Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
A Bible society is a non-profit organization nondenominational in makeup, devoted to translating and distributing the Bible at affordable costs. In recent years they are involved in advocating its credibility and trustworthiness in contemporary cultural life. Traditionally Bible society editions contain scripture, without any doctrinal notes or comments, although they may include non-sectarian notes on alternate translations of words, or variations in the different available manuscripts; the production and distribution of bibles are issues that have engaged the attention of Christian leaders for centuries. In an extant letter, dated 331, Emperor Constantine requested Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, to provide him with fifty copies of the Old and New Testaments for use in the principal churches in Constantinople. In 797, Charlemagne commissioned Alcuin to prepare an emended text of the Vulgate; the first book printed in Europe was the Latin Bible, Copinger estimates that 124 editions of the Vulgate had been issued by the end of the 15th century.
The Italian Bible was printed a dozen times before 1500, eighteen editions of the German Bible had been published before Martin Luther's version appeared. From medieval time and again accompanying the Protestant Reformation, there was a marked increase in interest in the scriptures. Notwithstanding the oppositional attitude adopted by the Roman Catholic Church at and after the Council of Trent, the translation and circulation of the Bible were undertaken with greater zeal, in a more systematic fashion; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England was incorporated by an ordinance of parliament in 1649, reincorporated in 1661, after the Restoration. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was founded 1698, it published the King James Version of the English Bible, translated and published editions of the Bible in other British languages such as Welsh and Manx. Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it supported in south India.
The earliest New Testament published in 1767, Old Testament 1801 in Scots Gaelic were published by the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge founded in 1709. In 1710, the Canstein Bible Institute for the mass production of affordable Bibles was founded in Halle, Brandenburg-Prussia, by Karl Hildebrand, Count of Canstein; the first organisation called The Bible Society was formed in 1779 to distribute Bibles to soldiers and seamen. The French Bible Society, instituted in 1792, came to an end in 1803, owing to the Napoleanic Revolution. Leftover funds were given to Bible production in Welsh; the modern Bible society movement dates back to the foundation of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804 when a group of Christians sought to address the problem of a lack of affordable Bibles in Welsh for Welsh-speaking Christians. Although perceived as Protestant, from the early days the British and Foreign Bible Society was ecumenical, allowed inclusion of the Apocrypha; as a reaction to the occasional inclusion of these books and other issues, the Trinitarian Bible Society was founded in 1831.
Pope Gregory XVI in his 1844 encyclical Inter Praecipuas condemned both bible societies and "the publication, dissemination and possession of vernacular translations of sacred Scriptures", subsequently Catholics did not participate in the Society. The British and Foreign Bible Society extended its work to England, India and beyond. Auxiliary branches were set up all over the world which became Bible societies in their own right. Today the United Bible Societies co-ordinates the work of these separate Bible societies; each Bible society is a non-denominational Christian network which works to translate, revise and distribute affordable Bibles in their own land, according to the demands of all the churches in that land. Nowadays Bible societies print Bibles according to the canons of the countries they are in e.g. Protestant, Catholic or Orthodox, inter-confessional versions. Bible societies work with other Christian agencies and Bible translations are done on an ecumenical basis, through the Forum of Bible Agencies International.
In the United States, Bible societies flourished in the first half of the 19th century. In addition to the American Bible Society and the International Bible Society, a number of state and regional Bible societies were established prior to the Civil War and remain active to this day distributing Bibles and other literature to prisons and shelters. Most of these regional societies are affiliated with the National Association of State and Regional Bible Societies The oldest Bible society in the United States is the Pennsylvania Bible Society, founded in 1808; the Bible society movement spread west as far as Chicago where the Chicago Bible Society was founded in 1840, making it only five years younger than the city itself. The United Bible Societies is a worldwide association of Bible societies; as of January 2011 the UBS has 147 member societies, working in more than 200 countries and territories. They include: Bible advocacy Bible translation Bible in the Schools Massachusetts Bible Society Gillis, James M..
"Bible Societies". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company. McCauley, J. C.. Truth Versus Dogma. Chicago: Moody Press. Attriburion: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Darlow, Thomas Herbert. "Bible Societies". I
Shangdi written "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the Tian of Zhou theology. Although in Chinese religion the usage of "Tian" to refer to the absolute God of the universe is predominant, "Shangdi" continues to be used in a variety of traditions, including certain philosophical schools, certain strains of Confucianism, some Chinese salvationist religions and Chinese Protestant Christianity. In addition, it is common to use such term among contemporary and secular Chinese, Hong Kong, Taiwanese societies for a singular universal deity and a non-religion translation for the God in Christianity. "Shang Di" is the pinyin romanization of two Chinese characters. The first – 上, Shàng – means "high", "highest", "first", "primordial"; the word itself is derived from Three "Huang" and Five "Di", including Yellow Emperor, the mythological originator of the Chinese civilization and the ancestor of the Chinese race.
However, 帝 refers to the High God of Shang, thus means "deity". Thus, the name Shangdi should be translated as "Highest Deity", but have the implied meaning of "Primordial Deity" or "First Deity" in Classical Chinese; the deity preceded the title and the emperors of China were named after him in their role as Tianzi, the sons of Heaven. In the classical texts the highest conception of the heavens is identified with Shang Di, described somewhat anthropomorphically, he is associated with the pole star. The conceptions of the Supreme Ruler and of the Sublime Heavens afterward coalesce or absorb each other; the earliest references to Shangdi are found in oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty in the 2nd millennium BC, although the work Classic of History claims yearly sacrifices were made to him by Emperor Shun before the Xia Dynasty. Shangdi was regarded as the ultimate spiritual power by the ruling elite of the Huaxia during the Shang dynasty: he was believed to control victory in battle, success or failure of harvests, weather conditions such as the floods of the Yellow River, the fate of the kingdom.
Shangdi seems to have ruled a hierarchy of other gods controlling nature, as well as the spirits of the deceased. These ideas were mirrored or carried on by the Taoist Jade Emperor and his celestial bureaucracy. Shangdi was more transcendental than immanent, only working through lesser gods. Shangdi was considered too distant to be worshiped directly by ordinary mortals. Instead, the Shang kings proclaimed that Shangdi had made himself accessible through the souls of their royal ancestors, both in the legendary past and in recent generations as the departed Shang kings joined him in the afterlife; the emperors could thus entreat Shangdi directly. Many of the oracle bone inscriptions record these petitions praying for rain but seeking approval from Shangdi for state action. In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Shangdi was conflated with Heaven; the Duke of Zhou justified his clan's usurpation through the concept of the Mandate of Heaven, which proposed that the protection of Shangdi was not connected to their clan membership but by their just governance.
Shangdi was not just a tribal but instead an unambiguously good moral force, exercising its power according to exacting standards. It could thus be lost and "inherited" by a new dynasty, provided they upheld the proper rituals. Nonetheless, the connection of many rituals with the Shang clan meant that Shang nobles continued to rule several locations and to serve as court advisors and priests; the Duke of Zhou created an entire ceremonial city along strict cosmological principals to house the Shang aristocracy and the nine tripods representing Huaxia sovereignty. The Shang's lesser houses, the shi knightly class, developed directly into the learned Confucian gentry and scholars who advised the Zhou rulers on courtly etiquette and ceremony; the Confucian classics carried on and ordered the earlier traditions, including the worship of Shangdi. All of them include references: The Four Books mention Shangdi as well but, as it is a compilation, the references are much more sparse and abstract. Shangdi appears most in earlier works: this pattern may reflect increasing rationalization of Shangdi over time, the shift from a known and arbitrary tribal god to a more abstract and philosophical concept, or his conflation and absorption by other deities.
By the time of the Han dynasty, the influential Confucian scholar Zheng Xuan glossed: "Shangdi is another name for Heaven". Dong Zhongshu said: "Heaven is the ultimate authority, the king of gods who should be admired by the king". In eras, he was known by the name "Heavenly Ruling Highest Deity" and, in this usage, he is conflated with the Taoist Jade Emperor. In Shang sources, Di is described as the supreme ordainer of the events which occur in nature, such as wind and thunder, in human affairs and politics. All the gods of nature are conceived as his manifestations. Shang sources attest his cosmological Five Ministries. Di, or Tian, as texts explain, did not receive cult for being too remote for living humans to sacrifice to directl
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese; because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Mandarin is placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers. Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast; this is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones; the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.
Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, which have been lost in southern dialect groups. The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects influential; some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore, it is used as one of the working languages of the United Nations. It is one of the most used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally; the English word "mandarin" meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties.
When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or "language of the officials". In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, called "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects, it is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China, the de facto official language of the Republic of China, one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan, it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines,but not as Guānhuà. Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà.
The alternative term Běifānghuà, or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language; the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Xiang in central China, Min and Yue on the southeast coast.
The Language Atlas of China distinguishes three further groups: Jin, Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan. After the fall of the Northern Song and during the reign of the Jin and Yuan dynasties in northern China, a common speech developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital, a language referred to as Old Mandarin. New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu poetry; the rhyming conventions of the new verse were codified in a rime dictionary called the Zhongyuan Yinyun. A radical departure from the rime table tradition that had evolved over the previous centuries, this dictionary contains a wealth of information on the phonology of Old Mandarin. Further sources are the'Phags-pa script based on the Ti
The pilcrow called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, alinea, or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs. It is present in Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN; the pilcrow can be used as an indent for separate paragraphs or to designate a new paragraph in one long piece of copy, as Eric Gill did in his 1930s book An Essay on Typography. The pilcrow was a type of rubrication used in the Middle Ages to mark a new train of thought, before the convention of visually discrete paragraphs was commonplace; the pilcrow is drawn similar to a lowercase q reaching from descender to ascender height. It may be drawn with the bowl stretching further downwards, resembling a backwards D; the word pilcrow originates from the Greek word paragraphos. This was rendered in Old French as paragraphe and changed to pelagraphe; the earliest reference of the modern pilcrow is in 1440 with the Middle English word pylcrafte. The first way to divide sentences into groups in Ancient Greek was the original paragraphos, a horizontal line in the margin to the left of the main text.
As the paragraphos became more popular, the horizontal line changed into the Greek letter Gamma and into litterae notabiliores, which were enlarged letters at the beginning of a paragraph. This notation soon changed to the letter K, an abbreviation for the Latin word kaput, which translates as "head", i.e. it marks the head of a new thesis. To mark a new section, the Latin word capitulum, which translates as "little head", was used, the letter C came to mark a new section in 300 BC. In the 1100s, C had replaced K as the symbol for a new chapter. Rubricators added one or two vertical bars to the C to stylize it. Scribes would leave space before paragraphs to allow rubricators to draw the pilcrow. With the introduction of the printing press, space before paragraphs was still left for rubricators to draw by hand; this is. The pilcrow remains in use in modern time in the following ways: In legal writing, it is used whenever one must cite a specific paragraph within pleadings, law review articles, statutes, or other legal documents and materials.
In academic writing, it is sometimes used as an in-text referencing tool to make reference to a specific paragraph from a document that does not contain page numbers, allowing the reader to find where that particular idea or statistic was sourced. The pilcrow sign followed by a number indicates the paragraph number from the top of the page, it is used when citing books or journal articles. In proofreading, it indicates that one paragraph should be split into two or more separate paragraphs; the proofreader inserts the pilcrow at the point. In some high-church Anglican and Episcopal churches, it is used in the printed order of service to indicate that instructions follow. King's College, Cambridge uses this convention in the service booklet for the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols; this is analogous to the writing of these instructions in red in some rubrication conventions. Online, it is used in some wikis to denote permalinks; the pilcrow is used in desktop publishing software such as desktop word processors and page layout programs to mark the presence of a carriage return control character at the end of a paragraph.
It is used as the icon on a toolbar button that shows or hides the pilcrow and similar hidden characters, including tabs and page breaks. In typing programs, it marks a return; the pilcrow may indicate a footnote in a convention using a sequence of distinct typographic symbols in sequence to distinguish the footnotes on a given page. The pilcrow symbol is available in the default hardware codepage 437 of IBM PCs at code point 20, sharing its position with the ASCII control code DC4; the pilcrow character was in the 1984 Multinational Character Set extension of ASCII at 0xB6, from where it was inherited by ISO/IEC 8859-1 and by Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN. The html entity is ¶. In LaTeX, the pilcrow glyph is invoked by \ textpilcrow. Apart from U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN, Unicode defines U+204B ⁋ REVERSED PILCROW SIGN, U+2761 ❡ CURVED STEM PARAGRAPH SIGN ORNAMENT, U+2E3F ⸿ CAPITULUM. Classic Mac OS and macOS: ⌥ Opt+7 Vim, in insert mode: Ctrl+K PI DOS Alt code: Alt+20. Windows Alt code: Alt+0182 or Alt+20.
Depending on the font used, this character varies in appearance, in some cases, may be replaced by an alternate glyph entirely. TeX: \P X Window System, with a compose key: Compose, ⇧ Shift+P, ⇧ Shift+P Mobile devices, including tablets, may require additional software. Tools may be required to generate a pilcrow, or other special characters. In Chinese, the trad
Bible translations into Chinese
Bible translations into Chinese include translations of the whole or parts of the Bible into any of the levels and varieties of the Chinese language. Publication of early or partial translations began in the nineteenth century, but progress was encumbered by denominational rivalries, theological clashes, linguistic disputes, practical challenges at least until the publication of the Protestant Chinese Union Version in 1919, which became the basis of standard versions in use today. Although the motive for making translations was to spread the Gospel, there were further consequences. Access to the Bible in their own language made it easier for Chinese to develop forms of Christianity not dependent on missionaries and foreign churches. Translations designed to be read aloud were significant not only for Christian believers, but for Chinese who wanted models for writing in the vernacular. Since regional languages or dialects could not be adequately written using Chinese characters, phonetic systems and type faces had to be invented.
The task of translation motivated missionaries to study Chinese contributing to the development of Sinology. The Bible the Old Testament offered Chinese revolutionaries such as the leaders of the nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion an apocalyptic vision of social justice on which to base their claims. Protestant missionaries pioneered the translation into local and regional languages, as well as the printing, distribution of Bibles. In the nineteenth century, missionaries translated the Bible and taught it in churches and colleges, providing a resource to spread knowledge of the Christian religion. By the twentieth century, Chinese scholars and preachers studied and quoted the Bible, contributing to distinctive forms of Chinese Christianity; the early Protestant translations were made by individuals, sometimes in consultation with others or using manuscript translations from earlier workers. The first Protestant effort was made around 1800 by the Rev. William Willis Moseley, of Daventry, in Northamptonshire, England.
He found, in the British Museum, a manuscript translation in Chinese of a Harmony of the four Gospels, the Acts, all of Paul's Epistles. He published “A Memoir on the Importance and Practicability of Translating and Printing the Holy Scriptures in the Chinese Language; the Archbishop of Canterbury recommended that the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge print the Chinese Bible. Two independent and simultaneous efforts were made; the Anglo-Hindoo College, of Fort William, in Calcutta, established in 1800, created a department devoted to the translation of the Scriptures into Asian languages the Indian vernaculars, but including Chinese. Professor Hovhannes Ghazarian, an Armenian and educated in Macau, began by translating the Gospel of St. Matthew, which he finished in 1807. Ghazarian moved to Serampore, where the work was continued under the care of Dr. Joshua Marshman; the British and Foreign Bible Society published The New Testament in 1813, the whole Bible in 1822. This was the first known entire printed version of the Scriptures in Chinese.
While Marshman's work was progressing at Serampore, the Rev. Robert Morrison pursued the same project in Canton. Morrison, sponsored by the London Missionary Society, had arrived in 1807 as the first Protestant missionary to China; the translation of the Scriptures became his primary task because public preaching of the Gospel in the Chinese Empire was prohibited. Before leaving England he had made a copy of the manuscript Harmony of the Gospels referred to above, which he used as the basis of his translation of the New Testament, completed in 1813, he was joined by the Rev. William Milne, but a few days after his arrival in Macau he was compelled to leave and go to Malacca. Though separated, the two friends co-operated in translating the Old Testament; the task was finished in November, 1819, was revised by Morrison. It was printed from wood blocks and published, in 21 volumes, in 1823; the British and Foreign Bible Society contributed more than 10,000 pounds for the translation and circulation of this and successive editions.
Marshman remarked that he and Robert Morrison profited by each other's labors. Yet they were never able compare and revise their work. Morrison's version, like that of Marshman, was intended to be a faithful, literal translation, not an elegant or literary one. Morrison himself made preparation for a revision. In a letter to the Bible Society, he wrote: "I make it my daily study to correct the Chinese version of the Scriptures; these are sent to the college and preserved, or employed, as may appear best." He hoped that his son, John Robert Morrison, would at some future time revise Morrison and Milne's translation. The death of Morrison frustrated the plan, for the son, having succeeded to his father's office as Government translator, did not have time to devote to the work; the next translation was made by Walter Henry Medhurst, Karl Gutzlaff, Elijah Coleman Bridgman. John R. Morrison devoted; these men completed the New Testament in 1835.