Mestiço, in Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese-speaking part of Latin America, was used to refer to mamelucos, persons born from a couple in which one was an Indigenous American and the other a European. It translates as "mameluke" referring to the common Iberian comparisons of swarthy people to North Africans; the term mameluco fell in disuse in Brazil and was replaced by the much more familiar-sounding caboclo or cariboca/curiboca, given the fact that most Brazilians those living in ubiquitously Christian villages and towns, spoke Tupi and the Tupi-derived línguas gerais until the 18th century, when they were banned by the Marquis of Pombal in 1777. A young Indigenous or caboclo boy would be a piá, from Tupi pyã, "heart", the way Indigenous mothers referred to their children. In modern-day Brazil this word became general slang for any boy, regardless of race. Before the use of the Portuguese language in public became mandatory for Brazilians other categories of mestiço appeared, with the introduction of African slavery by the Portuguese to Brazil and subsequent assimilation of them, whether enslaved, free or runaway, in both Portuguese settlements and Indigenous villages, as well as the Portuguese colonization of Africa and Asia.
A mulato was a person of simultaneous visible African descent. A cafuzo, cafuz, carafuzo, cafúzio, cabo-verde, caburé or caboré was a person of Amerindian and African descent, with jíbaro being someone, a quarter Amerindian and three quarters African, a juçara would be a visibly tri-racial person of mixed African and Amerindian descent. Any person of mixed African descent could be referred to as cabrocha, which referred to a young child of a black and a white person. Pardo, the Portuguese word for a light brown color, evolved to mean any visibly mixed-race person that would not pass for any other race, to the exception of those of lighter complexion, who could be morenos or sararás. In Brazil, the word mestiço was substituted for "pardo" in the 1890 census, alongside "caboclo", but returned to "pardo" in subsequent censuses; the term is used to describe individuals born from any mixture of different ethnicities. These individuals have a blend in African, Native American, European Caucasian. There are specific groups like - European/Portuguese and Native American parents are known as caboclo or, more in the past, mameluco.
Individuals of European and African ancestry are described as mulato. Cafuzos are the production of Native African ancestors. If someone has a mix of all three they are known as "pardo". Brazil celebrates The Mixed Race Day to celebrate racial unity in Paraíba and Roraima; the Day of the Caboclo occurs June 24. The Mestiço are of mixed European, native born indigenous Angolan and/or other indigenous African lineages, they tend to have full Portuguese names. Although they make up about 2% of the population, they are the elite, racially privileged, group in the country. Mestiços formed social and cultural allegiances with Portuguese colonists, subsequently identifying with the Portuguese over and above their indigenous identities. Despite their loyalty, the ethnic group faced economic and political adversity at hands of the white population during times of economic hardship for whites; these actions lead to ostracizing Mestiços from their inherited economic benefits which sparked the group to take a new sociopolitical direction.
However, since the 400 year Portuguese presence in the country, the ethnic group has retained their position of entitlement, evident in the political and cultural hierarchy in present-day Angola. Their phenotype range is broad with a number of members possessing physical characteristics that are close to others within the indigenous black non-mixed population. Since the Mestiços are better educated than the rest of the indigenous black population, they exercise influence in government disproportionate to their numbers. In Guinea-Bissau 1 % of the population is of mixed African Portuguese descent. In Cape Verde mestiço designated an individual of mixed European and African descent. A minority of the population of Mozambique are of mixed Portuguese heritage. Mestiços of São Tomé and Príncipe are descendants of Portuguese colonists and African slaves brought to Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe islands during the early years of settlement from modern Benin, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola (these people are known as filhos
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Mameluco is a Portuguese word that denotes the first generation child of a European and an Amerindian. It corresponds to the Spanish word mestizo. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mameluco was used to refer to organized bands of slave-hunters known as bandeirantes, who roamed the interior of South America from the Atlantic to the foothills of the Andes, from Paraguay to the Orinoco river, invading Guarani-occupied areas in search of slaves; the word may have become common in Portugal in the Middle Ages, deriving from the Arabic, "Mamluk", "slave" referring to soldiers and rulers of slave origin in Egypt. Amazonian Jews Caboclo Mestiço Mixed-race Brazilian Pardo Brazilians Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Mameluco". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
In Brazil, Pardo is an ethnic/skin color category used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in the Brazilian censuses. The term "pardo" is a complex one, more used to refer to Brazilians of mixed ethnic ancestries. Pardo Brazilians represent a wide range of skin backgrounds, they are a mixture of white Brazilian, Afro-Brazilian and Native Brazilian. The other categories are branco, preto and indígena; the term is still popular in Brazil. Pardo was a casta classification used in Colonial Spanish America from the 16th to 19th centuries; the term pardo was used in small areas of Spanish America whose economy was based on slavery during the Spanish colonization period. According to IBGE, pardo is a broad classification that encompasses Multiracial Brazilians such as mulatos and cafuzos, as well as assimilated Amerindians known as caboclos, mixed with Europeans or not; the term "pardo" was first used in a Brazilian census in 1872. The following census, in 1890, replaced the word pardo by mestiço.
The censuses of 1900 and 1920 did not ask about race, arguing that "the answers hid the truth". In Brazil the word "pardo" has had a general meaning since the beginning of the colonization. In the famous letter by Pero Vaz de Caminha, for example, in which Brazil was first described by the Portuguese, the Native Americans were called "pardo": "Pardo, without clothing". A reading of colonial wills and testaments shows it. Diogo de Vasconcelos, a known historian from Minas Gerais, for example, the story of Andresa de Castilhos. According to the information from the 18th century, Andresa de Castilhos was thus described: "I declare that Andresa de Castilhos, pardo woman... has been freed... is a descendant of the natives of the land... I declare that Andresa de Castilhos is the daughter of a white man and a native woman"; the historian Maria Leônia Chaves de Resende explains that the word pardo was employed to name people with native ancestry or Native Americans themselves: a Manoel, natural son of Ana carijó, was baptised as'pardo'.
According to Maria Leônia Chaves de Resende, the growth of the pardo population in Brazil includes the descendants of natives and not only those of African descent: "the growth of the'pardo' segment had not only to do with the descendants of Africans, but with the descendants of the natives, in particular the carijós and bastards, included in the condition of'pardo'". The American historian Muriel Nazzari pointed out the "pardo" category absorbed those of Native American descent in São Paulo: "This paper seeks to demonstrate that, though many Indians and mestizos did migrate, those who remained in São Paulo came to be classified as pardos"The question about race reappeared in the 1940 census. In this census, "pardo" was not given as an option, but if the answer was different from the options "white", "black" and "yellow", a horizontal line was drawn into the "colour" box; when the census data came to be tabulated, all responses with horizontal lines were collected into the single category of "pardo".
The term "pardo" was not used as an option as an assurance to the public that census data would not be used for discriminatory purposes, as a result of rising European racism at the time. In the 1950 census, "pardo" was added as a choice of answer; this trend remains, with the exception of the 1970 census, which did not ask about race. The 20th century saw a large growth of the pardo population. In 1940, 21.2% of Brazilians were classified as pardos. In 2000, they had increased to 38.5% of the population. This is only due to the continuous process of miscegenation in the Brazilian population. Races are molded in accordance with ideologies prevalent at each historical moment. In the 20th century, a significant part of the Brazilians who used to self-report as Black in earlier censuses chose to move to the Pardo category. A significant part of the population that used to self-report as white moved to the Pardo category with the growing racial and social awareness, Magnoli describes this phenomenon as the pardização of Brazil.
According to an autosomal DNA study, the "pardos" in Rio de Janeiro were found to be predominantly European, at 70%. The geneticist Sérgio Pena criticised foreign scholar Edward Telles for lumping "blacks" and "pardos" in the same category, given the predominantly European ancestry of the "pardos" throughout Brazil. According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non-related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put "blacks" and "pardos" in the same category". Another autosomal DNA study has confirmed that the European ancestry is dominant throughout in the Brazilian population, regardless of complexion, "pardos" included. "A new portrayal of each ethnic contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the So
Chinese Communist Revolution
The Chinese Communist Revolution or the Chinese revolution of 1949 was a revolution in China, led by the Communist Party of China and Mao Zedong which resulted in the proclamation of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949. It started in 1946, after the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, was the second part of the Chinese Civil War. In the Chinese media, this period is known as the War of Liberation; the historical development of China resulted in sharp contradictions in society. Under the Qing dynasty, high rates of rent and taxes concentrated wealth into the hands of a tiny minority of village chiefs and landlords. According to one statistic, "Ten percent of the agricultural population of China possessed as much as two-thirds of the land."Simultaneously, China was under heavy colonialist pressure by the Western powers and the Japanese, as exemplified by the Opium Wars, the unequal treaties or the Boxer Rebellion. This extreme internal inequality and external aggression led to a national and class consciousness among vast swaths of the population.
Owing to these reasons and decline of the Qing state, a peasant revolt led to the Xinhai Revolution which ended 2,000 years of imperial rule and marked the beginning of China's early republican era. However, the resulting nationalist revolutionary regime was unable to form a stable national government and carry out land reforms, its main leader, Sun Yat-sen, was forced to seek asylum in Japan. Following the end of World War I and October Revolution in Russia, labor struggles intensified in China. Workers were fighting for better wages, freedom of association, freedom of speech, better welfare. In Shanghai alone, there were over 450 strikes between 1919 and 1923. Although China joined the Allies by declaring war on Germany, the nation suffered humiliation from Japan at the Treaty of Versailles, which led to the May Fourth Movement, a series of massive student protests in China. Mao Zedong claimed that the May Fourth Movement started the birth of communism in China: The May Fourth Movement twenty years ago marked a new stage in China's bourgeois-democratic revolution against imperialism and feudalism.
The cultural reform movement which grew out of the May Fourth Movement was only one of the manifestations of this revolution. With the growth and development of new social forces in that period, a powerful camp made its appearance in the bourgeois-democratic revolution, a camp consisting of the working class, the student masses and the new national bourgeoisie. Around the time of the May Fourth Movement, hundreds of thousands of students courageously took their place in the van. In these respects the May Fourth Movement went a step beyond the Revolution of 1911; the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921. After a period of slow growth and alliance with the Kuomintang, the alliance broke down and the Communists fell victim in 1927 to a purge carried out by the Kuomintang under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. After 1927, the Communists retreated to the countryside and built up local bases throughout the country and continued to hold them until the Long March. During the Japanese invasion and occupation, the Communists built more secret bases in the Japanese occupied zones and relied on them as headquarters.
The Nationalists had an advantage in both troops and weapons, controlled a much larger territory and population, enjoyed broad international support. The Communists were well established in the northwest; the best-trained Nationalist troops had been killed in early battles against the better equipped Japanese Army and in Burma, while the Communists had suffered less severe losses. The Soviet Union, though distrustful, provided aid to the Communists, the United States assisted the Nationalists with hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of military supplies, as well as airlifting Nationalist troops from central China to Manchuria, an area Chiang Kai-shek saw as strategically vital to retake. Chiang determined to confront the PLA in Manchuria and committed his troops in one decisive battle in the autumn of 1948; the strength of Nationalist troops in July 1946 was 4.3 million, of which 2.2 million were well-trained and ready for country-wide mobile combat. However, the battle resulted in a decisive Communist victory and the Nationalists were never able to recover from it.
On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek, 600,000 Nationalist troops, about two million Nationalist-sympathizer refugees retreated to the island of Taiwan. After that, resistance to the Communists on the mainland was substantial but scattered, such as in the far south. An attempt to take the Nationalist-controlled island of Kinmen was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou. In December 1949 Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan the temporary capital of the Republic, continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority of all China, while the PRC government continued to call for the unification of all China; the last direct fighting between Nationalist and Communist forces ended with the Communist capture of Hainan Island in May 1950, though shelling and guerrilla raids continued for a number of years. In June 1950, the outbreak of the Korean War led the American government to place the United States Seventh Fleet in the Taiwan Strait to prevent either side from attacking the other.
Long March John F. Melby Blanco, Lucien. Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915–1949. Stanford University Press, 1971. Chapter 1, pages 1-26. -- hosted at CÉRIUM at the Université de Montréal
Afro-Brazilians are Brazilians who have African ancestry. The term does not have widespread use in Brazil, where social constructs and classifications have been based on appearance. Many members of another group of people, multiracial Brazilians or pardos have a range of degree of African ancestry. Preto and pardo are among five color categories used by the Brazilian Census, along with branco and indígena. In 2010, 7.6% of the Brazilian population, some 15 million people, identified as preto, while 43% identified as pardo. Pretos tend to be predominantly African in ancestry, while pardos tend to have a lesser percentage of African ancestry. On average pardos are predominantly European, with Native American ancestries. Since the early 21st century, Brazilian government agencies such as the Special Secretariat for Policies to Promote Racial Equality and the Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, have considered combining the categories preto and pardo, as a single category called negro, because both groups show socioeconomic indications of discrimination.
They suggest doing. This decision has caused much controversy because there is no consensus about it in Brazilian society. Brazilians use the American-style phrase "African Brazilian" as a term of ethnic identity and never in informal discourse: the IBGE's July 1998 PME shows that, of Black Brazilians, only about 10% identify as being of "African origin". In the July 1998 PME, the categories Afro-Brasileiro and Africano Brasileiro were not chosen at all. In the 1976 National Household Sample, none of these terms was used once. Brazilian geneticist Sérgio Pena has criticised American scholar Edward Telles for lumping pretos and pardos in the same category. According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non-related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put pretos and pardos in the same category"; as many pardos are of European ancestry, Pena questioned studying them together with pretos, who are of African ancestry. For example, an autosomal genetic study of students in a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro found that the pardos among the students were found to be on average more than 80% European in ancestry.
Before testing, the students identified as 1/3 1/3 African and 1/3 Native American. According to Edward Telles, three different systems related to "racial classification" along the White-Black continuum are used in Brazil; the first is the Census System, which distinguishes three categories: branco and preto. The second is the popular social system that uses many different categories, including the ambiguous term moreno; the third is the Black movement, which distinguishes only two categories, summing up pardos and pretos as negros, putting all others as "whites". More the term afrodescendente has been adopted for use, but it is restricted to formal discourse, such as governmental or academic discussions, being viewed by some as a cultural imposition from the "politically correct speech" common in the United States; the first system referred by Telles is that of the Brazilian Institute of Statistics. In the Census, respondents may identify their ethnicity or color from five categories: branca, preta, amarela or indígena.
The term parda needs further explanation. In that census, people were asked for their "colour or race"; these slashes were summed up in the category pardo. In practice this means answers such as pardo, mulato, caboclo etc. all indicating mixed race. In the following censuses, pardo was added as a category on its own, included Amerindians; the latter were defined as a separate category only in 1991. It is a term for people of color who are lighter than blacks, does not imply a black-white mixture, as there are some indigenous persons. Telles' second system is that of popular classification. Two IBGE surveys made more than 20 years apart (the 1976 National Household Sample Survey and the July 1998 Monthly Employment Survey have been analyzed to assess how Brazilians think of themselves in racial terms; the IBGE thought. Data Folha has conducted research on this subject; the results of these surveys seem to coincide in some fundamental aspects. First, a great number of racial terms are in use in Brazil, indicating a flexibility in thinking about the topic.
The 1976 PNAD found that people responded with a total of 136 different terms to the question about race. However, most of these terms are used by small numbers of people. Telles notes that 95% of the population used one of 6 different terms for people of color and at le