Calhoun County, Texas
Calhoun County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,381, its county seat is Port Lavaca. The county is named for the seventh vice president of the United States. Calhoun County comprises the Port Lavaca, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Victoria-Port Lavaca, TX Combined Statistical Area. Paleo-Indians Hunter-gatherers, Comanche and Karankawa tribes, first inhabitants. 1685-1690 René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle lands near Powderhorn Lake in Calhoun County. France plants its flag on Texas soil, but departs after only five years. 1689 The future county is explored including Alonso De León. 1825 Martín De León of Mexico establishes a ranch near the old La Salle fort. 1831 Linnville becomes the first Anglo settlement, established by Irish-born merchant, soldier John J. Linn. 1840 Comanche Indians loot and sack Linnville. 1842-1847 Empresario Henri Castro contracts to bring Alsatian immigrants from France, who use Port Lavaca as a holding site before moving on to settle Castroville in Medina County.
1845 Thousands of German immigrants are stranded at port of disembarkation Indianaola on Matagorda Bay. 1846 Calhoun County is formed from parts of Victoria and Matagorda counties. It is named for Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee John C. Calhoun. Lavaca was the first county seat. 1852 Indianola becomes the county seat. The Morgan steamship lines runs regular service from Indianola to New York City. Slave trading peaks at Indianola. 1854 Poles begin to arrive in Indianaola. 1858 Half Moon Reef Lighthouse is constructed in Matagorda Bay. 1860 County population is 2,642, including 414 slaves. 1861 Calhoun County 276-18 votes for secession from the Union. Contributes volunteer companies-to the Confederate cause. Fort Esperanza, on Matagorda Island is constructed by Confederate forces using slave labor. 1862 Union gunboats bombard Port Lavaca. 1875 A Gulf tropical storm damages Indianola. 1886 A hurricane causes much damage to Houston. 1892 The Lutheran community of Olivia is established by Swedes. 1909 Port O’Connor is established.
The St. Louis and Mexico Railway establishes a terminus at Port O’Connor. 1920 Port Lavaca builds a seawall to protect itself against hurricanes. 1931 Lavaca Bay causeway is constructed. 1934-1935 Oil and natural gas discovered near Port Lavaca. 1947 Alcoa opens a plant at Point Comfort. 1952 Union Carbide opens a plant near Seadrift. 1961 Category 5 Hurricane Carla makes landfall between Port O'Connor. 1983 Matagorda Island State Park and Wildlife Management Area is run by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department under an agreement between the United States Department of the Interior and the state of Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,033 square miles, of which 507 square miles is land and 526 square miles is water, it borders the Gulf of Mexico. Jackson County Matagorda County Aransas County Refugio County Victoria County Aransas National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 21,381 people residing in the county. 81.5% were White, 4.4% Asian, 2.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 8.8% of some other race and 2.1% of two or more races.
46.4% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,647 people, 7,442 households, 5,574 families residing in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 10,238 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.04% White, 2.63% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 3.27% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 13.19% from other races, 2.32% from two or more races. 40.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.4% were of German, 9.4% American and 5.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 67.9 % spoke 29.1 % Spanish and 1.2 % Chinese as their first language. There were 7,442 households out of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.10% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.20. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,849, the median income for a family was $39,900. Males had a median income of $35,957 versus $19,772 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,125. About 12.70% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.30% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. All of Calhoun County is served by the Calhoun County Independent School District. Our Lady of the Gulf Catholic school, pre-K through grade 8, has served the county since 1996. U. S. Highway 87 State Highway 35 State Highway 185 Calhoun County Airport, a general aviation airport, is located in unincorporated Calhoun County northwest of Port Lavaca.
Point Comfort Port Lavaca Seadrift Port O'Connor Alamo Beach Long Mott Magnolia Beach Indianola List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in Calhoun County, Texas Recorde
Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, Tribeca to its west. With an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, Chinatown is home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Manhattan's Chinatown is one of the oldest Chinese ethnic enclaves; the Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, comprising an estimated 893,697 uniracial individuals as of 2017. Chinatown was populated by Cantonese speakers. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, large numbers of Fuzhounese-speaking immigrants arrived and formed a sub-neighborhood annexed to the eastern portion of Chinatown, which has become known as Little Fuzhou; as many Fuzhounese and Cantonese speakers now speak Mandarin—the official language in China and Taiwan—in addition to their native languages, this has made it more important for Chinatown residents to learn and speak Mandarin.
Although now overtaken in size by the growing Flushing Chinatown, located in the nearby borough of Queens – within New York City – the Manhattan Chinatown remains a dominant cultural force for the Chinese diaspora, as home to the Museum of Chinese in America and as the headquarters of numerous publications based both in the U. S. and China that are geared to overseas Chinese. Chinatown is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10013 and 10002, it is patrolled by the 5th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Although a Business Improvement District has been identified for support, Chinatown has no defined borders, but they have been considered to be approximated by the following streets: Hester Street or Grand Street to the north, bordering or overlapping Little Italy Worth Street to the southwest, bordering Civic Center East Broadway to the southeast, bordering Two Bridges Essex Street to the east, bordering the Lower East Side Lafayette Street to the west, bordering Tribeca The Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, enumerating an estimated 779,269 individuals as of 2013.
In addition, Manhattan's Little Fuzhou, an enclave populated by more recent Chinese immigrants from the Fujian Province of China, is technically considered a part of Manhattan's Chinatown, albeit now developing a separate identity of its own. A new and growing Chinese community is now forming in East Harlem, Uptown Manhattan, nearly tripling in population between the years 2000 and 2010, according to U. S. Census figures; this neighborhood has been described as the precursor to a new satellite Chinatown within Manhattan itself, which upon acknowledged formation would represent the second Chinese neighborhood in Manhattan, the tenth large Chinese settlement in New York City, the twelfth within the overall New York City metropolitan region. As the city proper with the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia by a wide margin, estimated at 628,763 as of 2017, as the primary destination for new Chinese immigrants, New York City is subdivided into official municipal boroughs, which themselves are home to significant Chinese populations, with Brooklyn and Queens, adjacently located on Long Island, leading the fastest growth.
After the City of New York itself, the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn encompass the largest Chinese populations of all municipalities in the United States. Ah Ken is claimed to have arrived in the area during the 1850s; as a Cantonese businessman, Ah Ken founded a successful cigar store on Park Row. He first arrived around 1858 in New York City, where he was "probably one of those Chinese mentioned in gossip of the sixties as peddling'awful' cigars at three cents apiece from little stands along the City Hall park fence – offering a paper spill and a tiny oil lamp as a lighter", according to author Alvin Harlow in Old Bowery Days: The Chronicles of a Famous Street. Immigrants would find work as "cigar men" or carrying billboards, Ah Ken's particular success encouraged cigar makers William Longford, John Occoo, John Ava to ply their trade in Chinatown forming a monopoly on the cigar trade, it has been speculated that it may have been Ah Ken who kept a small boarding house on lower Mott Street and rented out bunks to the first Chinese immigrants to arrive in Chinatown.
It was with the profits he earned as a landlord, earning an average of $100 per month, that he was able to open his Park Row smoke shop around which modern-day Chinatown would grow. Faced with increasing racial discrimination and new laws that prevented participation in many occupations on the U. S. West Coast, some Chinese immigrants moved to the East Coast cities in search of employment. Early businesses in these cities included hand restaurants. Chinatown started on Mott, Park and Doyers Streets, east of the notorious Five Points district. By 1870, there was a Chinese population of 200. By the time the Ch
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety and standard form of Yue Chinese, one of the major subgroups of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi, it is the official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western world. While the term Cantonese refers to the prestige variety, it is used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese; when Cantonese and the related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
Although Cantonese shares a lot of vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is; this results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, the traditional English name of Guangzhou; this narrow sense may be specified as "Canton language" or "Guangzhou language". However, "Cantonese" may refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech", although this term is now used outside Guangzhou. In Guangdong and Guangxi, people call it "provincial capital speech" or "plain speech".
Academically called "Canton prefecture speech". In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech", or as "Chinese". In mainland China, the term "Guangdong speech" is increasingly being used amongst both native and non-native speakers. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is referred to as "Tang speech", given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang". Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is called "Standard Cantonese"; the official languages of Hong Kong are English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has many different varieties. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals.
It is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language alongside Portuguese; as in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in everyday life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is mutually intelligible with the Cantonese spoken in the mainland city of Guangzhou, although there exist some minor differences in accent and vocabulary. Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China. Due to the city's long standing as an important cultural center, Cantonese emerged as the prestige dialect of the Yue varieties of Chinese in the Southern Song dynasty and its usage spread around most of what is now the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories.
On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region. While the Chinese government vehemently discourages the official use of all forms of Chinese except Standard Chinese, Cantonese enjoys a higher standing than other Chinese langua
Wu is a group of linguistically similar and related varieties of Chinese spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang province and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Wuxi, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Wenzhou/Oujiang and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics. Wu can be found being used in Pingtan, Yue opera, Shanghai opera, the former, second only in national popularity to Peking opera. Wu is spoken in a large number of diaspora communities, with significant centers of immigration originating from Shanghai, Ningbo and Wenzhou. Suzhou has traditionally been the linguistic center of Wu and was the first place the distinct variety of Sinitic known as Wu developed. Suzhou dialect is considered to be the most linguistically representative of the family, it was the basis of the Wu lingua franca that developed in Shanghai leading to the formation of standard Shanghainese, which as a center of economic power and possessing the largest population of Wu speakers, has attracted the most attention.
Due to the influence of Shanghainese, Wu as a whole is incorrectly labelled in English as "Shanghainese", when introducing the language family to non-specialists. Wu is the more accurate terminology for the greater grouping that the Shanghainese variety is part of; the Wu group is well-known among linguists and sinologists as being one of the most internally diverse among the Sinitic groups, with little mutual intelligibility between varieties across subgroups. Among speakers of other Sinitic languages, Wu is subjectively judged to be soft and flowing. There is an idiom in Mandarin that describes these qualities of Wu speech: 吴侬软语, which means "the tender speech of Wu". On the other hand, some Wu varieties like Wenzhounese have gained notoriety for their high incomprehensibility to both Wu and non-Wu speakers alike, so much so that Wenzhounese was used during the Second World War to avoid Japanese interception. Wu dialects are typified linguistically as having preserved the voiced initials of Middle Chinese, having a majority of Middle Chinese tones undergo a register split, preserving a checked tone terminating in a glottal stop, although some dialects maintain the tone without the stop and certain dialects of Southern Wu have undergone or are starting to undergo a process of devoicing.
The historical relations which determine Wu classification consist in two main factors: firstly, both in terms of physical geography and distance south or away from Mandarin, that is, Wu varieties are part of a Wu–Min dialect continuum from southern Jiangsu to Fujian and Chaoshan. The second factor is the drawing of historical administrative boundaries, which, in addition to physical barriers, limit mobility and in the majority of cases more or less determine the boundary of a Wu dialect. Wu Chinese, along with Min, is of great significance to historical linguists due to their retention of many ancient features; these two languages have proven pivotal in determining the phonetic history of the Chinese languages. More pressing concerns of the present are those of language preservation. Many within and outside of China fear that the increased usage of Mandarin may altogether supplant the languages that have no written form, legal protection, or official status and are barred from use in public discourse.
However, many analysts believe that a stable state of diglossia will endure for at least several generations if not indefinitely. Speakers of Wu varieties are unaware of this term for their speech since the term "Wu" is a recent classificatory imposition on what are less defined and heterogeneous natural forms. Saying one speaks Wu is akin to saying one speaks a Romance language, it is not a defined entity like Standard Mandarin or Hochdeutsch. Most speakers are only vaguely aware of their local variety's affinities with other classified varieties and will only refer to their local Wu variety rather than the dialect family, they do this by affixing'話' Wo to their location's endonym. For example, 溫州話 Wēnzhōuhuà is used for Wenzhounese. Affixing 閒話 xiánhuà is common and more typical of the Taihu division, as in 嘉興閒話 Kashin'ghenwo for Jiaxing dialect. Wu: the formal name and standard reference in dialectology literature. Wu dialects: another scholastic term. Northern Wu: Wu spoken in the north of Zhejiang, the city of Shanghai and parts of Jiangsu, comprising the Taihu and the Taizhou divisions.
It by default includes the Xuanzhou division in Anhui as well, however this division is neglected in Northern Wu discussions. Southern Wu: Wu spoken in southern Zhejiang and periphery, comprising the Oujiang and Chuqu divisions. Western Wu (simplified Chinese: 西部吴语.
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Fuzhou dialect Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken in the Mindong region of eastern Fujian province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes which carry lexical tones, has a analytic syntax. While the Eastern Min branch that it belongs to is closer to Southern Min than to other Sinitic branches such as Mandarin or Hakka, they are still not mutually intelligible. Centered in Fuzhou City, the Fuzhou dialect covers eleven cities and counties: Fuzhou City Proper, Gutian, Minqing, Minhou, Yongtai and Pingtan, it is the second local language in many northern and middle Fujian cities and counties such as Nanping, Shunchang and Youxi. Fuzhou dialect is widely spoken in some regions abroad in Southeastern Asian countries like Malaysia and Indonesia; the city of Sibu in Malaysia is called "New Fuzhou" due to the influx of immigrants there in the late 19th century and early 1900s.
Quite a significant number of Fuzhounese have emigrated to Singapore, United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand in the decades since China's economic reform. In older works, the variety is called "Foochow dialect", based on the Chinese postal romanization of Fuzhou. In Chinese, it is sometimes called 福州語. Native speakers refer to it as Bàng-uâ, meaning "the everyday language." In Singapore and Malaysia, it is referred to as "Hokchiu", the pronunciation of Fuzhou in the Southern Min Hokkien language, or "Huchiu", the pronunciation of Fuzhou in the Eastern Min language of Fuzhou itself. Eastern Min and Southern Min are both spoken in the same Fujian province, but the name Hokkien, while etymologically derived from the same characters as Fujian, is used in Southeast Asia and the English press to refer to Southern Min, which has a larger number of speakers both within Fujian and in the Chinese diaspora of Southeast Asia. After the Qin Dynasty conquered the Minyue kingdom of southeast China in 110 BC, Han Chinese people began settling what is now Fujian province.
The Old Chinese language brought by the mass influx of Han immigrants from Northern area, along with the influences of local languages, became the early Proto-Min language from which Eastern Min, Southern Min, other Min languages arose. Within this Min branch of Chinese, Eastern Min and Southern Min both form part of a Coastal Min subgroup, are thus closer to each other than to Inland Min groups such as Northern Min and Central Min; the famous book Qī Lín Bāyīn, compiled in the 17th century, is the first and the most full-scale rime book that provides a systematic guide to character reading for people speaking or learning the Fuzhou dialect. It once served to standardize the language and is still quoted as an authoritative reference book in modern academic research in Min Chinese phonology. In 1842, Fuzhou was open to Westerners as a treaty port after the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing, but due to the language barrier, the first Christian missionary base in this city did not take place without difficulties.
In order to convert Fuzhou people, those missionaries found it necessary to make a careful study of the Fuzhou dialect. Their most notable works are listed below: 1856, M. C. White: The Chinese language spoken at Fuh Chau 1870, R. S. Maclay & C. C. Baldwin: An alphabetic dictionary of the Chinese language in the Foochow dialect 1871, C. C. Baldwin: Manual of the Foochow dialect 1891, T. B. Adam: An English-Chinese Dictionary of the Foochow Dialect 1893, Charles Hartwell: Three Character Classic of Gospel in the Foochow Colloquial 1898, R. S. Maclay & C. C. Baldwin: An Alphabetic Dictionary of the Chinese Language of the Foochow Dialect, 2nd edition 1905, T. B. Adam: An English-Chinese Dictionary of the Foochow Dialect, 2nd edition] 1906, The Foochow translation of the complete Bible 1923, T. B. Adam & L. P. Peet: An English-Chinese dictionary of the Foochow dialect, 2nd edition 1929, R. S. Maclay & C. C. Baldwin: Dictionary of the Foochow dialect During the Second World War, some Japanese scholars became passionate about studying Fuzhou dialect, believing that it could be beneficial to the rule of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
One of their most famous works was the Japanese-Chinese Translation: Fuzhou Dialect published in 1940 in Taipei, in which katakana was used to represent Fuzhou pronunciation. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Fuzhou society had been monolingual, but for decades the Chinese government has discouraged the use of the vernacular in school education and in media, so the number of Mandarin speakers has been boosted. Recent reports indicate that less than 50% of young people in Fuzhou are able to speak Fuzhou dialect. In Mainland China, the Fuzhou dialect has been listed as an Intangible Cultural Heritage and promotion work is being systematically carried out to preserve its use. In Matsu controlled by the Republic of China located in Taiwan, the teaching of Fuzhou dialect has been introduced into elementary schools; this section is about Standard Fuzhou dialect only. See Regional variations for a discussion of other dialects. Like all Chinese varieties, the Fuzhou dialect is a tonal language, has extensive sandhi rules in the initials and tones.
These complicated rules make Fuzhou dialect one of the most difficult Chinese varieties. There are seven original tones in Fuzhou dialect, compared with
The Shanghainese language known as the Shanghai dialect, Hu language or Hu dialect, is a variety of Wu Chinese spoken in the central districts of the City of Shanghai and its surrounding areas. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Shanghainese, like other Wu variants, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin. Shanghainese belongs to the Taihu Wu subgroup, contains vocabulary and expressions from the entire Taihu Wu area of southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. With nearly 14 million speakers, Shanghainese is the largest single form of Wu Chinese, it serves as the lingua franca of the entire Yangtze River Delta region. Shanghainese is rich in consonants. Like other Taihu Wu dialects, Shanghainese has voiced initials: neither Cantonese nor Mandarin has voiced initial stops or affricates; the Shanghainese tonal system is significantly different from other Chinese varieties, sharing more similarities with the Japanese pitch accent, with two level tonal contrasts, whereas Cantonese and Mandarin are typical of contour tonal languages.
Shanghai did not become a regional center of commerce until it was opened to foreign investment during the late Qing dynasty. Languages and dialects spoken around Shanghai had long been subordinate to those spoken around Jiaxing and Suzhounese. In the late 19th century, most vocabulary of the Shanghai area had been a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu and Ningbonese. Since the 1850s, owing to the growth of Shanghai's economy, Shanghainese has become one of the fastest-developing languages of the Wu Chinese subgroup, undergoing rapid changes and replacing Suzhounese as the prestige dialect of the Yangtze River Delta region, it underwent sustained growth that reached a hiatus in the 1930s during the Republican era, when migrants arrived in Shanghai and immersed themselves in the local tongue. After 1949, the government imposed Mandarin as the official language of the whole nation of China; the dominance and influence of Shanghainese began to wane slightly. Since Chinese economic reform began in 1978 Shanghai became home to a great number of migrants from all over the country.
Due to the national prominence of Mandarin, learning Shanghainese was no longer necessary for migrants, because those educated after the 1950s could communicate in Mandarin. However, Shanghainese remained a vital part of the city's culture and retained its prestige status within the local population. In the 1990s, it was still common for local television broadcasts to be in Shanghainese. In 1995, the TV series Sinful Debt featured extensive Shanghainese dialogue; the Shanghainese TV series Lao Niang Jiu was broadcast from 1995 to 2007 and was popular among Shanghainese residents. Shanghainese programming has since declined amid regionalist/localist accusations. From 1992 onward, Shanghainese use was discouraged in schools, many children native to Shanghai can no longer speak Shanghainese. In addition, Shanghai's emergence as a cosmopolitan global city consolidated the status of Mandarin as the standard language of business and services, at the expense of the local language. Since 2005, new movements have emerged to protect Shanghainese from fading away.
At municipal legislative discussions in 2005, former Shanghai opera actress Ma Lili moved to "protect" the language, stating that she was one of the few remaining Shanghai opera actresses who still retained authentic classic Shanghainese pronunciation in their performances. Shanghai's former party boss Chen Liangyu, a native Shanghainese himself supported her proposal. There have been talks of re-integrating Shanghainese into pre-kindergarten education, because many children are unable to speak any Shanghainese. A citywide program was introduced by the city government's language committee in 2006 to record native speakers of different Shanghainese varieties for archival purposes and, by 2010, many Shanghainese-language programs were running; the Shanghai government has begun to reverse its course and seek fluent speakers of authentic Shanghainese, but only two out of thirteen recruitment stations have found Traditional Shanghainese speakers. Professor Qian Nairong is working on efforts to save the language.
In response to criticism, Qian reminds people that Shanghainese was once fashionable, saying, "the popularization of Mandarin doesn't equal the ban of dialects. It doesn't make Mandarin a more civilized language either. Promoting dialects is not a narrow-minded localism, as it has been labeled by some netizens"; the singer and composer Eheart Chen sings many of his songs in Shanghainese instead of Mandarin to preserve the language. Since 2006, the Modern Baby Kindergarten in Shanghai has prohibited all of its students from speaking anything but Shanghainese on Fridays to preserve the language amongst younger speakers. In 2011, Professor Qian said that the sole remaining speakers of real Shanghainese are a group of Shanghainese peoples over the age of 60 and native citizens who have little outside contact, he urges that Shanghainese be taught in the regular school system from kindergarten all the way to elementary, saying it is the only way to save Shanghainese, that attempts to introduce it in university courses and operas are not enough.
Fourteen native Shanghainese speakers had audio recordings made of their Shanghainese on May 31, 2011. They were selected based on accent purity, wa