Yayue was a form of classical music and dance performed at the royal court and temples in ancient China. The basic conventions of yayue were established in the Western Zhou. Together with law and rites, it formed the formal representation of aristocratic political power; the word ya was used during the Zhou dynasty to refer to a form of song-texts used in court and collected in Shijing. The term yayue itself first appeared in the Analects, where yayue was considered by Confucius to be the kind of music, good and beneficial, in contrast to the popular music originated from the state of Zheng which he judged to be decadent and corrupting. Yayue is therefore regarded in the Confucian system as the proper form of music, refined and essential for self-cultivation, one that can symbolize good and stable governance, it means the kind of solemn ceremonial music used in court, as well as ritual music in temples including those used in Confucian rites. In a broader sense, yayue can mean a form of Chinese music, distinguishable from the popular form of music termed suyue or "uncultivated music", can therefore include music of the literati such as qin music.
The court yayue has disappeared from China, although there are modern attempts at its reconstruction. In Taiwan yayue is performed as part of a Confucian ceremony, in China in a revived form as entertainment for tourists. Other forms of yayue are still found in parts of East Asia, notably the gagaku in Japan, aak in Korea, nhã nhạc in Vietnam. Although the same word is used in these countries, the music does not correspond to Chinese yayue; the Korean aak however preserved elements of Song dynasty yayue long lost in China. According to tradition, yayue was created by the Duke of Zhou under commission from King Wu of Zhou, shortly after the latter's conquest of Shang. Incorporated within yayue were elements of shamanistic or religious traditions, as well as early Chinese folk music. Dance was closely associated with yayue music, each yayue pieces may have a ceremonial or ritual dance associated with it; the most important yayue piece of the Zhou dynasty were the Six Great Dances, each associated with a legendary or historical figure - Yunmen Dajuan, Daqing and Dahu, Dawu.
The Book of Rites records a number of situations. These included ceremonies in honour of the gods or the ancestors. There were detailed rules on the way they were to be performed at diplomatic meetings. Yayue was used in outdoor activities, such as aristocratic archery contests, during hunting expeditions, after the conclusion of a successful military campaign. Yayue was characterised by its rigidity of form; when performed, it was formal, serving to distinguish the aristocractic classes. It was sometimes accompanied by lyrics; some of these are preserved in the Book of Songs. With the decline of the importance ceremony in the interstate relations of the Spring and Autumn period, so did yayue. Confucius famously lamented the decline of the rites. Marquess Wen of Wei was said to prefer the popular music of Wey and Zheng to the ancient court music, listening to which he may fall asleep. Much of the yayue of the Zhou dynasty continued into the Qin dynasty. However, some pieces appeared to have been lost or were no longer performed by the Han dynasty, the content and form of yayue was modified in this as well as the succeeding dynasties.
During the Tang dynasty components of popular music were added to yayue. However, the dominant form of music in the Sui and Tang court was the entertainment music for banquets called yanyue, the term yayue became reserved for the music of Confucian rituals used in temples of the Imperial Family and the nobility as well as in Confucian temples. During the Song dynasty, with Neo-Confucianism becoming the new orthodoxy, Yayue was again in ascendancy with major development, a yayue orchestra in this era consisted of over 200 instrumentalists. Two important texts from the Song dynasty describing yayue performances are Zhu Xi's Complete Explanation of the Classic of Etiquette and Its Commentary and Collection of Music by Chen Yang. In 1116, a gift of 428 yayue instruments as well as 572 costumes and dance objects was given to Korea by Emperor Huizong upon request by the Emperor Yejong of Goryeo; as a result, elements of Song dynasty yayue music such as melodies are still preserved in Korea. Some forms of yayue survived for imperial ceremonies and rituals until the fall of the Qing dynasty when the imperial period of China came to an end.
Yayue however was still performed as part of a Confucian ritual in China until the Communist takeover in 1949 when it disappeared. There has been a revival in yayue in Confucian ritual in Taiwan since the late 1960s, in mainland China since the 1990s. A major research and modern reconstruction of yayue of the imperial court was initiated in Taiwan in the 1990s, in mainland China a performance of yayue music in 2009 by Nanhua University's yayue music ensemble in Beijing spurred interest in this form of music. There are however questions over the authenticity of these revived and recreated yayue music and dances the use of modern forms of instruments and various substitutions rather than the more ancient and original forms, nonetheless some argued that such music and dances have always changed over time through succeeding dynasties, that any changes introduced in the modern era should be seen in this light; the court yayue orchestra may be divided into two separate ensembles that may represent the yin and y
Chinese rock is a wide variety of rock and roll music made by rock bands and solo artists from native Chinese-speaking regions. Chinese rock is a fusion of forms accompanying the grand presentation of traditional Chinese music; the Peking All-Stars were a rock band formed in Beijing in 1979, by foreigners resident in the Chinese capital. While the first rock band in China, they were not Chinese. Chinese rock had its origins in Northwest Wind style of music, which emerged as a main genre in Mainland China; the new style was triggered by two new songs, "Xintianyou" and "Nothing To My Name", both of which drew on the folk song traditions of northern Shaanxi. They combined this with a western-style fast tempo, strong beat and aggressive bass lines. In contrast to the mellow cantopop style, Northwest Wind songs were sung forcefully, it represented the musical branch of the large-scale Root-Seeking cultural movement that manifested itself in literature and in film. Cui Jian's Northwest Wind album Rock'N' Roll on the New Long March, which included "Nothing To My Name", has been called "China's first rock album".
Many Northwest Wind songs were idealistic and political, parodying or alluding to the revolutionary songs of the Communist state, such as "Nanniwan" and "The Internationale". It is, associated with the non-Communist national music side instead of the revolutionary side; the music reflected dissatisfaction among Chinese youth, as well as the influence of western ideas such as individuality and self-empowerment. Both music and lyrics articulated a sense of pride in the power of the northwest's peasantry. Songs such as "Sister Go Boldly Forward" came to represent an earthy, primordial masculine image of Mainland China, as opposed to the soft, polished urban gangtai style; the birthplace of Chinese rock was in Beijing. As the nation's capital, the music was politicised and open to a range of foreign influences, it was marginal for most of the 1980s, consisting of live performances in small hotels. The music was exclusively for the domain of university students and "underground" bohemian circles. In late 1989 and early 1990 Chinese rock emerged into mainstream music as a combination of the Northwest Wind and prison song fads.
The first Chinese rock song was arguably the Northwest Wind anthem "Nothing To My Name", first performed in 1984 by Cui Jian recognised as the father of Chinese rock. The song introduced into post-revolutionary China a whole new ethos that combined individualism and bold expression, it soon came to symbolise the frustration harboured by a disillusioned generation of young intellectuals who grew cynical about Communism and critical of China's traditional and contemporary culture. It expressed for older Chinese, a dissatisfaction with unrealized promises of the Chinese regime. In the spring of 1989, "Nothing To My Name" became the de facto anthem of the student protestors at Tiananmen Square. Additionally, in May and July of that year, three of China's famous rock bands were established: Breathing and Zang Tianshuo's 1989. Earlier rock music groups include "Infallible", formed by Zang Tianshuo and Tang Dynasty lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Ding Wu, the most famous of all Chinese rock bands: "Black Panther" fronted by China's alternative music pioneer Dou Wei.
"Prison Songs" became popular in early 1989, parallel to the Northwest Wind style. The fad was initiated by Chi Zhiqiang, who wrote lyrics about his time in jail and set them to folk melodies from northeast China. In contrast to Northwest Wind songs, prison songs were slow, "weepy" and invoked negative role models using vulgar language and expressing despair and cynicism, their non-conformist values are apparent in such songs as "Mother Is Very Muddle-Headed" and "There Is Not a Drop of Oil in the Dish". The popularity of these songs reflected the fact that many Chinese during the 1980s became tired of official artistic representations and discourse; the patrons of prison songs were the urban youth, private entrepreneurs, who at that time were from marginal backgrounds. After the TianAnMen Square protests, rock became part of general urban youth Chinese culture, its rise from the margins was celebrated on 17 and 18 February 1990, when Beijing's largest all-rock concert was held in the Capital Gymnasium, one of the city's largest halls.
The concert featured six rock bands, among them are Cui Jian's ADO and Tang Dynasty. The criterion that the organizers set as qualification to participate was "originality". Chinese rock reached a peak of creativity and popularity between 1990 and 1993. In 1991, the glam metal band Black Panther released their self-titled debut album. With glossy production and hard rock melodies backing the sincere voice of lead singer Dou Wei, it featured hit singles such as "Don't Break My Heart and "Ashamed". A year the album went on to sell more than 1,000,000 copies nationwide, a standard never before achieved in Chinese rock history. Another band, Tang Dynasty, whose style was comparable to British heavy metal broke another barrier, their singles "9/4", "The Sun", "Choice" climbed the charts. Once again, it was not until 1992, that their debut A Dream Return to Tang Dynasty sold over 2,000,000 copies throughout Asia, including Japan and the Southea
Music of Tibet
The music of Tibet reflects the cultural heritage of the trans-Himalayan region, centered in Tibet but known wherever ethnic Tibetan groups are found in Nepal, Bhutan and further abroad. First and foremost Tibetan music is religious music, reflecting the profound influence of Tibetan Buddhism on the culture; the new-age'singing bowl' music marketed in the West as'Tibetan music' is of 1970s US origin. The Lama Mani tradition – the telling of Buddhist parables through song — dates back to the 12th century; the songs were performed by wandering storytellers, who travelled from village to village, drawing on their own humble origins to relate to people from all backgrounds. Vividly illustrated Buddhist thangka paintings depicted the narrative and helped the audience understand what was a teaching. Tibetan "street songs" were a traditional form of expression popular as a means of political and other commentary in a country, without newspapers or other means of mass communication, they provided political and social commentary and satire and are a good example of a bardic tradition, akin to that in medieval Europe or, more the role calypsos played in the West Indies.
As song lyrics in Tibet contained stanzas of 4 lines of 6 syllables each, the lyrics could be adapted to any melody. Secular Tibetan music has been promoted by organizations like the Dalai Lama's Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts; this organization specialized in the lhamo, an operatic style, before branching out into other styles, including dance music like toeshey and nangma. Nangma is popular in the karaoke bars of the urban center of Tibet, Lhasa. Another form of popular music is the classical gar style, performed at rituals and ceremonies. Lu are a type of songs that feature high pitches. There are epic bards who sing of Tibet's national hero Gesar. Tibetans have a strong popular-music culture, are well represented in Chinese popular culture. Tibetan singers are known for their strong vocal abilities, which many attribute to the high altitudes of the Tibetan Plateau. Tseten Dolma rose to fame in the 1960s for her music-and-dance suite "The Earth is Red". Kelsang Metok is a popular singer who combines the vocal traditions of Tibet with elements of Chinese and Western pop.
Purba Rgyal was the 2006 winner of Jiayou Haonaner, a Chinese reality talent show. In 2006, he starred in Sherwood Hu's Prince of the Himalayas, an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet, set in ancient Tibet and featuring an all-Tibetan cast. In the multi-ethnic provinces of Qinghai and Sichuan, whose Tibetan inhabitants are regarded as part of the "Amdo" cultural tradition, there is a strong local scene exposed through videos on local buses. Amdo stars are among others Sherten and Yadong, who both have reached outside the borders of China with their music; the first fusion with Western music was Tibetan Bells, a 1972 release by Nancy Hennings and Henry Wolff. The soundtrack to Kundun, by Philip Glass, has helped to popularize Tibetan music. Foreign styles of popular music have had a major impact within the Tibetan diaspora, where Indian ghazal and filmi are popular and American rock has produced the India-based Rangzen Shonu. Within Tibet itself, among rock groups the bilingual Vajara sextants are the oldest and most famous act.
Since the relaxation of some laws in the 1980s, Tibetan pop, popularised by the likes of Yadong, Jampa Tsering, 3-member group AJIA, 4-member group Gao Yuan Hong, five-member group Gao Yuan Feng, are well known. Gaoyuan Hong in particular has introduced elements of Tibetan language rapping into their singles. Alan Dawa Dolma is the first and only artist of Tibetan ethnicity to be active in both Chinese and Japanese music industry. Although it is sometimes stated that'Tibetan singing bowls' date back to a pre-Buddhist, shamanic Bon-Po tradition, the manufacture and use of bowls for the purpose of'singing' is believed to be a modern and non-Tibetan phenomenon; the historical records and accounts of the music of Tibet are silent about singing bowls. Such bowls are not mentioned by Perceval Landon in his notes on Tibetan music, nor by any other visitor. Wolff and Hennings' seminal recording Tibetan Bells was followed by the development of a unique style of American singing bowl music marketed as'Tibetan music'.
This has remained popular in the US with many recordings being marketed as World music or New-age music since the introduction of those terms in the 1980s.'Tibetan singing bowls' have as a result become a prominent visual and musical symbol of Tibet, to the extent that the most prevalent modern representation of Tibet within the US is that of bowls played by Americans. Music of Tibet Music of Bhutan Dungchen Last Train to Lhasa Aku Pema Tibetan Music Awards Melinda Jin. Tibetan culture more active on domestic, overseas stages, China Tibet Online, 15 November 2013. Crossley-Holland, Peter.. "The Ritual Music of Tibet." The Tibet Journal. Vol. 1, Nos. 3 & 4, Autumn 1976, pp. 45–54. Congdon, Darinda. Tibet Chic: Myth, Marketing and Politics in Musical Representations of Tibet in the United States. University of Pittsburgh
Music of Guizhou
Guizhou is a province of China. Their folk tradition includes the song "Red Flower"; the song came from the Buyi people. The Shui people use instruments like the lusheng, bronze drums and horns
National Anthem of the Republic of China
The "National Anthem of the Republic of China" is the national anthem of the Republic of China known as Taiwan. It was adopted in 1937 by the ROC as its national anthem and was used as such until the late 1940s, it replaced the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud", used as the Chinese national anthem before. In mainland China, this national anthem serves a historical role as the current national anthem of the People's Republic of China is the "March of the Volunteers"; the national anthem was adopted in Taiwan on 25 October 1945 after the surrender of Japan. The national anthem's words are adapted from a 1924 speech by Sun Yat-sen, via the partisan anthem of the Kuomintang in 1937; the lyrics relate to how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can be achieved and maintained. Informally, the song is sometimes known as San Min Chu-i from its opening line which references the Three Principles of the People, but this name is never used in formal or official occasions; the text of was the collaboration between several Kuomintang party members: Hu Hanmin, Tai Chi-tao, Liao Zhongkai, Shao Yuanchong.
The text debuted on July 16, 1924, as the opening of a speech by Sun Yat-sen at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy. After the success of the Northern Expedition, the Kuomintang party chose the text to be its party anthem and publicly solicited for accompanying music. Cheng Maoyun won in a contest of 139 participants. On March 24, 1930, numerous Kuomintang party members proposed to use the speech by Sun as the lyrics to the national anthem. At the time, the national anthem of the republic was the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud". Due to opposition over using a symbol of a political party to represent the entire nation, the National Anthem Editing and Research Committee was set up, which endorsed the KMT party song. On June 3, 1937, the Central Standing Committee approved the proposal, in the 1940s, the song formally became the official national anthem of the Republic of China; the lyrics are in classical literary Chinese. For example, ěr plural "you" depending on the context. In this case, it is plural "you".
Fěi is a classical synonym of "not". And zī is a classical, archaic interjection, is not used in this sense in the modern vernacular language. In this respect, the national anthem of the Republic of China stands in contrast to the People's Republic of China's "The March of the Volunteers", written a few years entirely in modern vernacular Chinese; as well as being written in classical Chinese, the national anthem follows classical poetic conventions. The ancient Fu style follows that of a four-character poem, where the last character of each line rhymes in -ong or -eng, which are equivalent in ancient Chinese; the official translation by Du Tingxiu appears in English-language guides to the ROC published by the government. Reed W. L. and Bristow M. J. "National Anthems of the World", 10 ed. London Cassell, p. 526. ISBN 0-304-36382-0 Taiwan, ROC: National Anthem of the Republic of China - Audio of the national anthem of Taiwan, with information and lyrics The National Anthem of the ROC 國旗、國歌. Executive Yuan
Music of China
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China. It includes music produced by people of Chinese origin in some territories outside mainland China using traditional Chinese instruments or in the Chinese language, it covers a diverse range of music from the traditional to the modern. Different types of music have been recorded in historical Chinese documents from the early periods of Chinese civilization which, together with archaeological artifacts discovered, provided evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou dynasty; these further developed into various forms of music through succeeding dynasties, producing the rich heritage of music, part of the Chinese cultural landscape today. Chinese music continues to evolve in the modern times, more contemporary forms have emerged. According to legends, the founder of music in Chinese mythology was Ling Lun who, at the request of the Yellow Emperor to create a system of music, made bamboo pipes tuned to the sounds of birds including the phoenix.
A twelve-tone musical system was created based on the pitches of the bamboo pipes, the first of these pipes produced the "yellow bell" pitch, a set of tuned bells were created from the pipes. Archaeological evidence indicates that music culture developed in China from a early period. Excavations in Jiahu Village in Wuyang County, Henan found bone flutes dated to 8,000 years ago, clay music instruments called Xun thought to be 6,000 years old have been found in the Hemudu sites in Zhejiang and Banpo in Xi'an. During the Zhou dynasty, a formal system of court and ceremonial music termed yayue was established. Note that the word music in ancient China can refer to dance as music and dance were considered integral part of the whole, its meaning can be further extended to poetry as well as other art forms and rituals; the word "dance" also referred to music, every dance would have had a piece of music associated with it. The most important set of music of the period was the Six-dynasty Music Dance performed in rituals in the royal court.
Music in the Zhou Dynasty was conceived as a cosmological manifestation of the sound of nature integrated into the binary universal order of yin and yang, this concept has enduring influence Chinese thinking on music. "Correct" music according to Zhou concept would involve instruments correlating to the five elements of nature and would bring harmony to nature. Around or before the 7th century BC, a system of pitch generation and pentatonic scale was derived from a cycle-of-fifths theory. Chinese philosophers took varying approaches to music. To Confucius, a correct form of music is important for the cultivation and refinement of the individual, the Confucian system considers the formal music yayue to be morally uplifting and the symbol of a good ruler and stable government; some popular forms of music, were considered corrupting in the Confucian view. Mozi on the other hand condemned making music, argued in Against Music that music is an extravagance and indulgence that serves no useful purpose and may be harmful.
According to Mencius, a powerful ruler once asked him whether it was moral if he preferred popular music to the classics. The answer was. In ancient China the social status of musicians was much lower than that of painters, though music was seen as central to the harmony and longevity of the state; every emperor took folk songs sending officers to collect songs to record the popular culture. One of the Confucianist Classics, The Classic of Poetry, contained many folk songs dating from 800 BC to about 400 BC; the Imperial Music Bureau, first established in the Qin dynasty, was expanded under the emperor Han Wudi and charged with supervising court music and military music and determining what folk music would be recognized. In subsequent dynasties, the development of Chinese music was influenced by the musical traditions of Central Asia which introduced elements of Indian music. Instruments of Central Asian origin such as pipa were adopted in China, the Indian Heptatonic scale was introduced in the 6th century by a musician from Kucha named Sujiva, although the heptatonic scale was abandoned.
The oldest extant written Chinese music is "Youlan" or the Solitary Orchid, composed during the 6th or 7th century, but has been attributed to Confucius. The first major well-documented flowering of Chinese music was for the qin during the Tang dynasty, though the qin is known to have been played since before the Han dynasty; this is based on the conjecture that because the recorded examples of Chinese music are ceremonial, the ceremonies in which they were employed are thought to have existed "perhaps more than one thousand years before Christ", the musical compositions themselves were performed in 1000 BC, in the manner prescribed by the sources that were written down in the seventh century AD. Through succeeding dynasties over thousands of years, Chinese musicians developed a large assortment of different instruments and playing styles. A wide variety of these instruments, such as guzheng and dizi are indigenous, although many popular traditional musical instruments were introduced from Central Asia, such as the erhu and pipa.
The presence of European music in China appeared as early as 1601 when the Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci presented a Harpsichord to the Ming imperial court, traine
In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale; some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending, for example, the melodic minor scale. In the context of the common practice period, most or all of the melody and harmony of a musical work is built using the notes of a single scale, which can be conveniently represented on a staff with a standard key signature. Due to the principle of octave equivalence, scales are considered to span a single octave, with higher or lower octaves repeating the pattern. A musical scale represents a division of the octave space into a certain number of scale steps, a scale step being the recognizable distance between two successive notes of the scale. However, there is no need for scale steps to be equal within any scale and as demonstrated by microtonal music, there is no limit to how many notes can be injected within any given musical interval.
A measure of the width of each scale step provides a method to classify scales. For instance, in a chromatic scale each scale step represents a semitone interval, while a major scale is defined by the interval pattern T–T–S–T–T–T–S, where T stands for whole tone, S stands for semitone. Based on their interval patterns, scales are put into categories including diatonic, major and others. A specific scale is defined by its characteristic interval pattern and by a special note, known as its first degree; the tonic of a scale is the note selected as the beginning of the octave, therefore as the beginning of the adopted interval pattern. The name of the scale specifies both its tonic and its interval pattern. For example, C major indicates a major scale with a C tonic. Scales are listed from low to high pitch. Most scales are octave-repeating. An octave-repeating scale can be represented as a circular arrangement of pitch classes, ordered by increasing pitch class. For instance, the increasing C major scale is C–D–E–F–G–A–B–, with the bracket indicating that the last note is an octave higher than the first note, the decreasing C major scale is C–B–A–G–F–E–D–, with the bracket indicating an octave lower than the first note in the scale.
The distance between two successive notes in a scale is called a scale step. The notes of a scale are numbered by their steps from the root of the scale. For example, in a C major scale the first note is the second D, the third E and so on. Two notes can be numbered in relation to each other: C and E create an interval of a third. A single scale can be manifested at many different pitch levels. For example, a C major scale can be started at C4 and ascending an octave to C5; as long as all the notes can be played, the octave they take on can be altered. Scales may be described according to the number of different pitch classes they contain: Chromatic, or dodecatonic Octatonic: used in jazz and modern classical music Heptatonic: the most common modern Western scale Hexatonic: common in Western folk music Pentatonic: the anhemitonic form is common in folk music in Asian music. Many music theorists concur that the constituent intervals of a scale have a large role in the cognitive perception of its sonority, or tonal character.
"The number of the notes that make up a scale as well as the quality of the intervals between successive notes of the scale help to give the music of a culture area its peculiar sound quality." "The pitch distances or intervals among the notes of a scale tell us more about the sound of the music than does the mere number of tones."Scales may be described by their symmetry, such as being palindromic, chiral, or having rotational symmetry as in Messiaen's modes of limited transposition. Scales can be described by their distribution patterns and possibilities for notation. For example, a heliotonic scale is one that can be notated with one note head on each line and space, using only single and double alterations, thus all heliotonic scales are heptatonic. Since heliotonia is a metric of a scale's tone distribution pattern, is related to evenness, spectra variation, the Myhill Property; the notes of a scale form intervals with each of the other notes of the chord in combination. A 5-note scale has 10 of these harmonic intervals, a 6-note scale has 15, a 7-note scale has 21, an 8-note scale has 28.
Though the scale is not a chord, might never be heard more than one note at a time, still the absence and placement of certain key intervals plays a large part in the sound of the scale, the natural movement of melody within the scale, the selection of chords taken from the scale. A musical scale that contains tritones is called tritonic (though the expression is used for any sca