The Kangxi Emperor, personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang; the Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River, retaining Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China; the Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing", which lasted for several generations after his death.
His court accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary. Born on 4 May 1654 to the Shunzhi Emperor and Empress Xiaokangzhang in Jingren Palace, the Forbidden City, the Kangxi Emperor was given the personal name Xuanye, he was enthroned at the age of seven, on 7 February 1661. His era name "Kangxi", only started to be used on 18 February 1662, the first day of the following lunar year. Sinologist Herbert Giles, drawing on contemporary sources, described the Kangxi Emperor as "fairly tall and well proportioned, he loved all manly exercises, devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, pitted with smallpox." Before the Kangxi Emperor came to the throne, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang had appointed the powerful men Sonin, Suksaha and Oboi as regents. Sonin died after his granddaughter became Empress Xiaochengren, leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi in politics. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi seized absolute power as sole regent; the Kangxi Emperor and the rest of the imperial court acquiesced to this arrangement.
In the spring of 1662, the regents ordered a Great Clearance in southern China that evacuated the entire population from the seacoast to counter a resistance movement started by Ming loyalists under the leadership of Taiwan-based Ming general Zheng Chenggong titled Koxinga. In 1669, the Kangxi Emperor had Oboi arrested with the help of his grandmother Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang, who had raised him, and began taking personal control of the empire. He listed three issues of concern: flood control of the Yellow River; the Grand Empress Dowager influenced him and he took care of her himself in the months leading up to her death in 1688. The main army of the Qing Empire, the Eight Banners Army, was in decline under the Kangxi Emperor, it was smaller than it had been at its peak under Hong Taiji and in the early reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. In addition, the Green Standard Army was still powerful with generals such as Tuhai, Fei Yanggu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Peigong, Shi Lang, Mu Zhan, Shun Shike and Wang Jingbao.
The main reason for this decline was a change in system between the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' reigns. The Kangxi Emperor continued using the traditional military system implemented by his predecessors, more efficient and stricter. According to the system, a commander who returned from a battle alone would be put to death, for a foot soldier; this was meant to motivate both commanders and soldiers alike to fight valiantly in war because there was no benefit for the sole survivor in a battle. By the Qianlong Emperor's reign, military commanders had become lax and the training of the army was deemed less important as compared to during the previous emperors' reigns; this was. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in 1673 when Wu Sangui's forces overran most of southwest China and he tried to ally himself with local generals such as Wang Fuchen; the Kangxi Emperor employed generals including Zhou Peigong and Tuhai to suppress the rebellion, granted clemency to common people caught up in the war.
He intended to lead the armies to crush the rebels but his subjects advised him against it. The Kangxi Emperor used Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers to crush the rebels while the Manchu Banners took a backseat; the revolt ended with victory for Qing forces in 1681. In 1683, the naval forces of the Ming loyalists on Taiwan—organized under the Zheng dynasty as the Kingdom of Tungning—were defeated off Penghu by 300-odd ships under the Qing admiral Shi Lang. Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered Tungning a few days and Taiwan became part of the Qing Empire. Zheng Keshuang moved to Beijing, joined the Qing nobility as the "Duke Haicheng", was inducted into the Eight Banners as a member of the Han Plain Red Banner, his soldiers—including the rattan-shield troops —were entered into the Eight Banners, notably serving against Russian Cossacks at Albazin. A score of Ming princes had joined the Zheng dynasty on Taiwan, including Prince Zhu Shugui of Ningjing and Prince Honghuan, the son of Zhu Yihai.
Mongol invasions of Tibet
There were several Mongol invasions of Tibet. The earliest is the alleged plot to invade Tibet by Genghis Khan in 1206, considered anachronistic; the first confirmed campaign is the invasion of Tibet by the Mongol general Doorda Darkhan in 1240, a campaign of 30,000 troops that resulted in 500 casualties. The campaign was smaller than the full-scale invasions used by the Mongols against large empires; the purpose of this attack is unclear, is still in debate among Tibetologists. In the late 1240s Mongolian prince Godan invited Sakya lama Sakya Pandita, who urged other leading Tibetan figures to submit to Mongol authority; this is considered to have marked the beginning of Mongol rule over Tibet, as well as the establishment of patron and priest relationship between Mongols and Tibetans. These relations were continued by Kublai Khan, who founded the Mongol Yuan dynasty and granted authority over whole Tibet to Drogon Chogyal Phagpa, nephew of Sakya Pandita; the Sakya-Mongol administrative system and Yuan administrative rule over the region lasted until the mid-14th century, when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble.
In the early 17th century, the Oirat Mongols again conquered the region and established the Khoshut Khanate. Since the Mongols had intervened in Tibetan politics until the Qing conquest of Mongolia and Dzungaria. According to one traditional Tibetan account, the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan plotted to invade Tibet in 1206, but was dissuaded when the Tibetans promised to pay tribute to the Mongols. Modern scholars consider the account to be factually wrong. Genghis' campaign was targeted at the Tangut kingdom of Western Xia, not Tibet, there was no tribute being paid to the Mongols prior to 1240. There is no evidence of interaction between the two nations prior to Doorda Darkhan's invasion in 1240; the earliest real Mongol contact with the ethnic Tibetan people came in 1236, when a Tibetan chief near Wenxian submitted to the Mongols campaigning against the Jin dynasty in Sichuan. In 1240, the Mongol Prince Godan, Ögedei's son and Güyük's younger brother, "delegated the command of the Tibetan invasion to the Tangut general, Doorda Darqan".
The expedition was "the first instance of military conflict between the two nations". The attack consisted of 30,000 men and resulted in 500 casualties, along with the burning of the Kadampa monasteries of Rwa-sgreṅ and Rgyal-lha-khang; the campaign was smaller than the full-scale invasions used by the Mongols against large empires. According to Turrell V. Wylie, that much is in agreement among Tibetologists. However, the purpose of invasion is disputed among Tibetan scholars because of the abundance of anachronistic and factually erroneous sources. However, modern studies find that the oldest sources credit the Mongol scouts with burning Rgyal-lha-khang only, while a large number of Rwa-sgreng monks were slain; the bKa’-brgyud-pa monasteries of sTag-lung and ’Bri-gung, with their old link to the Western Xia dynasty, were spared because Doorda himself was a Tangut Buddhist. The ’Bri-gung abbot or, according to Petech, the Rwa-sgreng abbot, suggested the Mongols had invited the Sakya hierarch, Sakya Pandita.
After he met Godan, Sakya Pandita died there leaving his two nephews. Sakya Pandita convinced other monasteries in Central Tibet to align with the Mongols; the Mongols kept them as hostages referring symbolic surrender of Tibet. One view, considered the most traditional, is that the attack was a retaliation on Tibet caused by the Tibetan refusal to pay tribute. Wylie points out that the Tibetans stopped paying tribute in 1227, while Doorda Darkhan's invasion was in 1240, suggesting that the Mongols, not known for their empathy, would not wait over a decade to respond; the text from which this claim is based on makes other anachronistic mistakes, insisting that Genghis was planning to attack Tibet prior to Doorda Darkhan's invasion, when the real campaign was against the Tangut kingdom of Western Xia. Another theory, supported by Wylie, is that the military action was a reconnaissance campaign meant to evaluate the political situation in Tibet; the Mongols hoped to find a single monarch with whom they could threaten into submission, but instead found a Tibet, religiously and politically divided, without a central government.
A third view is that the troops were sent as raids and "looting parties", that the goal of the campaign was to pillage the "wealth amassed in the Tibetan monasteries". This is disputed, as the Mongols deliberately avoided attacking certain monasteries, a questionable decision if their only goal was profit. Whatever the purpose of the invasion, the Mongols withdrew in 1241, as all the Mongol princes were recalled back to Mongolia in preparation for the appointment of a successor to Ogedai Khan. In 1244, the Mongols returned to Tibet, they invited Sakya Pandita to Godan's camp, where he agreed to capitulate Tibet, after the Mongols threatened a full-scale invasion of the region. Sa-skya Pandita died in 1251 and his master Köten died at the same time. Möngke Khan became Khagan in the same year; some sources say there was a Mongolian invasion in 1251, in retribution for a failure to pay tribute, or in 1251-2'to take formal possession of the country'. In order to strengthen his control over Tibet, Möngke made Qoridai commander of the Mongol and Han troops in Tufan in 1251.
Two attacks are mentioned, one led by Dörbetei, the other by Qoridai, the double campaign struck fear into the Tibetans. Tibetan sources however only mention an attack on a place called Bod kyi-mon-mkhar-mgpon-po-gdong. Wyle is sceptical however of all of these sources, arguing that t
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Inner Asia. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Qiang and Lhoba peoples and is now inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 5,000 metres; the highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m above sea level. The Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories; the bulk of western and central Tibet was at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations. Thus Tibet remained a suzerainty of the Mongol and Chinese rulers in Nanjing and Beijing, with reasonable autonomy given to the Tibetan leaders; the eastern regions of Kham and Amdo maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while often falling more directly under Chinese rule after the Battle of Chamdo.
The current borders of Tibet were established in the 18th century. Following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area; the region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government. Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang, China; the region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of Chamdo, Tibet became incorporated into the People's Republic of China, the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising. Today, China governs western and central Tibet as the Tibet Autonomous Region while the eastern areas are now ethnic autonomous prefectures within Sichuan and other neighbouring provinces. There are tensions regarding dissident groups that are active in exile. Tibetan activists in Tibet have been arrested or tortured; the economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture, though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades.
The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, butter tea; the Tibetan name for their land, Bod བོད་, means "Tibet" or "Tibetan Plateau", although it meant the central region around Lhasa, now known in Tibetan as Ü. The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of Bod, is transcribed Bhö in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription, Bö in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Poi in Tibetan pinyin; some scholars believe the first written reference to Bod "Tibet" was the ancient Bautai people recorded in the Egyptian Greek works Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and Geographia, itself from the Sanskrit form Bhauṭṭa of the Indian geographical tradition. The modern Standard Chinese exonym for the ethnic Tibetan region is Zangqu, which derives by metonymy from the Tsang region around Shigatse plus the addition of a Chinese suffix, 区 qū, which means "area, region, ward".
Tibetan people and culture, regardless of where they are from, are referred to as Zang although the geographical term Xīzàng is limited to the Tibet Autonomous Region. The term Xīzàng was coined during the Qing dynasty in the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor through the addition of a prefix meaning "west" to Zang; the best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet is Tubo. This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century and as 吐蕃 in the 10th-century. In the Middle Chinese spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter, 土番 was pronounced thux-phjon and 吐蕃 was pronounced thux-pjon. Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet include Wusiguo, Wusizang and Tanggute. American Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in Chinese to revive the term Tubote for modern use in place of Xizang, on the grounds that Tubote more includes the entire Tibetan plateau rather than the Tibet Autonomous Region; the English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century.
Historical linguists agree that "Tibet" names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic Ṭībat orTūbātt, itself deriving from Turkic Töbäd, literally: "The Heights". Linguists classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family although the boundaries between'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be unclear. According to
Battle of Jao Modo
The Battle of Jao Modo known as the Battle of Zuunmod, was fought on June 12, 1696 on the banks of the upper Terelj river 60 kilometres east of the modern-day Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar. A Dzungar-Mongol army under the command of Galdan Boshugtu Khan was defeated by Qing armies led by the Kangxi Emperor; this decisive Qing victory in the early stages of the Dzungar–Qing Wars incorporated Khalkha Mongolia under Qing rule and relegated Dzungar Mongol forces to Inner Asia until they were defeated in 1758. Attempts by the Qing court to maintain an uneasy peace between the eastern Khalkha and western Dzungar-Oirat Mongols collapsed when in 1687 forces loyal to the Khalkha Tüsheet Khan killed the brother of the Dzungar Mongol leader Galdan Boshugtu Khan in battle as he attempted to support the rival Zasaghtu Khalkha tribe. In defiance of orders from the Kangxi Emperor and the 5th Dalai Lama, Galdan swept eastward into Khalka territory in 1688, forcing the Khalkha Buddhist spiritual leader, Jebtsundamba Khutuktu Zanabazar and nearly 20,000 Khalkha refugees to flee south into present day Inner Mongolia and seek the protection of the Kangxi Emperor.
Motivated by the threat posed by a strong, unified Mongol state under Dzungar rule, the Kangxi Emperor began preparations to defeat Galdan. After the Qing lured Galdan's forces closer to Beijing with promises of negotiating a peace treaty, Khalkha troops supported by the Qing army ambushed them in September 1690 at the battle of Ulan Butung, 350 kilometers directly north of Beijing near the western headwaters of the Liao River. Galdan managed to escape to the upper Kherlen River, about 1,000 kilometres northwest of Beijing, where he and his army encamped for the next six years. In 1691, the three Khalkha rulers declared themselves Qing vassals at Dolon Nor, ending the last remnants of the Yuan dynasty and allowing the Qing to assume the mantle of the Genghisid khans and merge the Khalkha forces into the Qing army; the Qing set about preparing the complex logistics necessary to support a planned 1696 expedition. This included procuring 1,333 carts, each carrying six shi of grain. In March 1696, the Kangxi Emperor departed Beijing leading 80,000 Eight Banner and Green Standard Army troops and 235 cannon on camel back on an 80-day trek northwest across the Gobi Desert to confront Galdan.
A second army was under the command of Fiyanggu, numbering 30,000 and to be reinforced with a further 10,000, was to trap Galdan, while a third, numbering 10,000, halted further to the east and would play no major part in the campaign. The Kangxi Emperor reached the Kherlen river on June 7, discovered Galdan had fled, was forced to turn back due to dwindling supplies. On June 12, 1696, 5000 of Galdan's troops blundered into the Fiyanggu's western army at the upper Terelj river. Trapped between the Emperor's two armies, the Dzungars had little choice; the terrain consisted of a small valley with the Terelj at the bottom surrounded by hills. Fighting off sharp shooters, Qing troops seized the surrounding hills and gained a strategic position, they bombarded Dzungar troops with their canons and advanced behind a wooden barricade. At noon, Galdan ordered all his troops to the center of the Qing advance, hoping to break their army. Although the Qing ordered dismounted cavalry into the fight, their center began to collapse.
A detachment of Manchu cavalry hit the Dzungar camp from behind, capturing their supplies. As the Dzungars wavered, the Qing launched a massive counterattack supported by artillery. Galdan lost control of his troops, many of whom fled. Once encircled, the Dzungars were destroyed. Galdan's wife, Anu was killed by Qing artillery as she led a counterattack which enabled her husband to escape. Defeated, Galdan fled west to the Altai mountains with his remaining guard of 40 or 50 men but died of disease on April 4, 1697 near Khovd; the Kangxi Emperor's victory at Jao Modo represented the first time the Chinese military had tamed warring tribes at its frontier. At the same time it ended Galdan's dreams of reviving a pan-Mongolian central Asian empire. Much of modern-day Mongolia fell under Qing control. Although Galdan had been defeated, the Dzungars were pushed to the western edges of the Qing empire where successive emperors would use Mongol allies, including Galdan's nephew Tsewang Rabtan, a long-time anti-Galdan Oirat chief who succeeded Galdan as the new Dzungar khan, to contain them until their ultimate defeat at the battles of Oroi-Jalatu and Khurungun in 1758
Tibet under Qing rule
Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912. During the Qing rule of Tibet, the region was controlled by the Qing dynasty established by the Manchus in China. In the history of Tibet, Qing administrative rule was established after a Qing army defeated the Dzungars who occupied Tibet in 1720, lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, although the region retained a degree of political autonomy under the Dalai Lamas; the Qing emperors appointed imperial residents known as the Ambans to Tibet, who commanded over 2,000 troops stationed in Lhasa and reported to the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government body that oversaw the empire's frontier regions. The protectorate that China had established over Tibet in the 18th century remained into the 20th century, but by the late 19th century Chinese hegemony over Tibet remained in theory but in actuality was a dead letter given the weight of China's domestic and foreign-relations burdens. However, the Chinese began to take steps to reassert their authority shortly after the British expedition to Tibet.
Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1641 overthrew the prince of Tsang and made the 5th Dalai Lama the highest spiritual and political authority in Tibet, establishing the regime known as Ganden Phodrang. The time of the 5th Dalai Lama was a period of rich cultural development. With Güshi Khan who founded the Khoshut Khanate as a uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama conducted foreign policy independently of the Qing, on the basis of his spiritual authority amongst the Mongolians, he acted as a mediator between Mongol tribes, between the Mongols and the Qing Kangxi Emperor. The Dalai Lama would assign territories to Mongol tribes, these decisions were confirmed by the Emperor. In 1674, the Emperor asked the Dalai Lama to send Mongolian troops to help suppress a rebellion in Yunnan; the Dalai Lama agreed to do so, but advised Kangxi to resolve the conflict in Yunnan by allotting fiefs instead of military action. This was a turning point for the Emperor, who began to take action to deal with the Mongols directly, rather than through the Dalai Lama.
The 5th Dalai Lama died in 1682. His regent, Desi Sangye Gyatso, continued to act in his name. In 1688, Galdan Boshugtu Khan of the Khoshut defeated the Khalkha Mongols and went on to battle Qing forces; this contributed to the loss of Tibet's role as mediator between the Emperor. Several Khalkha tribes formally submitted directly to Kangxi. Galdan retreated to Dzungaria; when Sangye Gyatso complained to Kangxi that he could not control the Mongols of Kokonor in 1693, Kangxi annexed Kokonor, giving it the name it bears today, Qinghai. He annexed Tachienlu in eastern Kham at this time; when Kangxi destroyed Galdan in 1696, a Qing ruse involving the name of the Dalai Lama was involved. About this time, some Dzungars informed the Kangxi Emperor that the 5th Dalai Lama had long since died, he sent envoys to Lhasa to inquire. This prompted Sangye Gyatso to make Tsangyang Gyatso the 6th Dalai Lama public, he was enthroned in 1697. Tsangyang Gyatso enjoyed a lifestyle that included drinking, the company of women, writing love songs.
In 1702, he refused to take the vows of a Buddhist monk. The regent, under pressure from the Emperor and Lhazang Khan of the Khoshut, resigned in 1703. In 1705, Lhazang Khan used the sixth Dalai Lama's escapades as excuse to take control of Lhasa; the regent Sanggye Gyatso, who had allied himself with the Dzungar Khanate, was murdered, the Dalai Lama was sent to Beijing. He died on the way, near Kokonor, ostensibly from illness but leaving lingering suspicions of foul play. Lhazang Khan appointed a new Dalai Lama who, was not accepted by the Gelugpa school. Kelzang Gyatso became a rival candidate. Three Gelug abbots of the Lhasa area appealed to the Dzungar Khanate, which invaded Tibet in 1717, deposed Lhazang Khan's pretender to the position of Dalai Lama, killed Lhazang Khan and his entire family; the Dzungars proceeded to loot and kill throughout Lhasa and its environs. They destroyed a small force in the Battle of the Salween River which the Emperor had sent to clear traditional trade routes.
In response to the Dzungar occupation of Tibet, a Chinese expedition sent by the Kangxi Emperor, together with Tibetan forces under Polhanas of Tsang and Kangchennas, the governor of Western Tibet, expelled the Dzungars from Tibet in 1720. They brought Kelzang Gyatso with them from Kumbum to Lhasa and he was installed as the seventh Dalai Lama. A Chinese protectorate over Tibet was established at this time, with a garrison at Lhasa, Kham was annexed to Sichuan. In 1721, the Qing established a government in Lhasa consisting of a council of three Tibetan ministers, headed by Kangchennas. A Khalkha prince was made official representative in Tibet of the Qing. Another Khalkha directed the military; the Dalai Lama's role at this time was purely symbolic, but still influential because of the Mongols' religious beliefs. The Qing came as patrons of the Khoshut, liberators of Tibet from the Dzungar, supporters of Kelzang Gyatso, but when they replaced the Khoshut as rulers of Kokonor and Tibet, they earned the resentment of the Khoshut and the Tibetans of Kokonor.
Lobsang Danjin, a grandson of Güshi Khan, led a rebellion in 1723. 200,000 Tibetans and Mongols attacked Xining. Central Tibet did not support the rebellion. In fact, Polhanas blocked the rebels' retreat from Qing retaliation; the r
Polhané Sönam Topgyé
Polhané Sönam Topgyé was one of the most important political personalities of Tibet in the first half of the 18th century. Between 1728 and 1747 he was the ruling prince of Tibet and carried royal titles during the period of Qing rule of Tibet, he is known as a fearsome warrior and a grand strategist. After the troubled years under the reign of Lhazang Khan, the bloody invasion of Tsering Dhondup and the civil war, his government ushered in a long period of stability and internal and external peace for Tibet. Polhané Sönam Topgyé was born in 1689 in Polha as the son of the general Pema Gyalpo and his wife Drolma Butri, his father was an experienced warrior who took part in the war against Ladakh in 1679-1684. He participated in campaigns against Bhutan and Nepal, his forefathers were local officials in Tsang in the 17th century. It was here. In his young years he received teachings in the Mindroling Monastery which belonged to the Nyingma school, by the Panchen Lama. While his given name was Sönam Topgyé, he is known by the cognomen Polhané.
Shortly after his marriage in 1707, Polhané traveled to Lhasa where he was presented to the ruler Lhabzang Khan. The ruler confirmed him in his possession of the estate that he had inherited from his deceased father. Now he was educated in the Ministry of Finance in Lhasa. After some years he was appointed district judge in Gyangtse. In 1714 he received his first military command, he led an entire detachment against Bhutan, although the war as such was lost by the Tibetans. After the invasion of Tibet by the Dzungars he took part in the organization of the Tibetan defense lines, he was present during the final defense of Lhasa. Lhasa fell in the hands of the Dzungars because of treason from some defenders, Lhabzang Khan was killed in the melée. Pholhané managed to take refuge in the Drepung Monastery. In the following months the Dzungars tried to eliminate followers of Lhabzang Khan. Pholhané was brought naked through the streets of Lhasa. After having been whipped with 15 lashes he was cast in prison.
He managed to survive. He was released through the intervention of Tagtsepa, leader of the Tibetan government, formed under the Dzungars. Pholhané returned to Tsang. Here he began to collaborate with Khangchenné Sönam Gyalpo, appointed governor of Ngari by Lhabzang Khan and continued to rule there in spite of the Dzungars, they organized resistance against the invaders until the grand Chinese army sent by the Kangxi Emperor marched into Lhasa in September 1720. After their arrival to Lhasa, the representatives of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty organized a provisional military government under the general Yansin. After the return of the imperial army, a garrison of 3,000 men stayed in Lhasa; this troop was replaced in 1723. Two officials called zongli and two other termed xieli were placed as representatives of the emperor and advisers to the Tibetan government; the provisional military government was replaced in 1721 by a cabinet under the leadership of Khangchenné, who retained the jurisdiction over Ngari.
The other two ministers were Lumpané Tashi Gyalpo. Khangchenné appointed Polhané as personal adjutant, he received the jurisdiction over the Tsang province, he submitted a proposal that the hundreds of Nyingma monasteries and temples, ruined by the Dzungars should be restored with government assistance. This was taken up badly by many by the Seventh Dalai Lama and his father who viewed the Nyimgma as heretic. In 1723 he and Charaba Lotro Gyalpo were appointed regular members of the cabinet, which from now on consisted of five members; the basic principle of this new administrative structure of Tibet was, that the members of the cabinet acted as ruling princes over the regions standing under them, having their particular military resources and means of income. This weakened the position of Tibet vis-à-vis its neighbours, but raised the danger of inner dissent, if the leading politicians could not agree. In fact there was great disharmony between the cabinet members from the start; the tension exploded in 1727 when Khangchenné died under the knives of his peers.
Polhané was luckily absent from Lhasa at the time, since his wife was ill and he had hastened to her sickbed at his estate. After Khangchenné's assassination, Ngaphöpa, Lumpané and Charaba took over power in Lhasa, supported by the father of the Dalai Lama, Sönam Dargye, they mobilized the troops in their respective territories, in particular from Kongpo and Ü. 300 men were sent to catch Polhané, but failed to do so. The latter boded up troops from Tsang, he allied with Khangchenné's brother Gashiba Tseten Tashi who had taken over governance in Ngari in 1725. Meanwhile, he sent an express envoy to inform the court in China. After a half year of fighting at Gyangtse, Ngaphöpa was defeated. Polhané marched towards Lhasa with 9,000 troops, occupied the city and laid siege to the Potala Palace where his opponents and the ambans had taken refuge. Dalai Lama was allowed to take sanctuary in the Drepung Monastery, but Polhané's adversaries were taken prisoners on 5 July 1728. Polhané communicated his victory to the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
As the imperial troops arrived on 4 September 1728 the civil war had been