States General of the Netherlands
The States General of the Netherlands is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Both chambers meet at the Binnenhof in The Hague; the States General originated in the 15th century as an assembly of all the provincial states of the Burgundian Netherlands. In 1579, during the Dutch Revolt, the States General split as the northern provinces rebelled against Philip II, the northern States General replaced Philip II as the supreme authority of the Dutch Republic in 1581; the States General were replaced by the National Assembly after the Batavian Revolution of 1795, only to be restored in 1814, when the country had regained its sovereignty. The States General was divided into a Senate and a House of Representatives in 1815, with the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the constitutional amendment of 1848, members of the House of Representatives were directly elected, the rights of the States General were vastly extended establishing parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands.
Since 1918, the members of the House of Representatives are elected for four years using party-list proportional representation, while the 75 members of the Senate are elected by the States-Provincial every four years. On exceptional occasions, the two houses form a joint session known as the United Assembly; the President of the Senate serves as President of the States General during a United Assembly. Ankie Broekers-Knol has been President of the Senate since 2013; the archaic Dutch word staten related to the feudal classes in which medieval European societies were stratified. The word came to mean the political body in which the respective estates were represented; each province in the Habsburg Netherlands had its own staten. These representative bodies in turn were represented in the assembly that came to be known as Staten-Generaal, or Algemene Staten; the English word "states" may have a similar meaning as the Dutch word staten, as in e.g. States of Jersey; the English phrases "States General" is a literal translation of the Dutch word.
The same term was used for the name of other national legislatures as, for example, the Catalan and Valencian Generalitat and the Estates General of France during the Ancien Régime. Several geographic place names are derived from the States General. In 1609, Henry Hudson established Dutch trade in Staten Island, New York City and named the island Staaten Eylandt after the States General. Isla de los Estados, now an Argentine island, was named after this institution, the Spanish name being a translation of the Dutch name. Abel Tasman gave the name Staten Landt to what would become New Zealand. Staaten River is a river in Australia; the convocation of the States General consisted of delegates from the States of the several provinces, like the States of Brabant, dated from about the middle of the 15th century, under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy. The first important session was the Estates General of 1464 that met on 9 January 1464 in Bruges, Flanders, on the initiative of the States of Holland, the States of Flanders, the States of Brabant, with the reluctant agreement of Philip the Good.
Regular sessions were held at Coudenberg in Brussels, Brabant. The next important event was the convocation of the States General by the ducal Council for 3 February 1477 after the death of Charles the Bold. In this session the States General forced the grant of the Great Privilege by Mary of Burgundy in which the right of the States General to convene on their own initiative was recognised; the main function of the States General in these early years was to form a platform for the central government to discuss matters of general importance with the States of the provinces the special subsidies known as beden or aides. Legislative and executive functions were still reserved for the Sovereign in these years At the start of the Dutch Revolt the States General remained loyal to the overlord of the Habsburg Netherlands, Philip II of Spain. In 1576 the States General as a whole, however rebelled against the Spanish crown. In 1579 the States General split as a number of southern provinces, united in the Union of Arras returned to obedience, while other provinces, united in the Union of Utrecht continued the rebellion.
After the Act of Abjuration in 1581 the northern States General replaced Philip II as the supreme authority of the northern Netherlands, which became known as the United Provinces. This was a confederation; these delegated representatives to the States General as a kind of ambassadors acting with a mandate limited by instruction and obligatory consultation. The States General, in which the voting was by province, each of the seven provinces having one vote, took on many executive functions after the Council of State of the Netherlands had temporarily come under English influence, due to the Treaty of Nonsuch; the States General for this reason since 1593 remained continually in session until their dissolution in 1795. The presidency rotated weekly among the senior representatives of the provinces. Under the Union of Utrecht treaty the States General formally was the sovereign power, representing the Republic in foreign affa
Cài is a Chinese surname that derives from the name of the ancient Cai state. The surname is the 34th most common surname in China, but the 9th most common in Taiwan, where it is romanized as Tsai or Chai based on Wade-Giles romanization of Standard Mandarin and the 8th most common in Singapore, where it is romanized as Chua, based on its Teochew and Hokkien pronunciation. Koreans use Chinese-derived family names and in Korean, Cai is 채 in Hangul, Chae in Revised Romanization, It is a common Cantonese name in Hong Kong where it is romanized as Choy, Choi or Tsoi. In Macao and Malaysia, it is spelled as Choi, in Malaysia and the Philippines as Chua, in Thailand as Chuo. Moreover, it is romanized in Cambodia as either Chhay, Chhuor or Chhor among Chinese Cambodians and as Tjoa or Chua in Indonesia; the Cais are said to be the descendants of the 5th son of King Wen of Ji Du. Ji Du was awarded the title of marquis of the State of Cai, he was known as Cai Shu Du. Together with Guan Shu and Huo Shu, they were known as the Three Guards.
When King Wu died, his son King Cheng was too young and his uncle, the Duke of Zhou, became regent. Seeing that the power of the Duke of Zhou was increasing, the Three Guards got jealous and rebelled against Zhou together with Wu Geng; the Duke of Zhou suppressed the rebellion, Cai Shu was exiled. King Cheng reestablished Cai Shu's son Hu as the new Duke of Cai; some 600 years in the Warring States period, the State of Chu conquered Cai in 447 BC and was itself conquered by the Qin state which, in turn, formed the Qin Empire, China's first empire. With the spread of family names to all social classes in the new empire, many people of the former state of Cai began to bear it as a surname; the Cai descendants have undertaken two major migrations. During the Huang Chao Rebellion at the end of the Tang Dynasty, the Cai clan migrated to Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Another migration occurred when Ming Dynasty loyalist Koxinga moved military officials surnamed Cai and their families to Taiwan in the 17th century.
As a result, the surname is far more common in these areas and in areas settled by their descendants than in other parts of China. Cai is written the same in traditional Chinese characters. In Mandarin Chinese, the surname is transliterated as Cài in pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin, Ts'ai in Wade-Giles, Tsay in Gwoyeu Romatzyh. In Southern Min or Taiwanese, it is Chhoà in Pe̍h-oē-jī. In Cantonese, it is Coi3 in Jyutping and Choi in Yale.. In Hakka it is Tshai in Pha̍k-fa-sṳ. In Fuzhou dialect, it is Chái. Koreans use Chinese-derived family names and in Korean, Cai is 채 in Hangul, Chae in Revised Romanization, Ch'ae in McCune-Reischauer. Vietnamese use Chinese-derived family names. In Vietnamese, the name is Thái; the Chinese name 蔡 is transliterated via Sino-Vietnamese as Thái but sometimes as Sái. Japanese do not use Chinese family names but for Chinese in Japan who carry the name, it is さい in Hiragana and Sai in the major romanization systems. Cai is romanized as Cai in the People's Republic of China, Tsai or "Tsoa" in the Republic of China, Choi or Choy in Hong Kong and Malaysia.
In Malaysia and Brunei, the most common forms are Chua or Chuah for Teochew and Hokkien speakers, Chai for Hakka speakers, Choi or Tsoi for Cantonese speakers, Toy or Toi for Taishanese speakers. In Indonesia, it is romanized as Tjoa or Chua and in the Philippines, it is Chua /ˈtʃuwa/ or Cua. Chua is pronounced /ˈtʃwa/ in other Anglophone countries outside the Philippines. Other variations include Coi. In addition, some of the Chuas who resided in the Philippines adopted Spanish names to avoid persecution by the Spanish rulers during the Philippines' Spanish colonial rule from the early 16th to late 19th century. Hispanicized forms of the name include Chuachiaco, Chuapoco, Chuacuco, Chuason and Chuatoco; these names were formed from the surname, one character of the given name, the suffix "-co", a Minnan honorific ko meaning "older brother". In Thailand, most Thais of Chinese descendance use Thai surnames. Legislation by Siamese King Rama VI required the adoption of Thai surnames, directed at easing tensions with Chinese community by encouraging assimilation.
Thai law did not allow identical surnames to those in existence, so ethnic Chinese surnamed Chua incorporating words that sound like "Chua" and have good meaning into much longer surnames. Cai Cheng, a Chinese politician Cai Chusheng, an early Chinese film director Cai E, a Chinese revolutionary and warlord in early 20th century Cai Gongshi, a Chinese emissary killed by Japanese soldiers during the Jinan Incident Cai Guo-Qiang, a Chinese contemporary artist and curator. Cai Hesen, an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong Cai Jing, a Song Dynasty official and a character in the Chinese literature classic the Water Margin Lady Cai, the wife of Han dynasty provincial governor Liu Biao Cai Lun, the inventor of paper in the Han dynasty Cai Mao, a man of the gentry who served under Han dynasty provincial governor Liu Biao, cousin of Cai He and Cai Zhong Cai Pei, a diplomat and politician in the Republic
Wu is the pinyin transliteration of the Chinese surname 吳, 吴, the tenth most common surname in Mainland China. Wu is the sixth name listed in the Song Dynasty classic Hundred Family Surnames; the Cantonese and Hakka transliteration of 吳 is Ng, a syllable made of a nasal consonant while the Min Nan transliteration of 吳 is Goh, Go, depending on the regional variations in Min Nan pronunciation. 吳 is one of the most common surnames in Korea. It is spelled 오 in Hangul and romanized O by the three major romanization systems, but more spelled Oh in South Korea, it is related far back in Chinese history with the name "Zhou" and "Ji". The Vietnamese equivalent of the surname is Ngô. Several other, less common Chinese surnames with different pronunciations are transliterated into English as "Wu": 武, 伍, 仵, 烏, 鄔 and 巫. Wu' is the Cantonese transliteration of the different Chinese surname 胡, used in Hong Kong, by overseas Chinese of Cantonese-speaking areas of Guangdong, and/or Hong Kong/Macau origin; the name originates from the ancient state of Wu in present-day province of Jiangsu, it means,'Gateway to Heaven.'
In the 13th century BC, the state of Zhou was ruled by Tai Wang. His surname was Ji, he had three sons: Taibo and Jili. King Tai of Zhou favored the youngest son, Jili to inherit the reins of power, therefore Taibo and his brother Zhongyong voluntarily left Zhou with a group of followers and headed southeast where they established the state of Wu. Taibo and Zhongyong's descendants adopted Wu as their surname; the state of Wu became a powerful kingdom of its own with the help of Generals Wu Zixu and Sun Tzu, the latter best known as the author of the military treatise The Art of War, both serving under King Helü of Wu. King Helü is considered to be one of the Five Hegemons of China during Autumn period. Taibo and Zhongyong's youngest brother Jili stayed to rule the Zhou state and was the grandfather of Wu Wang who started the Zhou Dynasty after overthrowing the Shang Dynasty; the descendants of Wu Wang changed their surname from Ji to Zhou during the Qin Dynasty to commemorate the merits and virtues of their ancestors.
Therefore, the surnames Wu, Ji are related. 姬 吳泰伯 - Taibo of Wu The eldest son of King Tai of Zhou and the legendary founder of the State of Wu, the propagator of all people with the surname Wu. Ancestral name is Ji. 吳起 - Wu Qi A famous Chu General who wrote the Wuzi. 吳漢 - Wu Han Military General of Eastern Han 吳景 - Wu Jing Military General under Warlord Sun Jian 吳三桂 - Wu Sangui - Ming Dynasty General. 吳梅 - Ng Mui - one of the legendary Five Elders of the Shaolin Temple. 吳懿 - Wu Yi General of Shu Han 吴藻 - Wu Zao, Chinese poet吳經熊 - John C. H. Wu, John Ching Hsiung Wu, Author Wu Den-yih, Chairperson of Kuomintang 吳恬敏, American actress 吴倩 -Wu Qian Chinese actress 吳振偉 TSH General Security guard Billy Goh 吳辰君 - Annie Wu 吳辰君, Taiwanese Actress 吳庚霖 - Wu Geng Lin, birth name of Aaron Yan 炎亞綸, actor and singer in Taiwanese band Fahrenheit 吳清源 - Wú Qīngyuán, Chinese-born Japanese Go Player 吳百福 - Wu Baifu, Taiwanese-born Japanese inventor of instant noodles 吳邦國 - Wu Bangguo, Chairman of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China 吳尊 - Wu Chun, Brunei-born actor and singer in Taiwanese band Fahrenheit 吳健雄 - Wu Chien-Shiung, Chinese scientist 吳彥祖 - Wu, American actor 吳凱文 - Wu, American internet personality 吳振偉 - Wu, congressman from the 1st district of Oregon 吳憲 - Wu, Hsien, an early protein scientist 吳季剛 - Jason Wu, Taiwanese Canadian fashion designer 吳迪 -Di Wu, American-Chinese concert pianist 吳鑑泉 - Wu Jianquan, Taijiquan teacher 吴立红 - Wu Lihong, environmental activist 吴乐宝 - Wu Lebao, Chinese cyber-dissident 吳蠻 - Wu Man and ruan player 吳明瑛 - Wu Mingying, Chinese actress 吳慶瑞 - Wu Qingrui, former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore 吳瑞 - Wu Rui, Chinese eunuch in Lê Dynasty Annam 吳蕊思 - Wu Ruisi, Singaporean Paralympic swimmer 吳詩聰 - Shin-Tson Wu, American physicist and professor Wu Shoei-yun 吴水娇 – Wu Shuijiao, Chinese track and field hurdler 吳天明 - Wu Tianming, Chinese film director 吳文俊 - Wu Wenjun, Chinese mathematician 吳儀 - Wu Yi, Vice-premier of the People's Republic of China 大衛吳 - David Wu, Best known for his love of school, did some rad judo chops and engineering god.
A true lover of bread and forever in debt of Alex Gagnon for adding him to wikipedia. 呉子良 - Wu Ziliang, the birthname of Emi Suzuki, Japanese model of Chinese descent 吴贝翔 - Wu John, American-born descendant of Wu Yi, American Financial and Data Analyst 吳作棟 - Wu Zuodong, former Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, current Senior Minister of Singapore and the chairman of the central bank of Singapore, the Monetary Authority of Singapore 吴亦凡 - Kris Wu, Ex-member of the Chinese - South Korean Boygroup EXO, Chinese Actor and Singer-songwriter 吴宣仪 - Wu Xuanyi, Member of South Korean - Chinese Girl Group Cosmic Girls, Contestant on Produce 101 China, member of Chinese
Fall of Suharto
Suharto resigned as president of Indonesia on 21 May 1998 following the collapse of support for his three-decade long presidency. The resignation followed severe political crises in the previous 6 to 12 months. B. J. Habibie continued at least a year of his remaining presidential years, followed by Abdurrahman Wahid in 1999. Coming to power in 1966 on the heels of an alleged coup by the Indonesian Communist Party, the government of the former general Suharto adopted policies that restricted civil liberties and instituted a system of rule that split power between his own Golkar Party and the military. In 1970, corruption prompted an investigation by a government commission. Suharto responded by banning student protest. Only token prosecution of cases recommended by the commission was pursued; the pattern of co-opting a few of his more powerful opponents while criminalizing the rest became a hallmark of Suharto's rule. In order to maintain a veneer of democracy, Suharto made a number of electoral reforms.
He stood for election before electoral college votes every five years, beginning in 1973. According to his electoral rules, only three entities were allowed to participate in the election: two political parties and one Golongan Karya. All the existing political parties were forced to be part of either the Islamist United Development Party or the Nationalist Democratic Party of Indonesia. Golkar, being Suharto's main political vehicle, was not a political party; this was done because public servants were not allowed to join any political parties, thus legitimizing their forced membership of Golkar. In a political compromise with the powerful military, he banned its members from voting in elections, but set aside 100 seats in the electoral college for their representatives; as a result, he won every election in which he stood, in 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998. This authoritarianism became an issue in the 1980s. On 5 May 1980 a group Petition of Fifty demanded greater political freedoms, it was composed of former military men, politicians and students.
The Indonesian media suppressed the government placed restrictions on the signatories. After the group's 1984 accusation that Suharto was creating a one-party state, some of its leaders were jailed. In the same decade, it is believed by many scholars that the Indonesian military split between a nationalist "red and white faction" and an Islamist "green faction." As the 1980s closed, Suharto is said to have been forced to shift his alliances from the former to the latter, leading to the rise of Jusuf Habibie in the 1990s. After the 1990s brought an end to the Cold War, Western concern over communism waned, Suharto's human rights record came under greater international scrutiny. In 1991, the murder of East Timorese civilians in a Dili cemetery known as the "Santa Cruz Massacre", caused American attention to focus on its military relations with the Suharto regime and the question of Indonesia's occupation of East Timor. In 1992, this attention resulted in the Congress of the United States passing limitations on IMET assistance to the Indonesian military, over the objections of President George H.
W. Bush. In 1993, under President Bill Clinton, the U. S. delegation to the UN Human Rights Commission helped pass a resolution expressing deep concern over Indonesian human rights violations in East Timor. In 1996, the Indonesian Democratic Party, a legal party, used by the New Order as a benign prop for the New Order’s electoral system, began to assert its independence, under Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of the popular father of the nation, Sukarno. In response, Suharto attempted to foster a split over the leadership of PDI, backing a co-opted faction loyal to deputy speaker of Parliament Suryadi against supporters of "Mega". After the Suryadi faction announced a party congress to sack Megawati would be held in Medan 20–22 June, Megawati proclaimed that her supporters would hold demonstrations in protest; the Suryadi faction went through with its sacking of Megawati, the demonstrations manifested themselves throughout Indonesia. This led to several confrontations on the streets between protesters and security forces, recriminations over the violence.
The protests culminated in the military allowing Megawati's supporters to take over PDI headquarters in Jakarta, with a pledge of no further demonstrations. Suharto allowed the occupation of PDI headquarters to go on for a month, as attentions were on Jakarta due to a set of high-profile ASEAN meetings scheduled to take place there. Capitalizing on this, Megawati supporters organized "democracy forums" with several speakers at the site. On 26 July, officers of the military and Suharto aired their disgust with the forums. On 27 July, police and persons claiming to be Suryadi supporters stormed the headquarters. Several Megawati supporters were killed, over two-hundred were arrested and tried under the Anti-Subversion and Hate-spreading laws; the day would become known as "Black Saturday" and mark the beginning of a renewed crackdown by the New Order government against supporters of democracy, now called the "Reformasi" or Reform. The political tensions in Jakarta were accompanied by anti-Chinese riots in Situbondo, Tasikmalaya and Makassar.
After a violent campaign season, Golkar won the rigged May 1997 MPR elections. The new MPR voted unanimously to re-elect Suharto to another five-year term in office on March 1998, upon which he appointed his protégé BJ Habibie as vice-president while stacking the cabinet
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, the Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century; this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule, contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects; the term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, set the stage for an independence movement. Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution.
The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea, ceded to Indonesia 14 years in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement. The word Indies comes from Latin: Indus; the original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, to keep it distinct from the Dutch West Indies. The name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Company's documents of the early 1620s. Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, colonial Indonesia interchangeably. Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states; the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia.
When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed. Recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company; the VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, make treaties across Asia. A capital was established in Batavia. To their original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers and cinnamon, the company and colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, cacao, rubber and opium, safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory. Smuggling, the ongoing expense of war and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century; the company was formally dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalized under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies. From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous.
Although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali and Borneo. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century. In the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1806, with the Netherlands under Imperial French domination, Emperor Napoleon I appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne, which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshal Herman Willem Daendels as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor. Following Napoleon's defeat at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo and the Congress of Vienna, independent Dutch control was restored in 1816.
Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between former British and Dutch possessions remain today between modern Malaysia and Indonesia. Since the establishment of the VOC in the 17th century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been a business matter. Graaf van den Bosch's Governor-generalship confirmed profitability as the foundation of official policy, restricting its attention to Java and Bangka. However, from about 1840, Dutch national expansionism saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions in the outer islands. Motivations included: the protection of areas held.
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the war in September 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history; the Dutch East Indies had been a colony of the Netherlands since 1819. However, the Netherlands itself had been occupied by Germany, thus had little ability to defend its colony against the Imperial Japanese Army, less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo, the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces. Most Indonesians joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters; the sentiment changed, however, as Indonesians realized that they were expected to endure more hardship for the Japanese war effort. In 1944–1945, Allied troops bypassed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra; as such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of its surrender in August 1945.
The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia and ended the Dutch colonial rule, and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesian National Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level. In Java and, to a lesser extent, the Japanese educated and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus, through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for the proclamation of Indonesian independence within days of the Japanese surrender in the Pacific. However, the Netherlands sought to reclaim the Indies, a bitter five-year diplomatic and social struggle ensued, resulting in the Netherlands recognising Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949; until 1942, Indonesia was known as the Dutch East Indies.
In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause. The Japanese spread the word that they were the'Light of Asia'. Japan was the only Asian nation that had transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the 19th century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, had beaten a European power, Russia, in war. Following its military campaign in China, Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia, advocating to other Asians a'Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere', which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership; the Japanese had spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.
The Japanese population peaked in 1931 with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government. A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan; such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an'Asia for the Asians'. While most Indonesians were hopeful for the Japanese promise of an end to the Dutch racially based system, Chinese Indonesians, who enjoyed a privileged position under Dutch rule, were less optimistic. Concerned were members of the Indonesian communist underground who followed the Soviet Union's popular united front against fascism. Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.
In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organisation of religious and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilisation of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat. The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago. On 8 December 1941, the Dutch government-in-exile declared war on Japan. In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia, under the command of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile, taking political prisoners and personal staff to Australia. Before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese - and Dutch-owned properties were destroyed.
The invasion in early 1942 was complete. By January 1942, parts of Sulawesi and Kalimantan were under Japanese control. By February, the Japanese had landed on Sumatra where they had encouraged the Acehnese to rebel against the Dutch. On 19 February, having taken Ambon, the Japanese Eastern Task Force landed in Timor, dropping a special parachute unit into West Timor near Kupang, landing in the Dili area of Portuguese Timo