The Chinese Century is a neologism suggesting that the 21st century will be geopolitically dominated by the People's Republic of China, similar to how "the American Century" refers to the 20th century and "Pax Britannica" refers to the 19th. The phrase is used in the assertion that the economy of China will overtake the economy of the United States as the largest national economy in the world, a position it held in the 16th, 17th century and early 19th century; the Economist has argued that the "Chinese Century" has begun, citing that China overtake the U. S economy in 2013, if calculated on a purchasing-power-parity basis. China created Shanghai Cooperation Organisation as alternative to NATO and created Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and New Development Bank as both alternatives to World Bank and International Monetary Fund. China further created the Belt and Road Initiative, with future investments of $1 trillion, to push for taking a bigger role in global affairs. Moreover, China plans to use the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership as counter to Trans-Pacific Partnership.
In 2011, Michael Beckley, a research fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School, released his journal China's Century? Why America's Edge Will Endure which rejects the idea that: the United States is in decline relative to China and. Alternatively, Beckley argues the United States’ power is durable and unipolarity and globalization are the main reasons why, he contends: "The United States derives competitive advantages from its preponderant position, globalization allows it to exploit these advantages, attracting economic activity and manipulating the international system to its benefit."Beckley believes that if the United States was in terminal decline, it would adopt neomercantilist economic policies and disengage from military commitments in Asia. "If however, the United States is not in decline, if globalization and hegemony are the main reasons why the United States should do the opposite: it should contain China’s growth by maintaining a liberal international economic policy, it should subdue China’s ambitions by sustaining a robust political and military presence in Asia."
Beckley believes that the United States benefits from being an extant hegemon—the US did not overturn the international order to its benefit in 1990, but rather, the existing order collapsed around it. Scholars that are skeptical of the US' ability to maintain unipolarity include Robert Pape, who has calculated that "one of the largest relative declines in modern history" stems from "the spread of technology to the rest of the world". Fareed Zakaria writes, "The unipolar order of the last two decades is waning not because of Iraq but because of the broader diffusion of power across the world."Paul Kipchumba in Africa in China's 21st Century: In Search of a Strategy predicts a deadly cold war between the US and China in the 21st century, and, if that cold war does not occur, he predicts China will supplant the US in all aspects of global hegemony. Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. P. 7. Brown, Kerry China's World: The Global Aspiration of the Next Superpower. I. B. Tauris, Limited ISBN 9781784538095.
Brahm, Laurence J. China's Century: The Awakening of the Next Economic Powerhouse. Wiley ISBN 9780471479017. Fishman, Ted China, Inc.: How the Rise of the Next Superpower Challenges America and the World. Scribner ISBN 9780743257350. Jacques, Martin When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order. Penguin Books ISBN 9780143118008. Overholt, William The Rise of China: How Economic Reform is Creating a New Superpower. W. W. Norton & Company ISBN 9780393312454. Peerenboom, Randall China Modernizes: Threat to the West or Model for the Rest?. Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199226122. Pillsbury, Michael The Hundred-Year Marathon: China's Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower. St. Martin's Griffin ISBN 9781250081346. Schell, Orville Wealth and Power: China's Long March to the Twenty-first Century. Random House Trade Paperbacks ISBN 9780812976250. Shenkar, Oded The Chinese Century: The Rising Chinese Economy and Its Impact on the Global Economy, the Balance of Power, Your Job.
FT Press ISBN 9780131467484. Shambaugh, David China Goes Global: The Partial Power. Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199361038. Womack, Brantly China's Rise in Historical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ISBN 9780742567221. Yueh, Linda China's Growth: The Making of an Economic Superpower. Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199205783. Dahlman, Carl J. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies. World Bank Publications. Accessed 30 January 2008. China’s renminbi joins elite global reserve currency club by Financial Times China’s Renminbi Is Approved by I. M. F. as a Main World Currency by The New York Times China plans to build new city nearly three times the size of New York by The Guardian Fengbo Zhang: Speech at "Future China Global Forum 2010": China Rising with the Reform and Open Policy When China Rules the World on YouTube by The University of Melbourne
The Barberton Greenstone Belt of eastern South Africa contains some of the most accepted fossil evidence for Archean life. These cell-sized prokaryote fossils are seen in the Barberton fossil record in rocks as old as 3.5 billion years. The Barberton Greenstone Belt is an excellent place to study the Archean Earth due to exposed sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Studying the earliest forms of life on Earth can provide valuable information to help understand how life can evolve on other planets, it has long been hypothesized that life may have existed on Mars due to the similarity of environmental and tectonic conditions during the Archean time. By knowing the environments in which early life evolved on Earth, the rock types that preserve them, scientists can have a better understanding of where to look for life on Mars. Fossil life of 3.5 billion years of age is found in the Pilbara craton of western Australia. This evidence, along with Barberton fossils, show that cellular life must have existed by this point in the evolution of Earth.
There is work that demonstrates life at 3.8 billion years ago, in what is now western Greenland, but it is debated. Cellular life existed 3.5 billion years ago and thus it evolved prior to this time. Because the Earth is 4.5 billion years old, there is a window of about one billion years for cellular life to evolve on a lifeless earth. The Barberton Greenstone Belt is located on the Kaapvaal craton, which covers much of the southeastern part of Africa, was formed by the emplacement of granitoid batholiths; the Kaapvaal craton was once part of a supercontinent geologists term Vaalbara that included the Pilbara craton of western Australia. Though the exact timing is still debated, it is that Vaalbara existed from 3.6 to 2.2 billion years ago, split into two different continents. Preserved life in Archean rocks has been altered over its 3.5 billion year history and, can be difficult to distinguish. The cell wall structure can be preserved, but the original composition changes over time and becomes mineralised.
There are six established criteria to determine the plausibility of a given microstructure being a microfossil: True microfossils should be of abundant occurrence. True microfossils should be of carbonaceous composition or, if mineralic, be biologically precipitated. True microfossils should exhibit biological morphology. True microfossils should occur in a geologically plausible context. True microfossils should fit within a well-established evolutionary context. True microfossils should be dissimilar from non-biogenic carbonaceous matter. Cells are preserved in the rock record because their cell walls are made of proteins which convert to the organic material kerogen as the cell breaks down after death. Kerogen is insoluble in mineral acids and organic solvents. Over time, it is mineralised into graphite or graphite-like carbon, or degrades into oil and gas hydrocarbons. There are three main types of cell morphologies. Though there is no established range of sizes for each type, spheroid microfossils can be as small as about 8 μm, filamentous microfossils have diameters less than 5 μm and have a length that can range from tens of μm to 100 μm, spindle-like microfossils can be as long as 50 μm.
Stable isotope fractionation is a useful way of characterising inorganic carbon. These numbers are reported as δ13C values. Isotope analysis of inorganic carbon yields δ13C values heavier than −10 per mil, with numbers falling between −5 and 5 per mil. Organic carbon, has δ13C values that range from −20 per mil for photoautotrophic bacteria to −60 per mil for microbial communities that recycle methane; the large range in values for organic carbon has to do with the cellular metabolism. For instance, an organism that uses photosynthesis will have a different isotope δ13C value than an organism that relies on chemical substances for energy; the oldest microfossils from the Barberton Greenstone belt are found in the Onverwacht Group in both the Kromberg and Hooggenoeg Formations. Both of these formations are predominantly igneous rock. However, it is still possible to find microfossils in chert, a type of evaporite that forms in sedimentary environments. From the evidence in these rocks, it is that early life existed in the form of microbial mats and stromatolites.
Evidence for this hypothesis is preserved in both lithified stromatolites. Stromatolites represent large colonies of microorganisms, are found both in the fossil record and in modern hypersaline environments. A typical stromatolite consists of alternating layers of sediment and microbes; the microbes are photosynthetic. Stromatolites consist of filamentous microfossils; the oldest stromatolites have been dated to 3.5 billion years old. Stromatolites in Barberton have been dated to about 3.3 billion years. Microfossils found in chert extend the Barberton microfossil record back to 3.5 billion years. All three types of microfossil morphologies are found in cherts. Chert can have a variety of colours, but microfossils are found in black ch
Ouaquaga Lenticular Truss Bridge is a historic lenticular truss bridge located at Ouaquaga in the towns of Windsor and Colesville in Broome County, New York. It was constructed in spans the Susquehanna River, it is composed of two identical through trusses with an overall length of 343 feet. It was constructed by the Berlin Iron Bridge Co. of Connecticut. The bridge was closed to vehicular traffic in 2008; the old bridge remains open for pedestrian use. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in New York South Washington Street Parabolic Bridge, a three-span, similar bridge in Binghamton Historic American Engineering Record No. NY-166, "Ouaquaga Bridge, Dutchtown Road, spanning Susquehanna River, Broome County, NY", 19 photos, 4 measured drawings, 7 data pages, 2 photo caption pages