Chinese characters are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, they remain a key component of the Japanese writing system and are used in the writing of Korean. They were used in Vietnamese and Zhuang. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters. Vietnamese is sometimes included, making the abbreviation CJKV. Chinese characters constitute. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts. Studies in China have shown that functional literacy in written Chinese requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters. In Japan, 2,136 are taught through secondary school. Due to post-WWII simplifications of Kanji in Japan as well as the post-WWII simplifications of characters in China, the Chinese characters used in Japan today are distinct from those used in China in several respects.
There are various national standard lists of characters and pronunciations. Simplified forms of certain characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia. In Japan, common characters are written in post-WWII Japan-specific simplified forms, while uncommon characters are written in Japanese traditional forms, which are identical to Chinese traditional forms. In South Korea, when Chinese characters are used, they are in traditional form identical to those used in Taiwan and Hong Kong where the official writing system is traditional Chinese. Teaching of Chinese characters in South Korea starts in the 7th grade and continues until the 12th grade. In Old Chinese including Classical Chinese, most words were monosyllabic and there was a close correspondence between characters and words. In modern Chinese, the majority of Chinese words today consist of two or more characters. Rather, a character always corresponds to a single syllable, a morpheme. However, there are a few exceptions to this general correspondence, including bisyllabic morphemes, bimorphemic syllables and cases where a single character represents a polysyllabic word or phrase.
Modern Chinese has many homophones. A single character may have a range of meanings, or sometimes quite distinct meanings. Cognates in the several varieties of Chinese are written with the same character, they have similar meanings, but quite different pronunciations. In other languages, most today in Japanese and sometimes in Korean, characters are used to represent Chinese loanwords, to represent native words independently of the Chinese pronunciation, as purely phonetic elements based on their pronunciation in the historical variety of Chinese from which they were acquired; these foreign adaptations of Chinese pronunciation are known as Sino-Xenic pronunciations and have been useful in the reconstruction of Middle Chinese. When the script was first used in the late 2nd millennium BC, words of Old Chinese were monosyllabic, each character denoted a single word. Increasing numbers of polysyllabic words have entered the language from the Western Zhou period to the present day, it is estimated that about 25–30% of the vocabulary of classic texts from the Warring States period was polysyllabic, though these words were used far less than monosyllables, which accounted for 80–90% of occurrences in these texts.
The process has accelerated over the centuries as phonetic change has increased the number of homophones. It has been estimated that over two thirds of the 3,000 most common words in modern Standard Chinese are polysyllables, the vast majority of those being disyllables; the most common process has been to form compounds of existing words, written with the characters of the constituent words. Words have been created by adding affixes and borrowing from other languages. Polysyllabic words are written with one character per syllable. In most cases the character denotes. Many characters have multiple readings, with instances denoting different morphemes, sometimes with different pronunciations. In modern Standard Chinese, one fifth of the 2,400 most common characters have multiple pronunciations. For the 500 most common characters, the proportion rises to 30%; these readings are similar in sound and related in meaning. In the Old Chinese period, affixes could be added to a word to form a new word, written with the same character.
In many cases the pronunciations diverged due to subsequent sound change. For example, many additional readings have the Middle Chinese departing tone, the major sour
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Fang Lizhi was a Chinese astrophysicist, vice-president of the University of Science and Technology of China, activist whose liberal ideas inspired the pro-democracy student movement of 1986–87 and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Because of his activism, he was expelled from the Communist Party of China in January 1987. For his work, Fang was a recipient of the Robert F Kennedy Human Rights Award in 1989, given each year to an individual whose courageous activism is at the heart of the human rights movement and in the spirit of Robert F. Kennedy's vision and legacy, he was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1980, but it was revoked after 1989. Fang was born on 12 February 1936 in Beijing, his father worked on the railway. In 1948, one year before the PLA took over the city, as a student of the Beijing No.4 High School, he joined an underground youth organization, associated to CCP. One of his extracurricular activities was assembling radio receivers from used parts.
In 1952, he enrolled in the Physics Department at Peking University. There he fell in love with his future wife, Li Shuxian. Both Fang and Li were among the top students in their class, he joined CCP upon graduation, worked the Institute of Modern Physics and became involved in the secret atomic bomb program of China, while Li stayed at Peking University as a junior faculty. In 1957, during the Hundred Flowers Campaign, people were encouraged by the CCP to express their opinions and criticisms; as party members, Li, Fang and another person in the physics department planned to write a letter to the party to offer their suggestions on education. This letter was still unfinished by the time the Hundred Flowers Campaign abruptly came to an end and the Anti-Rightist Campaign started; the opinions and criticisms solicited during the earlier campaign were interpreted as "attacks on the party", those who expressed such opinions were labelled "rightist" and persecuted. Although no one knew about the unfinished letter, out of loyalty to the party, the three naive young people confessed about it, Li confessed to the party her doubts on the party.
Li was expelled from the party, was sentenced to hard labour at Zhaitang near Beijing. Fang was not expelled from the party, because he played a lesser role in writing the letter, because he had left Peking University, where the punishment was severe. Still, he was removed from the nuclear program, sent to do hard labour in Zanhuang, Hebei province from December 1957 to August 1958. Out of political pressure, Li and Fang put their relationship on hold until early 1959, when Fang was expelled from the party. Fang was reassigned to the faculty of the University of Science and Technology of China in August 1958, in 1961 married Li, who remained a faculty of Peking University. In spite of his experience in the anti-Rightist campaign, he published an article in the Guangming Daily, encouraging the independent thinking of students. Fang published his first research paper on nuclear physics in Acta Physica Sinica 17, p. 57 under the pseudonym Wang Yunran, since as a rightist he was not entitled to publish research papers.
With the recommendation of Qian Linzhao, he became an associated member of a research group led by Professor Li Yinyuan at the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since Professor Li Yinyuan's group was located at a different institute, this arrangement took advantage of a loophole in management rules, allowing him to publish papers under his own name. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, Fang conducted research in particle physics, solid state physics and laser physics. By 1965, he had published 13 research papers and was considered one of the most productive physics researchers in China; that year, as part of the effort of cleansing Peking of "undesirable elements", Fang was to be removed from the faculty of USTC and sent to work in an electronics factory in Liaoning province. Learning about this, vice president Prof. Yan Jici intervened on Fang's behalf. Academic activities were interrupted when the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution broke out in 1966. In 1969, along with other universities and research institutes, the USTC was ordered to be evacuated out of Beijing, ostensibly in anticipation of an impending Soviet Union invasion.
USTC was moved to the capital of Anhui Province, where it remains to this day. Upon arriving in Hefei in 1969, along with other "problematic members" of the faculty, were sent to do hard labour for "re-education by the worker class" in a coal mine. Fang secretly brought with him one physics book, the "Classical Theory of Fields" by Lev Landau and learned the theory of general relativity by reading this book in the evening. In 1971, along with a number of other faculty members, he was assigned to do labour work in a brick factory, which produced the bricks for constructing the USTC university buildings. In 1972, the Cultural Revolution calmed down a bit, scientific research resumed. Fang found an opportunity to read some recent astrophysics papers in western journals, soon wrote his first paper on cosmology, "A Cosmological Solution in Scalar-tensor Theory with Mass and Blackbody Radiation", published on the journal Wu Li, Vol. 1, 163. This was the first modern cosmological research paper in mainland China.
Fang assembled a group of young faculty members of USTC around him to conduct astrophysics research. At the time, conducting research on relativity theory and cosmology in China was risky politically, because these theories were co
1989 Tiananmen Square protests
The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident, were student-led demonstrations in Beijing for the establishment of basic human and press rights and against the Communist-led Chinese government in mid-1989. More broadly, it refers to the popular national movement inspired by the Beijing protests during that period, sometimes called the'89 Democracy Movement; the protests were forcibly suppressed. In what became known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, troops with assault rifles and tanks fired at the demonstrators trying to block the military's advance towards Tiananmen Square; the number of civilian deaths was internally estimated by the Chinese government to be near or above 10,000. Set against a backdrop of rapid economic development and social changes in post-Mao Zedong China, the protests reflected anxieties about the country's future in the popular consciousness and among the political elite; the reforms of the 1980s had led to a nascent market economy which benefited some people but disaffected others, the one-party political system faced a challenge of legitimacy.
Common grievances at the time included inflation, limited preparedness of graduates for the new economy, restrictions on political participation. The students called for democracy, greater accountability, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, although they were disorganized and their goals varied. At the height of the protests, about 1 million people assembled in the Square; as the protests developed, the authorities veered back and forth between conciliatory and hardline tactics, exposing deep divisions within the party leadership. By May, a student-led hunger strike galvanized support for the demonstrators around the country, the protests spread to some 400 cities. China's paramount leader Deng Xiaoping and other Communist Party elders believed the protests to be a political threat and resolved to use force; the State Council mobilized as many as 300,000 troops to Beijing. The troops suppressed the protests by firing at demonstrators with automatic weapons, killing multiple protesters and leading to mass civil unrest in the days following.
The international community, human rights organizations, political analysts condemned the Chinese government for the massacre. Western countries imposed arms embargoes on China; the Chinese government made widespread arrests of protesters and their supporters, suppressed other protests around China, expelled foreign journalists controlled coverage of the events in the domestic press, strengthened the police and internal security forces, demoted or purged officials it deemed sympathetic to the protests. More broadly, the suppression temporarily halted the policies of liberalization in the 1980s. Considered a watershed event, the protests set the limits on political expression in China well into the 21st century, its memory is associated with questioning the legitimacy of Communist Party rule and remains one of the most sensitive and most censored topics in China. Events named by date in Chinese are conventionally named by the number of the month and the date, followed by the type of event. Thus, the common Chinese name for the crackdown on the 1989 massacre is June Fourth Incident.
The nomenclature of the former is consistent with the customary names of the other two great protests that occurred in Tiananmen Square: the May Fourth Movement of 1919 and the April Fifth Movement of 1976. June Fourth refers to the day on which the People's Liberation Army cleared Tiananmen Square of protesters, although actual operations began on the evening of 4 June. Names such as June Fourth Movement and'89 Democracy Movement are used to describe the event in its entirety. Outside mainland China, among circles critical of the crackdown within mainland China, it is referred to in Chinese as June Fourth Massacre and June Fourth Crackdown. To bypass internet censorship in China, which uniformly considers all the above-mentioned names too'Sensitive' for search engines and public forums, alternative names have sprung up to describe the events on the Internet, such as May 35th, VIIV and Eight Squared; the government of the People's Republic of China have used numerous names for the event since 1989 reducing the intensity of terminology applied.
As the events were unfolding, it was labelled a "counterrevolutionary riot", changed to "riot", followed by "political storm" and the leadership settled on the more neutralized phrase "political turmoil between the Spring and Summer of 1989", which it uses to this day. In English, the terms Tiananmen Square Massacre, Tiananmen Square Protests or Tiananmen Square Crackdown are used to describe the series of events. However, much of the violence in Beijing did not happen in Tiananmen, but outside the square along a stretch of Chang'an Avenue only a few miles long, near the Muxidi area; the term gives a misleading impression that demonstrations only happened in Beijing, when in fact they occurred in many cities throughout China.. The Cultural Revolution ended with chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976; the movement, spearheaded by Mao, caused severe damage to the country's diverse economic and social fabric. The country was mired in poverty as econom
Yan Jiaqi is a Chinese political scientist and dissident. Yan was born on 25 December 1942 in Wujin District, Jiangsu, during the Chinese Civil War. In 1959, he entered the University of Science and Technology of China, became the director of the Institute of Political Research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, where he published several essays and papers on political reform. In 1986, he published a "theory of leadership", his most famous book, written in collaboration with his wife Gao Gao, was Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. He became a political advisor of Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang during the 1980s, was one of the leading intellectuals supporting the student movement in 1989. After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, he fled to Paris, where he participated in forming the Federation for a Democratic China and was elected the federation's first president, he was expelled from the Communist Party of China in 1991. He is a member of the Chinese Constitutional Reform Association and has suggested the formation of a Federal Republic of China.
Books written in Chinese translated into English Turbulent Decade Co-authored with Gao Gao, translated by D. W. Y. Kwok. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1996 Toward a Democratic China translated by David S. K. Hong and Denis C. Mair. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992 Yan Jiaqi and China's Struggle For Democracy, translated by David Bachman and Dali L. Yang. M. E. Sharpe Inc. 1992 Alliance Introduction
Zhao Ziyang was a high-ranking statesman in China. He was the third Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1980 to 1987, Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1981 to 1982, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1987 to 1989, he lost power in connection with the reformative neoauthoritarianism current and his support of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. As a senior government official, Zhao was critical of Maoist policies and instrumental in implementing free-market reforms, first in Sichuan and subsequently nationwide, he emerged on the national scene due to support from Deng Xiaoping after the Cultural Revolution. An advocate of the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the separation of the party and the state, general market economic reforms, he sought measures to streamline China's bureaucracy and fight corruption, issues that challenged the party's legitimacy in the 1980s. Many of these views were shared by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Hu Yaobang.
His economic reform policies and sympathies with student demonstrators during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 placed him at odds with some members of the party leadership, including former Chairman of the Central Advisory Commission Chen Yun, former President Li Xiannian and former Premier of the State Council Li Peng. Zhao began to lose favor with former Chairman of the Central Military Commission Deng Xiaoping. In the aftermath of the events, Zhao was purged politically and placed under house arrest for the next 15.5 years. He died from a stroke in Beijing in January 2005; because of his political fall from grace, he was not given the funeral rites accorded to senior Chinese officials. His unofficial autobiography was published in English and in Chinese in 2009, but the details of his life remain censored in the People's Republic of China. Zhao was born Zhao Xiuye, but changed his given name to "Ziyang" while attending middle school in Wuhan, he was the son of a wealthy landlord in Hua County, murdered by Communist Party officials during a land reform movement in the early 1940s.
Zhao joined the Communist Youth League in 1932, became a full member of the Party in 1938. Unlike many Party members active in the 1930s and 1940s who became senior Chinese leaders, Zhao joined the Party too late to have participated in the Long March of 1934–1935, he served in the People's Liberation Army, integrated into the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the subsequent civil war, but his posts were administrative. Zhao's career was not notable before he emerged as a Party leader in Guangdong in the early 1950s. Zhao rose to prominence in Guangdong from 1951 following a ruthless ultra-leftist, Tao Zhu, notable for his heavy-handed efforts to force local peasants into living and working in "People's Communes"; when Mao Zedong's Great Leap Forward created an artificial famine, Mao publicly blamed the nation's food shortages on the greed of rich peasants, who were hiding China's huge surplus production from the government. Zhao's faith in Mao led him to take a leading role in a local campaign aimed at torturing peasants into revealing their imaginary food supplies.
Through supporting the Great Leap Forward, Zhao was responsible for the millions of people who died from starvation and malnutrition in Guangdong between 1958 and 1961. Zhao's experiences during the Great Leap Forward led him to support moderate political and economic policies, including those supported by Deng Xiaoping and President Liu Shaoqi, he led efforts to re-introduce limited amounts of private agriculture and commerce, dismantled the People's Communes. Zhao's methods of returning private plots to farmers and assigning production contracts to individual households were replicated in other parts of China, helping the country's agricultural sector recover. After achieving senior positions in Guangdong, Zhao directed a harsh purge of cadres accused of corruption or having ties to the Kuomintang. By 1965 Zhao was the Party secretary of Guangdong province, despite not being a member of the Communist Party Central Committee, he was forty-six at the time that he first became Party secretary, a notably young age to hold such a prestigious position.
Because of his moderate political orientation, Zhao was attacked by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution. He was dismissed from all official positions in 1967, after which he was paraded through Guangzhou in a dunce cap and publicly denounced as "a stinking remnant of the landlord class". Zhao spent four years at the Xianzhong Mechanics Factory. Zhao Wujun, the youngest of his four sons, worked with him. While in political exile, Zhao's family lived in a small apartment close to his factory, with a small suitcase in the living room that served as a dinner table. Zhao's rehabilitation began in April 1971, when he and his family were woken in the middle of the night by someone banging on the door. Without much explanation, the Party chief of the factory that Zhao was working at informed Zhao that he was to go at once to Changsha, the provincial capital; the factory's only means of transport was a three-wheeled motorcycle, ready to take him. Zhao was driven to Changsha's airport. Still unaware of what was happening, Zhao boarded the plane.
He was checked into the comfortable Beijing Hotel, but wasn't able to get to sleep: he claimed that, after years of living in poverty, the mattress
Wang Dan (dissident)
Wang Dan is a leader of the Chinese democracy movement and was one of the most visible student leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. He holds a Ph. D. in history from Harvard University, from August 2009 to February 2010, Wang taught cross-strait history at Taiwan's National Chengchi University, as a visiting scholar. He taught at National Tsing Hua University until 2015. Besides conducting research on related topics, Wang is still active in promoting democracy and freedom for China, he travels the world to garner support from Overseas Chinese communities as well as from the public at large. He is a friend of fellow activists Wang Liu Gang. Wang Dan was born in 1969, he was a politically active student at the Peking University department of history, organizing "Democracy Salons" at his school. When he participated in the student movement that led to the 1989 peaceful protest, he joined the movement's organizing body as the representative from Peking University; as a result, after the Tiananmen Square protests, he became the "most wanted" on the list of 21 fugitives issued.
Wang went into hiding but was arrested on July 2 the same year, sentenced to four years imprisonment in 1991. After being released on parole in 1993, he continued to write publicly and was re-arrested in 1995 for conspiring to overthrow the Communist Party of China and was sentenced in 1996 to 11 years; however he was exiled to the United States of America. Wang resumed his university studies, starting school at Harvard University in 1998 and completing his master's in East Asian history in 2001 and a Ph. D. in 2008. He performed research on the development of democracy in Taiwan at Oxford University in 2009, he is the chairman of the Chinese Constitutional Reform Association. Wang was interviewed and appeared in the documentary The Beijing Crackdown and the movie Moving the Mountain, about the Tiananmen Square protests, he featured prominently in Shen Tong's book Almost a Revolution. He was banned from setting foot on mainland China with his passport expiring in 2003, he was rejected. At that time he was invited by the Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China to talk about politics ahead of the 15th anniversary of the June 4 crackdown.
Due to a typhoon, Wang landed in Hong Kong for the first time, though he was confined to the airport's restricted zone as he had no Hong Kong visa. Following the People's Liberation Army's crackdown on the protests, Wang Dan was placed on a list of the 21 most wanted student leaders of the protests. Imprisoned on July 2, 1989, Wang spent nearly two years in custody before his trial in 1991. Wang was charged with spreading counterrevolutionary incitement, he was sentenced to 4 years in prison. This short sentence was thought to be caused by two things. While incarcerated, Wang spent two years at Qincheng Prison, known for its high number of political prisoners. Despite the usual cramped conditions, because of his high-profile case, Wang was given his own cell. Wang was released in 1993, just months before the end of his sentence. Wang Dan himself has noted this was most related to China’s first bid for the Olympic Games since he and 19 other political prisoners were released only a month before the International Olympic Committee was to visit.
After his release in 1993 Wang began to promote democracy in China and contacted exiled political activists in the United States. He was arrested for a second time in May 1995. In this interview he states: "We should clear a new path and devote ourselves to building a civil society by focusing our efforts on social movements, not political movements, self-consciously maintaining a distance from political power and political organs." Wang was held in custody for 17 months before receiving the charge of "plotting to overthrow the government", was sentenced to 11 years in prison. Instead of serving his entire sentence, he was released in 1998, ostensibly for "medical reasons" and was sent to the US where he was examined in hospital, released to live in the United States as an exiled political activist, his release and move to the United States followed an agreement between the United States and China whereby the United States removed its support for a resolution criticizing China at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, in return China released political prisoners such as Wang.
Not long after Wang Dan arrived in the United States, he began to criticize the Chinese government once again. Wang believes the CCP must change its ways, in an interview with the US newspaper The Weekly Standard he states: "The key to democracy in China is independence. My country needs independent intellectuals, independent economic actors, independent spirits." Wang received his PhD from Harvard University in 2008, continues to be involved in fighting for change in China. Two of his works include: "20 years after Tiananmen" which takes a look at how economic change has affected the Chinese people, contains suggestions for social and human rights changes. Wang wrote "Rebuild China with an Olympic Amnesty" after his arrival in the United States. In 2007 Wang's second sente