History of Chinese Americans in San Francisco
As of 2012, 21.4% of the population in San Francisco was of Chinese descent, at least 150,000 Chinese American residents The Chinese are the largest Asian American subgroup in San Francisco. San Francisco has the highest percentage of residents of Chinese descent of any major U. S. city, the second largest Chinese American population, after New York City. The San Francisco Bay Area is 7.9% Chinese American, with many residents in Oakland and Santa Clara County. San Francisco's Chinese community has ancestry from Guangdong province and Hong Kong, although there is a sizable population of ethnic Chinese with ancestry from other parts of mainland China and Taiwan as well; the Chinese arriving in San Francisco from the Taishan and Zhongshan regions as well as Guangdong province of mainland China, did so at the height of the California Gold Rush, many worked in the mines scattered throughout the northern part of the state. Chinatown was the one geographical region deeded by the city government and private property owners which allowed Chinese people to inherit and inhabit dwellings.
The majority of these Chinese shopkeepers, restaurant owners, hired workers in San Francisco Chinatown were predominantly Hoisanese and male. Many Chinese found jobs working for large companies, most famously as part of the Central Pacific on the Transcontinental Railroad. Other early immigrants worked as mine workers or independent prospectors hoping to strike it rich during the California Gold Rush. Although many of the earlier waves of Chinese immigration were predominantly men searching for jobs, Chinese women began making the journey towards the United States; the first known Chinese woman to immigrate was Marie Seise who arrived in 1848 and worked in the household of Charles V. Gillespie. Within a matter of months of Seise’s arrival to the West Coast, the rush for gold in California commenced which brought a flooding of prospective miners from around the globe. Among this group were Chinese from the Guangdong Province, most of whom were seafarers who had established Western contacts. “Few women accompanied these early sojourners, many of whom expected to return from after they made their fortune.”Although the oceanic voyage to the United States offered new and exciting opportunities, dangers loomed for women while traveling and many were discouraged from making the trip due to the harsh living conditions.
Oceanic voyages with Chinese immigrants boarded the Pacific Mail Steamship Company and Canadian Pacific Steamship Company. Chinese immigrants would have to ride in the steerage. Many were given. In 1892, a federal law passed to ensure immigrants. Due to tight arrangements, unhygienic situations and scarcity in food, this led to health degradation. Many immigrants were unable to board these voyages due to the Geary Act of 1892 which blocked the reunion of immigrants in America with their families not with them. Many diseases found through these voyages were Hookworm Yersinia pestis which contributed to the Bubonic Plague. “During the Gold Rush era, when Chinese men were a common sight in California, Chinese women were an oddity” and in urban spaces were seen in public. Unlike the rural areas, Chinatown afforded few opportunities for women to come into contact with the larger society.” Chinese women participated in urban sex work, which resulted in local laws like one passed in April 1854 that sought to shut down "houses of ill-fame," not racialized in name but deployed to " out Mexican and Chinese houses of ill fame, starting with Charles Walden's Golden Rule House on Pacific Street and moving on to establishments run by Ah-Choo, C.
Lossen, Ah Yow."With national unemployment in the wake of the Panic of 1873, racial tensions in the city boiled over into full blown race riots. In response to the violence, the Consolidated Chinese Benevolent Association or the Chinese Six Companies, which evolved out of the labor recruiting organizations for different areas of Guangdong province, was created as a means of providing a unified voice for the community; the heads of these companies were the leaders of the Chinese merchants, who represented the Chinese community in front of the business community as a whole and the city government. The anti-immigrant sentiment became law as the United States Government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – the first immigration restriction law aimed at a single ethnic group; this law, along with other immigration restriction laws such as the Geary Act reduced the number of Chinese people allowed into the country and the city, in theory limited Chinese immigration to single men only. Exceptions were granted to the families of wealthy merchants, but the law was still effective enough to reduce the population of the neighborhood to an all-time low in the 1920s.
The exclusion act was repealed during World War II under the Magnuson Act, in recognition of the important role of China as an ally in the war, although tight quotas still applied. Not unlike much of San Francisco, a period of criminality ensued in some Chinese gangs known as tongs, which were on the produce of smuggling and prostitution, by the early 1880s, the population had adopted the term Tong war to describe periods of violence in Chinatown, the San Francisco Police Department had established its so-called Chinatown Squad. One of the more successful sergeants, Jack Manion, was served for two decades; the squad was disbanded in August 1955 by police chief George Healey, upon the request of the influential Chinese World newspaper, which had editorialized that the squad was an "affront to Americans of Chinese descent". The neighborhood was
History of Chinese Americans
The history of Chinese Americans or the history of ethnic Chinese in the United States includes three major waves of Chinese immigration to the United States, beginning in the 19th century. Chinese immigrants in the 19th century worked as laborers on transcontinental railroads such as the Central Pacific Railroad, they worked as laborers in mining, suffered racial discrimination at every level of society. Industrial employers were eager for this new and cheap labor, whites were stirred to anger by the "yellow peril.” Despite provisions for equal treatment of Chinese immigrants in the 1868 Burlingame Treaty and labor organizations rallied against immigrants of what they regarded as a degraded race and "cheap Chinese labor.” Newspapers condemned employers, church leaders denounced the arrival of these aliens into what was regarded as a land for whites only. So hostile was the opposition that in 1882 the United States Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act prohibiting immigration from China for the following ten years.
This law was extended by the Geary Act in 1892. The Chinese Exclusion Act is seen by some as the only U. S. law to prevent immigration and naturalization on the basis of race. These laws not only prevented new immigration but the reunion of the families of thousands of Chinese men living in the United States who had left China without their wives and children. Anti-miscegenation laws in many Western states prohibited the Chinese men from marrying white women. In 1924 the law barred further entries of Chinese. By 1924, all Asian immigrants were utterly excluded by law, denied citizenship and naturalization, prevented from owning land. In many Western states, Asian immigrants were prevented from marrying Caucasians. Only since the 1940s when the United States and China became allies during World War II, did the situation for Chinese Americans begin to improve, as restrictions on entry into the country and mixed marriage were lessened. In 1943, Chinese immigration to the United States was once again permitted—by way of the Magnuson Act—thereby repealing 61 years of official racial discrimination against the Chinese.
Large-scale Chinese immigration did not occur until 1965 when the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 lifted national origin quotas. After World War II, anti-Asian prejudice began to decrease, Chinese immigrants, along with other Asians, have adapted and advanced; the Chinese constitute the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, have confounded earlier expectations that they would form an indigestible mass in American society. For example, many Chinese Americans of American birth may know little or nothing about traditional Chinese culture, just as European Americans and African Americans may know little or nothing about the original cultures of their ancestors; as of the 2010 United States Census, there are more than 3.3 million Chinese in the United States, about 1% of the total population. The influx continues, where each year ethnic Chinese people from the People's Republic of China, Taiwan and to a lesser extent Southeast Asia move to the United States, surpassing Hispanic and Latino immigration by 2012.
The Chinese reached North America during the time of Spanish colonial rule over the Philippines, during which they had established themselves as fishermen and merchants on Spanish galleons that sailed between the Philippines and Mexican ports. California belonged to Mexico until 1848, historians have asserted that a small number of Chinese had settled there by the mid-18th century; as part of expeditions in 1788 and 1789 by British fur trader John Meares from Canton to Vancouver Island, several Chinese sailors and craftsmen contributed to building the first European-designed boat, launched in British Columbia. Shortly after the American Revolutionary War, as the United States had begun transpacific maritime trade with Qing, Chinese came into contact with American sailors and merchants at the commercial port of Canton. There, local individuals became curious about America; the main trade route between the United States and China was between Canton and New England, where the first Chinese arrived via Cape Horn.
These Chinese were merchants, sailors and students who wanted to see and acquaint themselves with a strange foreign land they had only heard about. However, their presence was temporary and only a few settled permanently. American missionaries in China sent small numbers of Chinese boys to the United States for schooling. From 1818 to 1825, five students stayed at the Foreign Mission School in Connecticut. In 1854, Yung Wing became the first Chinese graduate from Yale University. In the 19th Century, Sino-U. S. Maritime trade began the history of Chinese Americans. At first only a handful of Chinese came as merchants, former sailors, to America; the first Chinese people of this wave arrived in the United States around 1815. Subsequent immigrants that came from the 1820s up to the late 1840s were men. In 1834 Afong Moy became the first female Chinese immigrant to the United States. By 1848, there were 325 Chinese Americans. 323 more immigrants came in 1849, 450 in 1850 and 20,000 in 1852. By
Rock Springs massacre
The Rock Springs massacre known as the Rock Springs Riot, occurred on September 2, 1885, in the present-day United States city of Rock Springs in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The riot, resulting massacre of immigrant Chinese miners by white immigrant miners, was the result of racial prejudice toward the Chinese miners, who were perceived to be taking jobs from the white miners; the Union Pacific Coal Department found it economically beneficial to give preference in hiring to Chinese miners, who were willing to work for lower wages than their white counterparts, angering the white miners. When the rioting ended, at least 28 Chinese miners were dead and 15 were injured. Rioters burned 78 Chinese homes, resulting in US$150,000 in property damage. Tension between whites and Chinese immigrants in the late 19th century American West was high in the decade preceding the violence; the massacre in Rock Springs was one among several instances of violence culminating from years of anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States.
The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act suspended Chinese immigration for ten years, but not before thousands of immigrants came to the American West. Most Chinese immigrants to Wyoming Territory took jobs with the railroad at first, but many ended up employed in coal mines owned by the Union Pacific Railroad; as Chinese immigration increased, so did anti-Chinese sentiment on the part of whites. The Knights of Labor, one of the foremost voices against Chinese immigrant labor, formed a chapter in Rock Springs in 1883, most rioters were members of that organization. However, no direct connection was established linking the riot to the national Knights of Labor organization. In the immediate aftermath of the riot, federal troops were deployed in Rock Springs, they escorted the surviving Chinese miners, most of whom had fled to Evanston, back to Rock Springs a week after the riot. Reaction came swiftly from the era's publications. In Rock Springs, the local newspaper endorsed the outcome of the riot, while in other Wyoming newspapers, support for the riot was limited to sympathy for the causes of the white miners.
The massacre in Rock Springs touched off a wave of anti-Chinese violence in the Puget Sound area of Washington Territory. Chinese immigration to the United States at that time was neither widespread. J. R. Tucker, writing for The North American Review in 1884, stated that the vast majority of the nearly 100,000 Chinese immigrants resided within the American West: California, Nevada and the Washington Territory; the U. S. Minister to China, George Seward, had asserted similar numbers in Scribner's Magazine five years earlier; the first jobs Chinese laborers took in Wyoming were on the railroad, working for the Union Pacific company as maintenance-of-way workers. Chinese workers soon became an asset to Union Pacific and worked along UP lines and in UP coal mines from Laramie to Evanston. Most Chinese workers in Wyoming ended up working in Sweetwater County, but a large number settled in Carbon and Uinta counties. Most Chinese people in the area were men working in the mine. Racism against Chinese immigrants was widespread and uncontroversial at the time.
Tucker, in the aforementioned 1884 article, referred to Asian immigrants as "...the Asiatic race, alien in blood and civilization". He noted, "Chinese are the chief element in this Asiatic population." In 1874–75, after labor unrest disrupted coal production, the Union Pacific Coal Department hired Chinese laborers to work in their coal mines throughout southern Wyoming. So, the Chinese population rose at first. At Red Desert, a remote section camp in Sweetwater County, there were 20 inhabitants, of whom 12 were Chinese. All 12 were laborers. To the east of Red Desert was another remote section camp, Washakie. An American section foreman lived there amongst 23 others, including 13 Chinese laborers and an Irish crew foreman. In the various section camps along the main line of the Union Pacific Railroad, Chinese workers far outnumbered any other nationality. Though the 79 Chinese in Sweetwater County in 1870 represented only 4% of the total population, they were, concentrated. In Rock Springs and Green River, the largest towns along the UP line, there were no Chinese residents reported in 1870.
Throughout the 1870s, the Chinese population in Sweetwater County and all of Wyoming increased. During the decade, Wyoming's total population rose from 9,118 to 20,789. In the 1870 U. S. Census, what the government today calls "Asian and Pacific Islanders" represented 143 members of the population of Wyoming; the increase during the 1870s was the largest percentage increase in the Asian population of Wyoming of any decade since. By 1880, most Chinese residents in Sweetwater County lived in Rock Springs. At that time, Wyoming was home to 914 "Asians". Although most Chinese workers in 1880 were employed in the coal mines around Wyoming and Sweetwater County, the Chinese in Rock Springs worked in occupations outside of mining. In addition to Chinese laborers and miners, a professional gambler, a priest, a cook, a barber resided in the city. In Green River, there was a Chinese doctor. Chinese servants and waiters found work in Fort Washakie. In Atlantic City, Miner's Delight, Red Canyon, Chinese gold miners were employed.
However, the majority of the 193 Chinese residing in Sweetwater County by 1880 worked in the coal mines or on the railroad. The riot was the result of a c
Chinese Americans in Boston
The Boston metropolitan area has an active Chinese American community. As of 2013, the Boston Chinatown was the third largest Chinatown in the United States, there are Chinese populations in the suburbs of Greater Boston, including Quincy, Acton and Lexington; as of 2006, Quincy, Newton and Cambridge house about half of all of the ethnic Chinese in Massachusetts, as a whole, Chinese constituted the largest Asian ethnic group in the state. In the beginning of the 20th century, most Chinese moving to New England were single men, while some were single women. Most Chinese moving to Massachusetts went to the Boston Chinatown and prior to the 1960s the state overall had little Chinese immigration. Immigration from China into the Boston area increased after the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was passed. From 2000 to 2010, the Chinese population of Massachusetts increased by 46%. By 2004 Malden received an influx of second and third generation Chinese moving from Boston and elsewhere; as of 2010 there were 123,000 Chinese Americans in all of Massachusetts.
By 2011 many Chinese Americans settled in the Boston suburbs, either moving there from Boston or immigrating directly from China to the Boston suburbs. By 2013, the Boston Chinatown was facing gentrification; as of 2003, about 66% of the Asians in Quincy were ethnic Chinese, giving the city one of the largest Chinese populations in the state. From 2000 to 2010 Quincy's Chinese population increased by 60%. Most of the Asian immigrants coming to Quincy in the 1980s originated from Hong Kong and Taiwan, but by 2003 the majority place of origin was Fujian Province in Mainland China; as of 2000 65% of the Chinese in Quincy were homeowners. Quincy residents traveled to shops in the Boston Chinatown but by 2003 Asian shopping centers became established in Quincy. By 2003 New York City-based Kam Man Food was establishing a supermarket in Quincy. Hainan Airlines began non-stop service between Beijing and Logan International Airport in Boston in 2014, followed by non-stop service between Shanghai and Boston in 2015.
Cathay Pacific Airways began non-stop service between Hong Kong and Boston in 2015. These non-stop flight services between China and Boston were credited for the ascent of Chinese becoming the top nationality visiting Boston from outside North America, with nearly one in four Chinese visitors coming to Boston for education. Acton had 2,041 Chinese Americans in 2010, a 151% increase from 2000 and the ninth largest Chinese population in Massachusetts. In 2000, Malden had 4,504 ethnic Chinese people. From 2000 to 2010 the Chinese population of Malden increased by about 50%. Malden Center is situated on the MBTA Orange Line; the Chinese Progressive Association is located in Boston. The Boston Chinatown Neighborhood Center, Inc. serves Chinese Americans in the region. Its principal site is in the Boston Chinatown, in 2011 BCNC executive director Elaine Ng stated that the center would begin to offer services in Quincy; the number of persons using BCNC services residing in Quincy increased by 300% in a period beginning in 2004 and ending in 2005.
Founded in 1916, the Kwong Kow Chinese School is the oldest Chinese-language school in Massachusetts. It offers classes for not only members of the local Chinese American community, but immigrant children the Philippines and Vietnam. In 2007, it moved into its permanent home at the Chinese Community Education Center, after many years of moving around Chinatown; as of 2003 1,000 students took classes at the school. Peter Jae established the Quincy Chinese Language School, which offers supplementary education for Chinese children, in 1988; as of 2003 it holds Cantonese language classes for 150 students at the Sacred Heart School in North Quincy on Saturday mornings. The school at one time had 400 students but the school reduced itself in size when a lack of qualified teachers occurred; the Chung Yee School is another Chinese school in Quincy. As of 2008 the headmaster is Harry Kwan; that year the school had 100 students and charged $100 per child per month for Chinese language and culture after school classes.
It was first established around 1996. The school was closed by the Quincy Police Department in November 28, 2008 due to a lack of Massachusetts state and local government permits. After the state and municipal authorities cleared the school of allegations of child abuse, it was scheduled to reopen that year. In 2003, over 400 students attended classes at the Lexington Chinese School, held on Sundays; the school holds its classes at Belmont High School in Belmont. The Lunar New Year is celebrated amongst other places. An Wang Lo, Shauna. "Profiles of Asian American Subgroups in Massachusetts: Chinese Americans in Massachusetts". Institute for Asian American Studies. Paper 12. February 1, 2006. Sullivan and Kathlyn Hatch. "The Chinese in Boston, 1970". Action for Boston Community Development. Sixth printing, January 3, 1973. Watanabe, Michael Liu, Shauna Lo. "ASIAN AMERICANS IN METRO BOSTON: Growth and Complexity". May 2004. Prepared for the Metro Boston Equity Initiative of The Harvard Civil Rights Project.
Boston Chinatown Neighborhood Center, Inc. Chinese Historical Society of New England Quincy Asian Resources, Inc. Kwong Kow Chinese School Lexington Chinese School
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
Downtown Pittsburgh, colloquially referred to as the Golden Triangle, the Central Business District, is the urban downtown center of Pittsburgh. It is located at the confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River whose joining forms the Ohio River; the "triangle" is bounded by the two rivers. The area features offices for major corporations such as PNC Bank, U. S. Steel, PPG, Bank of New York Mellon, Federated Investors and Alcoa, it is where the fortunes of such industrial barons as Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, Henry J. Heinz, Andrew Mellon and George Westinghouse were made, it contains the site where Fort Duquesne, once stood. In 2013, Pittsburgh had the second-lowest vacancy rate for Class A space among downtowns in the United States; the Central Business District is bounded by the Monongahela River to the south, the Allegheny River to the north, I-579 to the east. An expanded definition of Downtown may include the adjacent neighborhoods of Uptown/The Bluff, the Strip District, the North Shore, the South Shore.
Downtown is served by the Port Authority's light rail subway system, an extensive bus network, two inclines. The Downtown portion of the subway has the following stations: T Stations Station Square on the South Shore in the Station Square development First Avenue near First Avenue & Ross Street, Downtown Steel Plaza at Sixth Avenue & Grant Street, Downtown Penn Plaza near Liberty Avenue & Grant Street, Downtown Wood Street at the triangular intersection of Wood Street, Sixth Avenue, Liberty Avenue, Downtown Gateway Center at Liberty Avenue & Stanwix Street, Downtown North Side near General Robinson Street & Tony Dorsett Drive on the North Shore Allegheny near Allegheny Avenue & Reedsdale Street on the North Shore Downtown is home to the Pittsburgh Amtrak train station connecting Pittsburgh with New York City and Washington, D. C. to the east and Cleveland and Chicago to the west. Greyhound's Pittsburgh bus terminal is located across Liberty Avenue from the Amtrak Station, in the Grant Street Transportation Center building.
Major roadways serving Downtown from the suburbs include the "Parkway East" from Monroeville, the "Parkway West" from the airport area, the "Parkway North" from the North Hills, in Downtown Pittsburgh. Other important roadways are Pennsylvania Route 28, Pennsylvania Route 51, Pennsylvania Route 65, U. S. Route 19. Three major entrances to the city are via tunnels: the Fort Pitt Tunnel and Squirrel Hill Tunnel on I-376 and the Liberty Tunnels; the New York Times once called Pittsburgh "the only city with an entrance," referring to the view of Downtown that explodes upon drivers upon exiting the Fort Pitt Tunnel. Traveling I-279 south and I-376, the city "explodes into view" when coming around a turn in the highway. Downtown surface streets are based on two distinct grid systems that parallel the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers; these two grids intersect along Liberty Avenue. Furthermore, the Allegheny grid contains numbered streets, while the Monongahela grid contains numbered avenues. And, in fact, there are cases where these numbered creating some confusion.
This unusual grid pattern leads to Pittsburghers giving directions in the terms of landmarks, rather than turn-by-turn directions. Pittsburgh is nicknamed "The City of Bridges". In Downtown, there are 10 bridges connecting to points south; the expanded definition of Downtown includes 18 bridges. Citywide there are 446 bridges. In Allegheny County the number exceeds 2,200. Downtown Bridges Fort Pitt Bridge carries I-376 between Downtown and the Fort Pitt Tunnel Fort Duquesne Bridge carries I-279 between Downtown and the North Shore Smithfield Street Bridge carries Smithfield Street between Downtown and the South Shore Panhandle Bridge carries the city's light rail transit system between Downtown and the South Shore Liberty Bridge connects the Liberty Tunnel to I-579 Downtown Roberto Clemente Bridge connects 6th Street Downtown to Federal Street on the North Shore at PNC Park Andy Warhol Bridge connects 7th Street Downtown to Sandusky Street on the North Shore at the Andy Warhol Museum Rachel Carson Bridge connects 9th Street Downtown to Anderson Street on the North Shore Fort Wayne Railroad Bridge carries freight and Amtrak trains from Downtown to the North Shore Veterans Bridge carries I-579 from Downtown to the North Side Bridges of Expanded Downtown West End Bridge carries US Route 19 from the West End/South Shore to the North Shore/North Side just west of Downtown 16th Street Bridge carries 16th Street from the Strip District to Chestnut Street on the North Side West Penn Bridge is part of the Three Rivers Heritage Trail connecting the North Side to Washington's Landing on Herr's Island 30th Street Bridge connects River Avenue on the North Side with Waterfront Drive on Washington's Landing at Herr's Island 31st Street Bridge connects PA Route 28 on the North Side with 31st Street in the Strip District 33rd Street Railroad Bridge connects the North Side to the Strip District and crosses Herr's Island South 10th Street Bridge connects the Armstrong Tunnel at Second Avenue just east of Downtown with the South Side at South 10th Street Birmingham Br
Chinese Americans are Americans who are descendants of Chinese ancestry, which includes American-born Chinese persons. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and a subgroup of East Asian Americans, a further subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans are immigrants along with their descendants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, as well as from other regions that include large populations of the Chinese diaspora Southeast Asia and some Western countries like Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and France; the Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside Asia. It is the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand and Malaysia; the 2016 Community Survey of the US Census estimates a population of Chinese Americans of one or more races to be 5,081,682. The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010.
Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.5% of the total U. S. population as of 2017. According to the 2010 census, the Chinese American population numbered 3.8 million. In 2010, half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California and New York; the first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820, according to U. S. government records. 325 men are known to have arrived before the 1849 California Gold Rush, which drew the first significant number of laborers from China who mined for gold and performed menial labor. There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast, they formed over a tenth of California's population. Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province. In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but to take agricultural jobs, factory work in the garment industry.
Chinese immigrants were instrumental in building railroads in the American west, as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the American economy; this resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China. The Chinese laborers worked out well and thousands more were recruited until the railroad's completion in 1869. Chinese labor provided the massive workforce needed to build the majority of the Central Pacific's difficult route through the Sierra Nevada mountains and across Nevada. American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there.
At the same time, they had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to America. These financial pressures left them little choice. Non-Chinese laborers required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages. Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble; some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition.
To address these rising social tensions, from the 1850s through the 1870s the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization. Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the 1868 Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation; the Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. In the decade 1861-70, 64,301 were recorded as arriving, followed by 123,201 in 1871-80 and 61,711 in 1881-1890. 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, New England. Most came from Southern China looking for a better life, escaping a high rate of poverty left after the Taiping Rebellion. In 1879, advocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel.
Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. S. treaty agreements with China. It was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese