King Kaumualiʻi of Kauaʻi. After his death, his companion John Young looked after his children. Two of them were living with him in 1807, after Davis's murder in 1810 Young continued to care for them. In Young's will, dated 1834, he divided his lands between both his own and Davis's children.
When Kaumualiʻi agreed to cede Kauaʻi to Kamehameha and become a vassal ruler, the chiefs became angry. A secret plan was made to kill the Kauaian king. Isaac Davis, learning of the plot, warned Kaumualiʻi. Not waiting to attend the feast, planned in his honor, he slipped away and sailed for Kauaʻi; the poison, intended for Kaumualiʻi was given to Isaac Davis. Davis died in April 1810, he was buried in Honolulu, in "The Cemetery for Foreigners". On his tombstone was placed the inscription: This cemetery is located near the Hawaii State Library in Honolulu. Isaac Davis advisors, his death was a great shock to Kamehameha and cast a dark shadow over the satisfaction which the King must have felt with the peaceful settlement with the king of Kauaʻi. His nephew John Davis came to Hawaii in 1810 trying to find his uncle. John stayed and married a Hawaiian noble woman named Kauweʻa kanoaʻakaka wale no haleakala kaʻuwe kekiniʻokoolau, they had a daughter named Eliza Davis who had daughters Hannah and Mary with husband William Johnson.
Eliza married William Roy. Hannah Johnson would marry son of missionary John Davis Paris, Mary would marry Hilo businessman William Herbert Shipman. Richards, Rhys. Captain Simon Metcalfe: pioneer fur trader in the Pacific Northwest and China, 1787-1794. Alaska History. Issue 37. Kingston, Ont. Canada. ISBN 978-0-919642-37-9. OCLC 26373766
The Hawaii Theatre is a historic 1922 theatre in downtown Honolulu, located at 1130 Bethel Street, between Hotel and Pauahi Streets, on the edge of Chinatown. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; when Consolidated Amusement Company opened the Hawaii Theatre on September 6, 1922, local newspapers called it "The Pride of the Pacific" and considered it the equal in opulence to any theatre in San Francisco or beyond. When it opened, it was Consolidated Amusement's flagship theatre and the largest and most ornate in Hawaii; the company's offices were in the building. Honolulu architects Walter Emory and Marshall Webb employed elements of Neoclassical architecture for the exterior—with Byzantine and Moorish ornamentation—and a rich panoply of Beaux-Arts architecture inside—Corinthian columns, a gilded dome, marble statuary, an art gallery, plush carpets, silk hangings, a Lionel Walden mural above the proscenium; the interior was shallow, with a single balcony and two rows of loge boxes.
On the main floor, two private boxes flanked the stage. The exterior had a simple canopy with a small reader board listing the attractions, a vertical sign lit by electric bulbs. In 1938, a large, new marquee was installed with the largest neon display in the islands; the Hawaii Theatre presented silent films through the 1920s. It had its own full orchestra for live shows and a large Robert-Morton pipe organ used to accompany silent films. Following the introduction of sound films, it operated as a downtown movie theatre through the 1960s. With the shift in entertainment and retail venues away from downtown beginning in the 1960s, theatre attendance declined into the 1970s and early 1980s. Consolidated Amusement decided not to renew its lease and the Hawaii Theatre closed in 1984. Concerned about the Hawaii's potential demolition, several members of the theatre's pipe organ volunteer group formed the non-profit 501 Hawaii Theatre Center and, joined by others, united to save and restore it undertaking major fund-raising efforts.
In 1986, the organization was able to purchase the theatre and, several adjacent buildings. An extensive renovation of the interior followed in 1994, coordinated by the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer of New York City; the theatre reopened in 1996, while exterior renovations continued through 2005. The large marquee from 1938, which had deteriorated and been removed, was replicated and installed, featured new electronic display panels; the Hawaii Theatre is once again a popular venue for stage shows and concerts, continues today as a successful performing arts center. In 2005, the League of Historic America Theatres named it the "Outstanding Historic Theatre in America"; the Hawaii Theatre is operating historic theatre in Honolulu. Guided tours of the theatre are offered. Angell, Lowell. Theatres of Hawaii. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing. Luttrell, Matt, "Hawaii Theater", Innov8, Mar/April 2011, pp. 20–21. Sandler, Julie Mehta, Frank S. Haines. Architecture in Hawai'i: A Chronological Survey, new edition.
Honolulu: Mutual Publishing. Media related to Hawaii Theatre at Wikimedia Commons Hawaii Theatre Center Vintage Photos of the Hawaii Theatre Theatre Historical Society of America website Historic American Buildings Survey No. HI-526, "Hawaii Theatre, 1130 Bethel Street, Honolulu County, HI", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page
Hawaii Capital Historic District
The Hawaii Capital Historic District in Honolulu, has been the center of government of Hawaii since 1845. With the grounds of Iolani Palace and the Hawaii State Capitol at its core, the historic district reaches inland across Beretania Street to include the buildings and grounds of Washington Place and St. Andrew's Cathedral, its architectural styles range from 19th-century adaptations of New England homes, through the Italianate Renaissance Revival and Neoclassical edifices of the Monarchy, through the Beaux Arts and Mission Revival inspirations of the Territory. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 1, 1978, after the nearby Chinatown Historic District and Merchant Street Historic District had been added. A total of 20 buildings and structures contribute to the district: Hawaii State Capitol and grounds Kawaiahao Church and Mission Houses and grounds, including Lunalilo's Tomb and adobe schoolhouse Washington Place and grounds St. Andrew's Cathedral and Tenney Hall ʻIolani Barracks Aliiolani Hale ʻIolani Palace and grounds, including the Old Archives Building and old mausoleum mound ʻIolani Palace Bandstand Kamehameha Statue Kapuaiwa Building Hawaii State Library Honolulu Hale Annex U.
S. Post Office and Courthouse King David Kalakaua Building State Office Building YWCA Building Hawaiian Electric Company Building Armed Services YMCA Honolulu Hale and grounds State Tax Office Sandler, Julie Mehta, Frank S. Haines. Architecture in Hawai‘i: A Chronological Survey, new edition. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56647-873-1 Historic American Buildings Survey No. HI-536, "Hawai'i State Capitol and Punchbowl Streets, Honolulu County, HI", 6 photos, 1 photo caption page
Anti-Chinese sentiment or Sinophobia is a sentiment against China, its people, overseas Chinese, or Chinese culture. It targets Chinese minorities living outside of China and is complicated by the dilemma of immigration, development of national identity in neighbouring countries, disparity of wealth, the fall of the past central tribute system and majority-minority relations, its opposite is Sinophilia. Factors contributing to sinophobia include disapproval of the Chinese government, historical grievances, fear of economic competition, racism. Sinophobia stems from older ethnic tensions across Asia, such as those related to Indian nationalism, Japanese nationalism, Korean nationalism, Vietnamese nationalism. In 2013, Pew Research Center from the United States conducted a survey over Sinophobia, finding that China was viewed favorably in just half of the nations surveyed, excluding China itself. Beijing's strongest supporters are in Malaysia and Pakistan. Anti-Chinese sentiment remains permanent, however, in the West and other Asian countries: only 28% of Germans and Italians and 37% of Americans view China favorably.
It is in Japan. Just 5% of Japanese have a favorable opinion of China. At the same time, outright anti-China sentiment is limited. In 2013, in just 11 of the 38 nations surveyed is China viewed unfavorably by at least half of those surveyed; the strongest anti-China sentiment is in Japan, where 93% see the People's Republic in a negative light, including 48% of Japanese who have a unfavorable view of China. There are large majorities in Germany and Israel who hold negative views of China; the rise in anti-China sentiment in Germany is striking: from 33% disfavor in 2006 to 64% under the 2013 survey. And such unfavorable views exist despite Germany's success exporting to China. Despite China's general appeal to the young, half or more of those people surveyed in 26 of 38 nations think that China acts unilaterally in international affairs, notably increasing tensions between China and other neighboring countries, excluding Russia, over territorial disputes; this concern about Beijing's failure to consider other countries' interests when making foreign policy decisions is strong in the Asia-Pacific – in Japan, South Korea and Australia – and in Europe – in Spain, Italy and Britain.
About half or more of those in the seven Middle Eastern nations surveyed think China acts unilaterally. This includes 71 % of Jordanians and 68 % of Turks. There is less concern about this issue in the U. S.. African nations – in particular strong majorities in Kenya, South Africa and Senegal – believe Beijing does consider their interests when making foreign policy decisions. Fifty-six per cent of Chinese think. Anti-Chinese sentiment has long roots stretching back through a thousand years of history. Modern anti-Chinese sentiment only dates back to the 19th century. At the time of the British Empire's First Opium War against Qing China, Lord Palmerston regarded the Chinese as uncivilized and suggested that the British must attack China to show up their superiority as well as to demonstrate what a "civilized" nation could do; the trend became popular throughout the Second Opium War, when repeated attacks against foreign traders in China inflamed anti-Chinese campaigns. With the defeat of China in both wars, brutal behavior of Chinese towards foreigners, Lord Elgin upon his arrival in Peking in 1860 ordered the looting and burning of China's Summer Palace in vengeance, highlighting the deep Sinophobic sentiment existing in the West.
In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act further deepened deep Sinophobic sentiment in the U. S. which escalated to tensions. Chinese workers were treated as second-class citizens. Meanwhile, during mid-19th century in Peru, Chinese had been enforced as slave workers and they were not allowed to have any positions in the society. On the other hand, the Empire of Japan was known for strong Sinophobia. After the violence in Nagasaki caused by Chinese sailors, it stemmed anti-Chinese sentiment in Japan and following Qing China's non-apology, it strained further. After the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan defeated China and soon acquired colonial possessions of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands. Throughout 1920s, Sinophobia was still common in Europe, notably in Britain. Chinese men had been a fixture of London's docks since the mid-eighteenth century, when they arrived as sailors working for the East India Company, importing tea and spices from the Far East. Conditions on those long voyages were so dreadful that many sailors decided to abscond and take their chances on the streets rather than face the return journey.
Those who stayed settled around the bustling docks, running laundries and small lodging houses for other sailors or selling exotic Asian produce. By the 1880s, a small but recognizable Chinese community had developed in the Limehouse area, to the consternation of white native-born Londoners, fearful of racial mixing and an influx of cheap labor; the entire Chinese population of London was only in the low hundreds—in a city of seven million—but nativist feelings ran high, as evidenced by the Aliens Act of 1905, a bundle of legislation that sought to restrict entry to poor and low-skilled foreign