Chinatown, London

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London Chinatown
Chinatown, London.jpg
Gerrard Street (2011)
Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district W1D
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
London
London Chinatown
Traditional Chinese 倫敦唐人街
Simplified Chinese 伦敦唐人街
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 倫敦華埠
Simplified Chinese 伦敦华埠

The name Chinatown has been used at different times to describe different places in London, the present Chinatown is part of the City of Westminster, occupying the area in and around Gerrard Street. It contains a number of Chinese restaurants, bakeries, supermarkets, souvenir shops, and other Chinese-run businesses.

History[edit]

The first area in London known as Chinatown was located in the Limehouse area of the East End of London,[1] at the start of the 20th century, the Chinese population of London was concentrated in that area, setting up businesses which catered to the Chinese sailors who frequented in Docklands. The area began to become known through exaggerated reports and tales of (the then-legal) opium dens and slum housing, rather than the Chinese restaurants and supermarkets in the current Chinatown. However, much of the area was damaged by aerial bombing during the Blitz in World War II, although a number of elderly Chinese still choose to live in this area, after World War II, however, the growing popularity of Chinese cuisine and an influx of immigrants from Hong Kong led to an increasing number of Chinese restaurants being opened elsewhere.

The present Chinatown, which is off Shaftesbury Avenue did not start to be established until the 1970s. Previously, it was a regular Soho area, run-down, with Gerrard Street the main thoroughfare, it was dominated by the Post Office, facing Macclesfield Street, and other major establishments were The Tailor & Cutter House, at 43/44, now a Chinese supermarket and restaurant, the Boulougne Restaurant, near the Wardour Street end, and by Peter Mario's Restaurant at the other end. Other businesses included a master baker's, the Sari Centre, Lesgrain French Coffee House, Harrison Marks' Glamour Studio, an Indian restaurant and various brothels. Probably the first Chinese restaurants opened in Lisle Street, parallel to Gerrard St, and more opened gradually, the Tailor & Cutter did not close down until around 1974. The area now has more than 80 restaurants showcasing some of London's finest and most authentic Asian cuisine.[2]

In 2005, the property developer Rosewheel proposed a plan to redevelop the eastern part of Chinatown, the plan was opposed by many of the existing retailers in Chinatown, as they believe that the redevelopment would drive out the traditional Chinese retail stores from the area and change the ethnic characteristic of Chinatown.

The London Chinatown Community Centre (LCCC) has been housed in the Chinatown area since it was founded in 1980 by Dr Abraham Lue, the Centre claims to have received 40,000 people for help and assistance since its foundation. Located since 1998 on the 2nd floor of 28-29 Gerrard Street, the Centre relocated to 2 Leicester Court in 2012, above the Hippodrome Casino.[3]

Residents[edit]

Vale Royal House, a large residential block, houses a number of families, professionals and single men and women, the block was built in the 1980s and houses the China Town car park underneath it.

Gerrard Street[edit]

John Dryden (1631–1700) lived for a while at 43 Gerrard Street, which is commemorated by a blue plaque.[4] Another plaque, on number 9, marks the meeting of Samuel Johnson and Joshua Reynolds at the Turk's Head Tavern to found The Club, a dining club, in 1764.[5] In fiction, Charles Dickens sets the home of Mr Jaggers, the lawyer in Great Expectations, in "a house on the south side of that street. Rather a stately house of its kind, but dolefully in want of painting, and with dirty windows [and with ...] a stone hall... a dark brown staircase ... dark brown rooms... panelled walls".[6] A Royal Society of Arts blue plaque commemorates Edmund Burke at 37 Gerrard Street.[7]

In the Roaring Twenties, the 43 Club was set up at number 43, as a jazz club notorious for outrageous parties frequented by the rich and powerful.[8] It was eventually closed down by direct order of the Home Office and the proprietor, Kate Meyrick, was imprisoned. Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club started in Gerrard Street in the basement of No. 39.[9]

In 1953, No. 4 Gerrard Street was a small studio where the theatrical photographer George Harrison Marks and his partner Pamela Green, lived and worked. By the late 1950s, with the success of Kamera Publications, they had taken over No. 5 next door and had a much larger studio on the top floor. In the early 1960s the ground floor at No. 4 became a gallery. The director Michael Powell copied their sets for the classic film Peeping Tom, in which Green also starred.

A basement in Gerrard Street was the location of the first rehearsal of Led Zeppelin in August 1968, where they played "Train Kept A-Rollin'",[10] the exact location of the basement is unknown, and it is believed to have been converted into business premises many years ago.

Street name etymologies[edit]

The following utilises the generally accepted boundaries of Chinatown viz. Shaftesbury Avenue to the north, Charing Cross Road to the east, Coventry Street, Leicester Square and Cranbourn Street to the south and Great Windmill Street to the west.

  • Charing Cross Road – built 1887, and named as it led to the cross at Charing, from the Old English word "cierring", referring to a bend in the River Thames[11][12][13]
  • Coventry Street – after Henry Coventry, Secretary of State to Charles II, who lived near here in Shaver’s Hall[14]
  • Cranbourn Street – built in the 1670s and named after local landowner the Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranbourn (or Cranbourne) after the town in Dorset[15]
  • Dansey Place – unknown; formerly named George Yard, after a pub adjacent called the George and Dragon [16][17]
  • Gerrard Place and Gerrard Street – after Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, who owned this land when the street as built in the 1680s; the form ‘Gerrard’ developed in the 19th century[18]
  • Great Windmill Street – after a windmill that formerly stood near here in Ham Yard in the 17th century; the ‘great’ prefix was to distinguish it from Little Windmill Street, now Lexington Street[19]
  • Horse and Dolphin Yard – after the Horse and Dolphin inn which stood here in the 17th – 19th centuries[20]
  • Leicester Court, Leicester Place, Leicester Square and Leicester Street – the square was home to Leicester House in the 17th century, home of Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester; Leicester Court was formerly Ryder Court, after local leaseholder Richard Ryder – it was renamed in 1936[21]
  • Lisle Street – after Philip, Viscount Lisle, who succeeded to the earldom of Leicester in 1677[22]
  • Macclesfield Street – after Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, local landowner in the 17th century[23]
  • Newport Court, Newport Place and Little Newport Street – after Mountjoy Blount, Earl of Newport (Isle of Wight), who owned a house on this street (then just Newport Street) in the 17th century. Following the construction of Charing Cross Road, Newport Street was split in two and the two sections renamed as they are today.[24]
  • Rupert Court and Rupert Street – after Prince Rupert of the Rhine, noted 17th century general and son of Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I[25]
  • Shaftesbury Avenue – after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, Victorian politician and philanthropist[26]
  • Wardour Street – named after local 17th century landowners the Wardour family, and formerly called Colman Hedge Lane after a nearby field; the section south of Brewer Street was formerly Prince Street prior to 1878, in parallel with Rupert Street[27]

Education[edit]

The City of Westminster operates the Charing Cross Library with the Westminster Chinese Library.[28][29]

Transport[edit]

The nearest London Underground stations are Leicester Square and Piccadilly Circus.

Popular Culture[edit]

The films Soursweet (1988) and Ping Pong (1987) are set in Chinatown; they are regarded as the first British-Chinese films, and make extensive use of Chinatown locations.[30][31]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Sales, Rosemary; d'Angelo, Alessio; Liang, Xiujing; Montagna, Nicola. "London's Chinatown" in Donald, Stephanie; Kohman, Eleonore; Kevin, Catherine. (eds) (2009). Branding Cities: Cosmopolitanism, Parochialism, and Social Change. Routledge. pp. 45–58.
  2. ^ "Giles Coren reviews Empress of Sichuan". The Times. 20 February 2010.
  3. ^ "Our History". London Chinatown Community Centre. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Flikr image of blue plaque
  5. ^ "Johnson & Reynolds – The Club". londonremembers.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2006. 
  6. ^ ch 26
  7. ^ "Burke, Edmund (1729–1797)". English Heritage. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  8. ^ Chinatown London, Through the ages Archived 7 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ "Gerrard Street Guide | Gerrard Street London, W1D, England, UK | London Streets by Street". LondonTown.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  10. ^ "August 12, 1968 First Rehearsal". Official Led Zeppelin Website. Led Zeppelin.com. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 
  11. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p65
  12. ^ "Charing Cross – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". library.eb.co.uk. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  13. ^ Helen Bebbington London Street Names (1972) –
  14. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p84
  15. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p85
  16. ^ "Londonist – Dansey Place". Retrieved 10 October 2017. 
  17. ^ "British History Online: Gerrard Street Area: The Military Ground, Introduction". Retrieved 10 October 2017. 
  18. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p132
  19. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p143
  20. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p164
  21. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p290
  22. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p193
  23. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p202
  24. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p194
  25. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p273
  26. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p292
  27. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p333
  28. ^ "Charing Cross Library Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  29. ^ "Westminster Chinese Library." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 1 April 2012.
  30. ^ "BFI – Discover Chinese Britain on Film". Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  31. ^ "BFI Screenonline – British-Chinese Cinema". Retrieved 4 October 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°30′40″N 0°07′53″W / 51.51111°N 0.13139°W / 51.51111; -0.13139