India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Fishing in India
Fishing in India is a major industry in its coastal states, employing over 14 million people. In 2016-17, the country exported 11,34,948 metric tonnes of seafood worth US$5.78 billion, frozen shrimp being the top item of export. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, fish production has increased more than tenfold since 1947 and doubled between 1990 and 2010. India has 8,129 kilometres of marine coastline, 3,827 fishing villages and 1,914 traditional fish landing centers. India's fresh water resources consist of 195,210 kilometres of rivers and canals, 2.9 million hectares of minor and major reservoirs, 2.4 million hectares of ponds and lakes, about 0.8 million hectares of flood plain wetlands and water bodies. As of 2010, the marine and freshwater resources offered a combined sustainable catch fishing potential of over 4 million metric tonnes of fish. In addition, India's water and natural resources offer a tenfold growth potential in aquaculture from 2010 harvest levels of 3.9 million metric tonnes of fish, if India were to adopt fishing knowledge, regulatory reforms and sustainability policies.
Historical texts like Kautilya's Arthashastra and King Someswara's Manasollasa refer to fish culture. For centuries, India has had a traditional practice of fish culture in small ponds. Significant advances in productivity were made in the early nineteenth century with the controlled breeding of carp in tanks where river conditions are simulated. Brackishwater farming was done on an old system where man-made impediments in coastal wetlands and salt resistant deep water paddy fields. Fishing in India contributed over 1 percent of India's annual gross domestic product in 2008. Fishing in India employs about 14.5 million people. To harvest the economic benefits from fishing, India has adopted exclusive economic zone, stretching 200 nautical miles into the Indian Ocean, encompasses more than 2 million square kilometers. In addition to this marine zone, India has about 14,000 km² of brackish water available for aquaculture, about 16,000 km² of freshwater lakes and swamps. In 1990, there were 1.7 million full-time fishermen, 1.3 million part-time fishermen, 2.3 million occasional fishermen, many of whom worked as saltmakers, ferrymen, or seamen, or operated boats for hire.
In the early 1990s, the fishing fleet consisted of 180,000 traditional craft powered by sails or oars, 26,000 motorized traditional craft, some 34,000 mechanized boats. Fish production rose from 800,000 tons in FY 1950 to 4.1 million tons in the early 1990s. From 1990 through 2010, Indian fish industry accelerated, reaching a total marine and freshwater fish production to about 8 million metric tons. In 2006, Indian central government initiated a dedicated organization focused on fisheries, under its Ministry of Agriculture. Special efforts have been made to promote extensive and intensive inland fish farming, modernize coastal fisheries, encourage deep-sea fishing through joint ventures; these efforts led to a more than fourfold increase in coastal fish production from 520,000 tons in FY 1950 to 3.35 million tons in FY 2013. The increase in inland fish production was more dramatic, increasing eightfold from 218,000 tons in FY 1950 to 6.10 million tons in FY 2013. The value of fish and processed fish exports increased from less than 1 percent of the total value of exports in FY 1960 to 3.6 percent in FY 1993.
Between 1990 and 2007, fish production in India has grown at a higher rate than food grains, milk and other food items. Indian inland waters contribute 62–65% of the total fisheries production. According to Indian constitution, the power of enacting laws is split between India's central government and the Indian states; the state legislatures of India have the power to make laws and regulations with respect to a number of subject-matters, including water, fisheries, as well as the preservation and improvement of stock and the prevention of animal disease. National laws include the British-era [Indian Fisheries Act, 1897, which penalizes the killing of fish by poisoning water and by using explosives; the banning of trawling by chartered foreign vessels and the speedy motorization of traditional fishing craft in the 1980s led to a quantum jump in marine fish production in the late 1980s. The export of marine products rose from 97,179 tons in FY 1987 to 210,800 tons in FY 1992. Fisheries research and training institutions are supported by central and state governments.
The principal fisheries research institutions which operate under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research are the Fishery Survey of India, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute at Kochi, the Central Institute of Fisheries Education at Mumbai, the Central Inland Fisheries Institute at Barrackpore in West Bengal, Central Fisheries Corporation at Kolkata, the Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries at Bangalore and the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology at Kochi in Kerala. Fishery training is provided by the Central Institute for Fishery Education in Mumbai, which has ancillary institutions at Barrackpore in Uttar Pradesh and Hyderabad in Telangana; the Govern
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing line is as durable as and comparable to a string. Important parameters of a fishing line are its length and weight. Factors that may determine what line an angler chooses for a given fishing environment include breaking strength, knot strength, UV resistance, limpness, abrasion resistance, visibility. Most modern lines are made from silk. Fish are caught with a fishing line by encouraging a fish to bite on a fish hook. A fish hook will pierce the mouthparts of a fish and is barbed to make escape less likely. Another method is to use a gorge, buried in the bait such that it would be swallowed end first; the tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured. Fishing with a hook and line is called angling. In addition to the use of the hook and line used to catch a fish, a heavy fish may be landed by using a landing net or a hooked pole called a gaff. Trolling is a technique.
Trolling from a moving boat is a technique of big-game fishing and is used to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Trolling is a freshwater angling technique used to catch salmon, northern pike and walleye; this technique allows anglers to cover a large body of water in a short time. Long-line fishing known as a trot line is a commercial fishing technique that uses many baited hooks hanging from a single line. Snagging is a technique. A large treble hook with a heavy sinker is cast into a river containing a large amount of fish, such as a Salmon, is jerked and reeled in. Due to the illegal nature of this method some practitioners have added methods to disguise the practice, such as adding bait or piercing the jerking motion; as written in 1667 by Samuel Pepys, the fishing lines in his time were made from catgut. Silk fishing lines were used around 1724. Modern fishing lines intended for spinning, spin cast, or bait casting reels are entirely made from artificial substances, including nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride, Dacron and UHMWPE.
The most common type is monofilament, made of a single strand. Fishermen use monofilament because of its buoyant characteristics and its ability to stretch under load; the line stretch has advantages, such as dampening the force when setting the hook and when fighting strong fish. On far distances the dampening may become a disadvantage. Other alternatives to standard nylon monofilament lines have been introduced made of copolymers or fluorocarbon, or a combination of the two materials. Fluorocarbon fishing line is made of the fluoropolymer PVDF and it is valued for its refractive index, similar to that of water, making it less visible to fish. Fluorocarbon is a denser material, therefore, is not nearly as buoyant as monofilament. Anglers utilize fluorocarbon when they need their baits to stay closer to the bottom without the use of heavy sinkers. There are braided fishing lines and thermally fused lines known as'superlines' for their small diameter, lack of stretch, great strength relative to standard nylon monofilament lines.
Braided, thermally fused, chemically fused varieties of'superlines' are now available. Fly lines consist of a tough braided or monofilament core, wrapped in a thick waterproof plastic sheath of polyvinyl chloride. In the case of floating fly lines, the PVC sheath is embedded with many'microballoons' or air bubbles, may be impregnated with silicone or other lubricants to give buoyancy and reduce wear. In order to fill up the reel spool and ensure an adequate reserve in case of a run by a powerful fish, fly lines are attached to a secondary line at the butt section, called backing. Fly line backing is composed of braided dacron or gelspun monofilaments. All fly lines are equipped with a leader of monofilament or fluorocarbon fishing line tapered in diameter, referred to by the'X-size' of its final tip section, or tippet. Tippet size is between 0X and 8X, where 0X is the thickest diameter and 8X is the thinnest. There are exceptions to this, tippet sizes do exist outside of the 0X-8X parameter. Tenkara lines are special lines used for the fixed-line fishing method of tenkara.
Traditionally these are furled lines the same length as the tenkara rod. Although original to Japan, these lines are similar to the British tradition of furled leader, they consist of several strands being twisted together in decreasing numbers toward the tip of the line, thus creating a taper that allows the line to cast the fly. It serves the same purpose as the fly-line, they may be tied of various materials, but most are made of monofilament. Wire lines are used as leaders to prevent the fishing line from being severed by toothy fish. Braided from several metal strands, wire lines may be made of stainless steel, titanium, or a combination of metal alloys coated with plastic. Stainless steel line leaders provide: - bite protection - it is hard for fish to cut the steel wire, regardless of jaw and teeth strength and sharpness, - abrasion resistance - sharp rocks and objects can damage other lines, while steel wire can cut through most of the materials, - single wire leaders are not as flexible as multi strand steel wire, but are strong and tough, - multi strand steel wire leaders are flexible, but ar
Crustaceans form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, crayfish, krill and barnacles. The crustacean group is treated as a subphylum, because of recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, comprises all animals in the Pancrustacea clade other than hexapods; some crustaceans are more related to insects and other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans. The 67,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at 0.1 mm, to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 3.8 m and a mass of 20 kg. Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, they are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insects and chelicerates, by the possession of biramous limbs, by their larval forms, such as the nauplius stage of branchiopods and copepods. Most crustaceans are free-living aquatic animals, but some are terrestrial, some are parasitic and some are sessile; the group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian, includes living fossils such as Triops cancriformis, which has existed unchanged since the Triassic period.
More than 10 million tons of crustaceans are produced by fishery or farming for human consumption, the majority of it being shrimp and prawns. Krill and copepods are not as fished, but may be the animals with the greatest biomass on the planet, form a vital part of the food chain; the scientific study of crustaceans is known as carcinology, a scientist who works in carcinology is a carcinologist. The body of a crustacean is composed of segments, which are grouped into three regions: the cephalon or head, the pereon or thorax, the pleon or abdomen; the head and thorax may be fused together to form a cephalothorax, which may be covered by a single large carapace. The crustacean body is protected by the hard exoskeleton, which must be moulted for the animal to grow; the shell around each somite can be divided into a dorsal tergum, ventral sternum and a lateral pleuron. Various parts of the exoskeleton may be fused together; each somite, or body segment can bear a pair of appendages: on the segments of the head, these include two pairs of antennae, the mandibles and maxillae.
The abdomen bears pleopods, ends in a telson, which bears the anus, is flanked by uropods to form a tail fan. The number and variety of appendages in different crustaceans may be responsible for the group's success. Crustacean appendages are biramous, meaning they are divided into two parts, it is unclear whether the biramous condition is a derived state which evolved in crustaceans, or whether the second branch of the limb has been lost in all other groups. Trilobites, for instance possessed biramous appendages; the main body cavity is an open circulatory system, where blood is pumped into the haemocoel by a heart located near the dorsum. Malacostraca have haemocyanin as the oxygen-carrying pigment, while copepods, ostracods and branchiopods have haemoglobins; the alimentary canal consists of a straight tube that has a gizzard-like "gastric mill" for grinding food and a pair of digestive glands that absorb food. Structures that function as kidneys are located near the antennae. A brain exists in the form of ganglia close to the antennae, a collection of major ganglia is found below the gut.
In many decapods, the first pair of pleopods are specialised in the male for sperm transfer. Many terrestrial crustaceans return to the sea to release the eggs. Others, such as woodlice, lay their eggs on land, albeit in damp conditions. In most decapods, the females retain the eggs; the majority of crustaceans are aquatic, living in either marine or freshwater environments, but a few groups have adapted to life on land, such as terrestrial crabs, terrestrial hermit crabs, woodlice. Marine crustaceans are as ubiquitous in the oceans; the majority of crustaceans are motile, moving about independently, although a few taxonomic units are parasitic and live attached to their hosts, adult barnacles live a sessile life – they are attached headfirst to the substrate and cannot move independently. Some branchiurans are able to withstand rapid changes of salinity and will switch hosts from marine to non-marine species. Krill are the bottom layer and the most important part of the food chain in Antarctic animal communities.
Some crustaceans are significant invasive species, such as the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus. The majority of crustaceans have separate sexes, reproduce sexually. A small number are hermaphrodites, including barnacles and Cephalocarida; some may change sex during the course of their life. Parthenogenesis is widespread among crustaceans, where viable eggs are produced by a female without needing fertilisation by a male; this occurs in many branchiopods, some os
Fishing tackle is the equipment used by anglers when fishing. Any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing tackle; some examples are hooks, sinkers, rods, baits, spears, gaffs, traps and tackle boxes. Gear, attached to the end of a fishing line is called terminal tackle; this includes hooks, swivels, floats, split rings and wire, beads, blades and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures. Sometimes the term fishing rig is used for a completed assembly of tackle ready for fishing. Fishing tackle can be contrasted with fishing techniques. Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment, used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the manner in which the tackle is used when fishing; the term tackle, with the meaning "apparatus for fishing", has been in use from 1398 AD. Fishing tackle is called fishing gear; however the term fishing gear is more used in the context of commercial fishing, whereas fishing tackle is more used in the context of recreational fishing.
This article covers equipment used by recreational anglers. Hook and sinker is a classic combination of tackle empowering an angler to catch fish; the use of the hook in angling is descended from what would today be called a "gorge". The word "gorge", in this context, comes from an archaic word meaning "throat". Gorges were used by ancient peoples to capture fish. A gorge was a thin piece of bone or stone attached by its midpoint to a thin line; the gorge would be fixed with a bait. When a fish swallowed the bait, a tug on the line caused the gorge to orient itself at right angles to the line, thereby sticking in the fish's gullet. A fish hook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more by snagging the body of the fish. Fish hooks have been employed for millennia by anglers to catch fresh and saltwater fish. Early hooks were made from the upper bills of eagles and from bones, shells and thorns of plants. In 2005, the fish hook was chosen by Forbes as one of the top twenty tools in the history of man.
Fish hooks are attached to some form of line or lure device which connects the caught fish to the angler. There is an enormous variety of fish hooks. Sizes, designs and materials are all variable depending on the intended purpose of the hook, they are manufactured for a range of purposes from general fishing to limited and specialized applications. Fish hooks are designed to hold various types of artificial, dead or live baits. A fishing line is a cord made for fishing; the earliest fishing lines were made from leaves or plant stalk. Lines were constructed from horse hair or silk thread, with catgut leaders. From the 1850s, modern industrial machinery was employed to fashion fishing lines in quantity. Most of these lines were made from linen or silk, more cotton. Modern lines are made from artificial substances, including nylon, polyethylene and dyneema; the most common type is monofilament made of a single strand. Anglers use monofilament because of its buoyant characteristics and its ability to stretch under load.
Alternatives such as fluorocarbon, the least visible type, braided fishing line known as'superlines' because of their small diameter, minimal amount of stretch, great strength relative to standard nylon monofilament lines. Important parameters of a fishing line are its diameter. Factors that may determine what line an angler chooses for a given fishing environment include breaking strength, diameter,castability, stretch, knot strength, UV resistance, abrasion resistance, visibility. Fishing with a hook and line is called angling. In addition to the use of the hook and line used to catch a fish, a heavy fish may be landed by using a landing net or a hooked pole called a gaff. Trolling is a technique. Snagging is a technique. A sinker or plummet is a weight used when angling to force the lure or bait to sink more or to increase the distance that it may be cast; the ordinary plain sinker is traditionally made of lead. It can be any shape, is shaped round like a pipe-stem, with a swelling in the middle.
However, the use of smaller lead based fishing sinkers has now been banned in the UK, Canada and some states in the USA, since lead can cause toxic lead poisoning if ingested. There are loops of brass wire on either end of the sinker to attach the line. Weights can range from a quarter of an ounce for trout fishing up to a couple of pounds or more for sea bass and menhaden; the swivel sinker is similar to the plain one, except that instead of loops, there are swivels on each end to attach the line. This is a decided improvement, as it prevents the line from tangling. In trolling, swivel sinkers are indispensable; the slide sinker, for bottom fishing, is a leaden tube which allows the line to slip through it, when the fish bites. This is an excellent arrangement, as the angler can feel the smallest bite, whereas in the other case the fish must first move the sinker before the angler feels him. A fishing rod is an additional tool used with the hook and sinker. A length of fishing line is attached to a long, flexible rod or pole: one end terminates wit
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
Fort Kochi is a region in the city of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India. This is part of a handful of water-bound regions toward the south-west of the mainland Kochi, collectively known as Old Kochi or West Kochi. Adjacent to this is Mattancherry. In 1967, these three municipalities, along with a few adjoining areas, were amalgamated to form the Corporation of Cochin. In the BC period, the region, today known as Kerala was covered by mangrove woods. Turf and sand banks were created with the rise in sea-level which formed the shape of the coastal area as we see it today; the name Cochin implies "co-chin", meaning "like-China". It looked like China when the Chinese came to the region during the 14th century and installed Chinese nets. Mattancherry is the nerve town of old historic Cochin. In old Malayalam it is Maadan-cheri, from cheri meaning town. Maad or cow was the stamp of Old Royal Fort of Rajah of Cochin, who built his palace after the fall of Kodungallur or Mussaris port due to a gigantic tsunami in 1341 AD.
The Perumpadappu Swaroopam or the Fort of Rajah had its palace on the banks of the Calvathy River. Due to frequent wars between King Zamorin of Kozhikode and the western colonial forces, the Rajah left the place for Tripunithura; the king had his vaishnav leanings and the cow or maadu was his symbol. Fort Kochi can be accessed from Ernakulam city through roadways and water ways. Private buses and government transport buses travel from different parts of the city to Fort Kochi. Due to the high volume of tourists visiting the place dedicated low floor Volvo buses were introduced to this route by the government; such buses are in use on the popular routes such as Cochin International Airport, Vytila Mobility Hub and Kakanad Info Park. Kochi was a fishing village in the Kingdom of Kochi in the pre-colonial Kerala; the territory that would be known as Fort Kochi was granted to the Portuguese in 1503 by the Rajah of Kochi, after the forces of Afonso de Albuquerque helped him fighting the forces of Saamoothiri of Kozhikode.
The Rajah gave them permission to build Fort Emmanuel near the waterfront to protect their commercial interests. The first part of the name Fort Kochi comes from this fort, which the Dutch destroyed; the Portuguese built their settlement behind the fort, including a wooden church, rebuilt in 1516 as a permanent structure, today known as the St Francis Church. Fort Kochi remained in Portuguese possession for 160 years. In 1683 the Dutch captured the territory from the Portuguese, destroyed many Portuguese institutions Catholic including convents; the Dutch held Fort Kochi in their possession for 112 years until 1795, when the British took control by defeating the Dutch. Foreign control of Fort Kochi ended in 1947 with the Indian independence. A mix of old houses built by the Portuguese and British in these colonial periods line the streets of Fort Kochi. St Francis Church was built in 1503 by the Portuguese as a Catholic church. Vasco da Gama was once buried in this church which now falls under the Church of South India and is one of the national monuments.
Santa Cruz Basilica built by the Portuguese in the 16th century, was destroyed by the British and rebuilt near the end of 19th century. The landmark that causes more public and visitor interest is a series of precolonial Chinese fishing nets on the waterfront, believed to have been introduced by Chinese traders in the early 14th century. Since the beginning of the Common Era and Chinese traders sourced spices pepper, cardamom, sandal wood, etc. from the Kochi region. Cultivation and trade of these valuable goods shaped the history of the region. Today, Kochi is an important centre of spice export; the Arabian traders were the first to know about these spices, they carried the wanted merchandise to Europe. Centuries they were followed by the Portuguese the Dutch, afterwards the British. Written documents about the Malabar Coast show that this region had Hindus, a Jewish minority; the natural harbour of Kochi was created by a flood that destroyed the harbour of the town Kodungallur. Thereafter, the town developed into one of the most important harbours on the West Coast of India.
It concentrated on the spice trade with the Middle East. During this period, Calicut was ruled by king Kochi was ruled by the Maharaja of Cochin; this was the time when the first Portuguese ships berthed at the Malabar Coast: Vasco da Gama in Calicut and Pedro Álvares Cabral in Kochi. The Maharaja of Kochi felt threatened by the Zamorin of Calicut, he hoped that the Portuguese would help him in his defense from the neighbouring king of Calicut; the Maharaja welcomed the Portuguese, they founded their first trading center in Kochi. However, the Maharaja of Cochin was deprived of his power, Kochi became the first European colony in India; the Portuguese put pressure upon the small Jewish community, the Syrian Christians as they were practising Nestorianism. The Portuguese tried to merge the Syrian Christian Church with the Latin Church; this created conflict as most of the Syrian Christians were associated with various churches of the East and rejected the authority of the Pope and the Latin Church.
Most of the Christians of pre-Portuguese period were from upper castes. Nambudhiris and Nairs did not become Latin Christians because they did not want to lose their caste privileges guaranteed in Hinduism. Like the low caste Muslim converts of Malabar who lost their original caste and became Moplahs, lower caste Christian converts lost their caste and like Moplahs those Christians formed a separate caste with Latin as their liturgy; the Portuguese called the local Christians w