click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chinese name

Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and the Chinese diaspora overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing, which comes first and is but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming, nearly always mono- or disyllabic. Prior to the 20th century, educated Chinese utilized a "courtesy name" or "style name" called zi by which they were known among those outside their family and closest friends. From at least the time of the Shang dynasty, the Chinese observed a number of naming taboos regulating who may or may not use a person's given name. In general, using the given name connoted the speaker's authority and superior position to the addressee. Peers and younger relatives were barred from speaking it.

Owing to this, many historical Chinese figures—particularly emperors—used a half-dozen or more different names in different contexts and for different speakers. Those possessing names identical to the emperor's were forced to change them; the normalization of personal names after the May Fourth Movement has eradicated aliases such as the school name and courtesy name but traces of the old taboos remain within families. Although some terms in the ancient Chinese naming system, such as xìng and míng, are still used today, in ancient times they were used in different and more complex ways than in modern China. In the first half of the 1st millennium BC, during the Zhou dynasty, members of the Chinese nobility could possess up to four different names—personal names, clan names, lineage names, "style" or "courtesy" names — as well as up to two titles: standard titles, posthumous titles. Commoners possessed only a personal name, the modern concept of a "surname" or "family name" did not yet exist at any level of society.

The old lineage and clan names began to become "family names" in the modern sense and trickle down to commoners around 500 BC, during the late Spring and Autumn period, but the process took several centuries to complete, it was not until the late Han dynasty that all Chinese commoners had surnames. Although there are over 6,000 Chinese surnames including non-Han Chinese surnames in use in China, the colloquial expression for the "Chinese people" is Bǎixìng "Hundred Surnames", a mere hundred surnames still make up over 85% of China's 1.3 billion citizens. In fact, just the top three—Wang, Li, Zhang —cover more than 20% of the population; this homogeneity results from the great majority of Han family names having only one character, while the small number of compound surnames is restricted to minority groups. Chinese surnames arose from two separate prehistoric traditions: the xìng and the shì; the original xìng were clans of royalty at the Shang court and always included the'woman' radical 女.

The shì did not originate from families, but denoted fiefs and titles granted or recognized by the Shang court. Apart from the Jiang and Yao families, the original xìng have nearly disappeared but the terms reversed their meaning. Xìng is now used to describe the shì surnames which replaced them, while shì is used to refer to maiden names; the enormous modern clans sometimes share ancestral halls with one another, but consist of many different lineages gathered under a single name. As an example, the surname Ma includes descendants of the Warring States–era bureaucrat Zhao She, descendants of his subjects in his fief of Mafu, Koreans from an unrelated confederation, Muslims from all over western China who chose it to honor Muhammad. Nonetheless, however tenuous these bonds sometimes are, it remains a minor taboo to marry someone with the same family name. Traditionally, a married woman keeps her name unchanged, without adopting her husband's surname. A child would inherit her father's surname.

This is still the norm in mainland China, though the marriage law explicitly states that a child may use either parent's surname. It is possible, though far less common, for a child to combine both parents' surnames. Due to Western influence, some areas of greater China, such as Hong Kong and Macau, have adopted the tradition of a woman changing her last name, or prepending her husband's to her own. Chinese given names show much greater diversity than the surnames, while still being restricted universally to one or two syllables. Including variant forms, there are at least 106,000 individual Chinese characters, but as of 2006, in the People's Republic of China Public Security Bureau only 32,000 are supported for computer input and fewer are in common use. Given names are chosen based on a range of factors, including possession of pleasing sound and tonal qualities, as well as bearing positive associations or a beautiful shape. Two-character ming may be chosen for each character's separate meaning and qualities, but the name remains a single unit, always said together when the combination no longer'means' anything.

Today, two-character names make up more than 80 % of Chinese names. However, this custom has been consistent only since the Ming dynasty. About 70% of all names were only one character long during the early Han and that rose beyond 98% after the usurping Wang Mang banned all two-character names o

Southeastern (album)

Southeastern is the fourth studio album by American singer-songwriter Jason Isbell, released on June 11, 2013 on Southeastern Records. Produced by David Cobb, the album was released to widespread critical acclaim. Set to be produced by Isbell's friend and touring companion Ryan Adams, the album was recorded following a stint in rehab, with Isbell noting, "This time I want to remember it all." The album was recorded without the full participation of Jason Isbell's regular backing band The 400 Unit, with Isbell noting: "It came to the nature of the songs more than anything else. It's a personal record for me, and I had gone into the studio with the intention of making more of a acoustic album. But Dave, the producer, I both sort of got bored with that idea and we decided to bring a band in for some things." The 400 Unit band members Chad Derry deBorja appear on drums and keyboards, respectively. Producer Dave Cobb encouraged Isbell to record his vocals in one take: "I think the big difference is that during the process we kept a lot of live vocal takes and I've not done that in the past.

I was sort of terrified, really. Before, we'd spend a couple days at the end of the sessions tuning everything. Dave Cobb encouraged me to sing with the live tracks while we were recording it."Isbell finished recording Southeastern one or two days before his wedding to musician Amanda Shires, saying he "even went back and did some final touches on Sunday after the wedding before we went on our honeymoon. On the title, Isbell said that geography "wasn't the reason I named the album that; that came from a tool and die shop in Alabama that my dad worked at when I was young. He came home with terrible stories. So I wanted to reclaim that for my own purposes." The album's title stems from Isbell's childhood, with Isbell stating, "My dad used to work for a tool-and-die shop when I was a kid, called Southeastern and that's how it occurred to me. I had moved from Muscle Shoals to Nashville – a year ago now — and it struck me that, at this point in my life, I don't have any interest in living in any other part of the country or the world, really."The album's fourth track, "Elephant", focuses upon cancer, with Isbell stating: "It's something that everyone has had an experience with, or they will have.

It can be difficult. You're supposed to give enough of a damn about the songs you're singing that you might get a little choked up a little during one of'em."The track, "Yvette", which deals with sexual abuse, is a companion piece to the track, "Daisy Mae", on Isbell's previous studio album, Here We Rest. He notes, "I got to a point, I guess when I was thirty, or thirty-one years old, where it occurred to me everyone you meet was sexually abused as a kid everybody, by someone; that never happened to me, believe it or not, but the percentages are just staggering, writing a song about something that's that depressing I think it's good to discuss it. Some people like to discuss those things, maybe they don't want to start the conversation themselves, but sometimes those things help folks to relate and get those things out of their system a little bit." The album debuted at No. 23 on Billboard 200, No. 7 on Top Rock Albums, selling 18,000 copies in its first week. It has sold 148,000 copies in the United States as of June 2015.

Jason Isbell – vocals, guitar Brian Allenbass guitar Chad Gamble – drums Derry deBorja – keyboards, mellotron Dave Cobb – percussion Kim Richey – vocals Amanda Shires – fiddle and vocals Paul Griffith – drums Will Johnson – vocals Dave Cobb – producer Mark Petaccia – engineer, mixing Pete Lyman – mastering Bill Satcher – runner John Michael Brady – drum tech Chris Kro – art direction Michael Wilson – photography Southeastern at iTunes.com

WikiLeaks Party

The WikiLeaks Party was a micro political party in Australia. The party was created in part to support Julian Assange's failed bid for a Senate seat in Australia in the 2013 election, where they won 0.66% of the national vote. The WikiLeaks Party national council consisted of Assange, Matt Watt, Gail Malone, Assange’s biological father John Shipton, Omar Todd and Gerry Georgatos. Assange's decision to run for the Australian Senate was announced via the WikiLeaks Twitter account in March 2012; the intent to form a WikiLeaks Party was announced by Assange in late 2012 and Assange stated that the party was to be a vehicle for his candidacy for a seat in the Australian Senate in the 2013 election. On 23 March 2013, the WikiLeaks Party submitted its registrations to the Australian Electoral Commission; the party had over 1,300 fee-paying members. The application was accepted and the party was registered as a political party on 2 July 2013; the party was involved in Glenn Druery's Minor Party Alliance around the 2013 federal election, but left after deciding not to preference as per Druery's advice.

Assange is a native of Australia. From July 2012 until his eventual eviction and arrest in April 2019, Assange lived in the Embassy of Ecuador, having been granted political asylum by Ecuador in an attempt to avoid arrest by UK authorities. Assange was unable to leave the Embassy without being arrested by the Police Forces of the United Kingdom acting on an extradition order placed on him to travel to Sweden to answer allegations of rape and sexual molestation of two Swedish women. Assange fought the extradition order in the UK Court system from December 2010, but subsequently both the UK High Court of Justice and the UK Supreme Court ruled that the extradition order had been lawfully made and duly dismissed Assange's request for an appeal against the extradition warrant; the party fielded candidates for the Australian Senate in the states of New South Wales and Western Australia. Two polling experts rated the WikiLeaks Party's electoral chances as unlikely. Christine Milne, leader of the Australian Greens, was positive about the emergence of the WikiLeaks Party as part of a move away from Australia's two-party system.

However, the Greens said they had no intention of stepping aside for Assange in the Victoria Senate election. The Socialist Equality Party reaffirmed its intention to defend Assange against persecution, but refused to endorse the WikiLeaks Party, stating that this position represents the "interests of the working class". Professor Anne Twomey, an expert on Australian constitutional law at the University of Sydney, suggested that if Assange were elected, this could be found invalid in the event of a legal challenge if a court ruled that his relationship with Ecuador breached the prohibition against the election of people "under any of allegiance, obedience or adherence to a foreign power"; the party's campaign was thrown into turmoil just weeks before the election when members objected to the party's voting preferences. In New South Wales, a fascist group was placed above the Greens while in Western Australia the National Party was placed above Greens Senator Scott Ludlam, a strong supporter of WikiLeaks and Assange.

The WikiLeaks Party blamed an unspecified "admin error" and announced an independent review would be held after the election. When National Council members complained, CEO John Shipton attempted to subvert them and create a new power base. Leslie Cannold, Assange's running mate in Victoria, resigned along with many volunteers and members of the National Council; the party published a inconclusive review by a party member five months later. Former member Gary Lord responded with a comprehensive 20-page report examining the party's failures. Assange failed in his bid for a Senate seat, it is difficult to separate out his personal vote under the single transferable vote system. The party received 33,683 votes in Victoria from electors who voted the WikiLeaks ticket with Assange at its head and Assange received an additional 8,016 first preference votes from electors who numbered the candidates individually; the party as a whole received 1.24% and reached the 26th round of ballot before being eliminated without the opportunity to receive preference flows.

The party received 88,100 votes or 0.66 % nationally. Gerry Georgatos came closest to winning a Senate seat for the WikiLeaks Party, reaching the 19th round with only seven rounds to go before being eliminated before any opportunity to receive preference flows, he fell about 3,000 primary votes short of being elected, but given that the party received only 9,767 primary votes in Western Australia, this was a large gap. The WikiLeaks Party candidates for the 2013 election were as follows: The WikiLeaks Party subscribes to a libertarian ideology. Specific policies for the 2013 election included introduction of a national shield law to protect a reporter's right not to reveal a source and "promoting free information and protection for whistle-blowers". CEO John Shipton stated that the party "stands for what Julian espouses — transparency and accountability in government and of course human rights". Assange himself has said the WikiLeaks Party would combine "a small, centralised leadership with maximum grassroots involvement" and that the party would advance WikiLeaks' objectives of promoting openness in government and politics and that it would combat intrusions on individual privacy.

The Voice of Russia stated that Shipton in an interview "praised Russian diplomatic skills and Russian President Vladimir Putin and Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov. Shipton and the WikiLeaks Party believe that the Russian President and Foreign Ministry are for

Kaalapani

Kaalapani is a 1996 Indian Malayalam-language epic historical drama film co-written and directed by Priyadarshan. Set in 1915, the film focuses on the lives of Indian freedom fighters incarcerated in the Cellular Jail in Andaman and Nicobar Islands during the British Raj; the ensemble cast includes Mohanlal, Prabhu Ganesan, Amrish Puri, Nedumudi Venu, Tinnu Anand, Annu Kapoor, Alex Draper and Vineeth. The film was produced by Mohanlal for Pranavam Arts in association with R. Mohan's Shogun Films; the film is about the lives of prisoners in British India who are brought to Kālā Pānī, the Cellular Jail in Port Blair and Nicobar Islands. The name Kalapani is derived from the mode of imprisonment in British India. Ilaiyaraaja composed the music, the cinematography was by Santosh Sivan, the editing by N. Gopalakrishnan; the film introduced Dolby Stereo into Malayalam cinema. It was made on a budget of ₹ 2.5 crore. Kaalapani was released on 12 April 1996 in 450 theaters worldwide, the largest release for any Indian film until then.

The film is now regarded as one of the classics in Malayalam cinema. Made in Malayalam, the film was dubbed and released in Hindi as Saza-E-Kala Pani, Tamil as Siraichalai, in Telugu as Kaala Pani. Amitabh Bachchan bought the Hindi dubbing rights, besides narrating the prologue for the Hindi version; the film won three National Film Awards, including the awards for Best Art Direction, Best Special Effects, Best Cinematography. Along with that it won six Kerala State Film Awards. In August 1964, G. Sethu of the Indian Army goes to Port Blair and Ross Island, Andaman & Nicobar Islands: earlier infamously called as'Kaalapani' during the British Raj, to find the whereabouts of his paternal aunt- Parvathi's husband Govardhan Menon, sent to the Cellular Jail here in Port Blair 49-50 years ago during the British Rule. Sethu, upon the recommendations of the Lieutenant Governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, is helped by the jovial and funny Nair, an official in the administration to enquire about his uncle.

He visits the once dreaded prison, which has now become a national monument and memorial, pays his tributes at the memorial stone dedicated to the heroes and martyrs who were incarcerated here during the struggle for achieving Indian independence. In an old room of the government office containing records of the prisoners held at the jail, Sethu comes across his uncle, Govardhan's records and learns his story. Govardhan, a humble Malayali from a family of wealthy Hindu landlords, is a doctor and an Indian nationalist, he was expelled from his job at Poona for holding non-violent protests against the British Government. He believes in'Ahimsa' and is against the forceful recruitment of Indians in the military by the British government to participate in the ongoing first World War, he is against his feudal cheiftain-uncle's loyalty to the British government and falls in love with Parvathi against his family's wishes. Their's was a love marriage. Parvathi is enchanted by Govardhan's personality and his determination to achieve Indian independence.

But, fate acts otherwise and he is wrongly accused of bombing a train carrying 55 people, including British officials. On their wedding day, he was arrested, leaving behind a shattered and an emotional Parvathi, was first sent to a jail in Madras, from where he was deported to the Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands for a life-term of 25 years. While in the ship taking him and the other new male and female prisoners to the island penal colony, the British captain brutally shoots down certain male convicts infected with smallpox, as he believed the disease will spread throughout the ship; the dead bodies are thrown in the Indian Ocean-Bay of Bengal route. In the Cellular Jail, hundreds of Indian prisoners from different parts of the country are incarcerated, including leading participants of the freedom movement; the inhumane conditions faced by the prisoners in the jail are depicted. David Barry is a young sadistic and arrogant jailor, of Irish descent and considers himself as'the God of Earth', while Len Hutton and his wife are kind-hearted English doctors.

Veer Savarkar is incarcerated here and tries his best to keep the spirit of the prisoners, despite going through unbelievable torture meted to them by the jail authorities. On his first day itself at the sinister prison, Govardhan witnesses many brutalities inflicted upon him and the other prisoners by the British officials and their tainted Indian police servants. There, one of the prisoners, Ram Lakhan, a Hindu Brahmin, is cruelly flogged and stripped of his sacred thread by the prison guards on the orders of the ugly and villainous jail Warden - Mirza Khan when Ram Lakhan had refused to eat his food which had a dead lizard in it. Govardhan is forced to lick and

William H. Gerstenmaier

William H. Gerstenmaier is an aerospace engineer and policymaker, who served as NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations between 2005 and July 10, 2019. While in that role, he was described as "arguably the most influential person when it comes to US spaceflight." Prior to being Associate Administrator, Gerstenmaier served as the International Space Station Office Program Manager, at Johnson Space Center, a position he began in June 2002. In February of 2020 SpaceX announced that Gerstenmaier, has joined the company as a consultant, as the company prepares to launch astronauts for the first time. Gerstenmaier was born in Akron, Ohio, in September 1954 and graduated from East High School in 1973; as a teenager he followed the early space programs of Mercury and Apollo. He had early dreams of being a test pilot, after high school, enrolled at the United States Naval Academy. After seeing so many pilots returning from the Vietnam War, he thought he may not get a chance to fly, chose to reconsider his path.

He transferred to Purdue's School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, hoping to get into flight via academics. During his time at Purdue, Gerstenmaier found a great interest in space technology, chose to focus on this area for his career. Gerstenmaier graduated with a bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University School of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1977, joined the Lewis Research Center in Ohio, beginning his career with NASA. Doing research with supersonic wind tunnels, developing air data curve information used during entry on the Space Shuttle. Gerstenmaier continued his education, obtaining his master's degree in mechanical engineering at the University of Toledo in 1981. In 1980, Gerstenmaier moved to Houston, Texas, to work at the Johnson Space Center, researching propulsion related to the Space Shuttle, was involved in the earliest phases of the International Space Station design. In 1984, he was a semi-finalist in the selection for NASA Astronaut Group 10.

In 1988, he first served as manager of Space Shuttle Program Integration, went on to serve as head of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle Operations Office. Following that, he became Director of Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Assembly Operations, was named Chief of the Projects and Facilities Branch of the Flight Design and Dynamics Division. In 1992, Gerstenmaier was given a fellowship from NASA to obtain his doctorate degree from Purdue, in 1992 and 1993, he completed course work for a doctorate in dynamics and control, with a minor in propulsion at Purdue University School of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Of the time away from NASA, he said, "It was the most humbling experience of my life."In 1995, Gerstenmaier returned to NASA as the Shuttle/Mir Program Operations Manager, was the liaison to the Russian Space Agency for operations and protocols. For the first half of 1996, he was stationed in Russia to support astronaut Shannon Lucid, who spent six months aboard Mir. In December 2000, Gerstenmaier was named Deputy Manager of the International Space Station Program.

In 2002, Gerstenmaier was named Manager of the International Space Station Program. Mike Suffredini replaced Gerstenmaier as the International Space Station Program manager. Gerstenmaier held his position as Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations from 2005 until July 10, 2019. At the date, he was reassigned to the role of special advisor to NASA Deputy Administrator Jim Morhard. On February 11, 2020 his hiring as a consultant at SpaceX was announced. Gerstenmaier has twice been awarded the Aviation Week and Space Technology's Laureate Award for "Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Space", as well as three NASA Certificates of Commendation, two NASA Exceptional Service Medals, a Senior NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, the Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Executives. In 2003, he received the Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Executives; that year he received the Outstanding Aerospace Engineer Award, Purdue University. In 2004, Gerstenmaier was selected as a finalist for the Service to America Medal, for "Leading the efforts to continue the safe operation of the International Space Station in the absence of the Space Shuttle, allowing continued research and preservation of its unique capabilities for the future."In 2006, the Huntsville National Space Club awarded him the Von Braun Award.

In 2007, The Federation of Galaxy Explorers honored Gerstenmaier with the 2007 Space Leadership Award, Purdue University honored him with the Distinguished Alumni Award, "For outstanding accomplishments in a career dedicated to the human exploration of space and international cooperation in space." In November 2008 he was honored again at Purdue as an Old Master in the 2008 Old Masters Program. Gerstenmaier received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement's National Space Trophy in 2010, Space Transportation Leadership Award, 2011, the 2011 AIAA von Braun Award for Excellence in Space Program Management and the AIAA von Karman Lectureship in Astronautics in 2012. Biography on the NASA website

Aerobic treatment system

An aerobic treatment system or ATS called an aerobic septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system similar to a septic tank system, but which uses an aerobic process for digestion rather than just the anaerobic process used in septic systems. These systems are found in rural areas where public sewers are not available, may be used for a single residence or for a small group of homes. Unlike the traditional septic system, the aerobic treatment system produces a high quality secondary effluent, which can be sterilized and used for surface irrigation; this allows much greater flexibility in the placement of the leach field, as well as cutting the required size of the leach field by as much as half. The ATS process consists of the following phases: Pre-treatment stage to remove large solids and other undesirable substances. Aeration stage, where aerobic bacteria digest biological wastes. Settling stage allows undigested solids to settle; this forms a sludge. Disinfecting stage, where chlorine or similar disinfectant is mixed with the water, to produce an antiseptic output.

Another option is UV disinfection, where the water is exposed to UV light inside of a UV disinfection unit. The disinfecting stage is optional, is used where a sterile effluent is required, such as cases where the effluent is distributed above ground; the disinfectant used is tablets of calcium hypochlorite, which are specially made for waste treatment systems. The tablets are intended to break down in sunlight. Stabilized forms of chlorine persist after the effluent is dispersed, can kill plants in the leach field. Since the ATS contains a living ecosystem of microbes to digest the waste products in the water, excessive amounts of items such as bleach or antibiotics can damage the ATS environment and reduce treatment effectiveness. Non-digestible items should be avoided, as they will build up in the system and require more frequent sludge removal. Small scale aerobic systems use one of two designs, fixed-film systems, or continuous flow, suspended growth aerobic systems; the pre-treatment and effluent handling are similar for both types of systems, the difference lies in the aeration stage.

Fixed film systems use a porous medium which provides a bed to support the biomass film that digests the waste material in the wastewater. Designs for fixed film systems vary but fall into two basic categories; the first is a system where the media is moved relative to the wastewater, alternately immersing the film and exposing it to air, while the second uses a stationary media, varies the wastewater flow so the film is alternately submerged and exposed to air. In both cases, the biomass must be exposed to both wastewater and air for the aerobic digestion to occur; the film itself may be made such as formed plastic or peat moss. Simple systems use stationary media, rely on intermittent, gravity driven wastewater flow to provide periodic exposure to air and wastewater. A common moving media system is the rotating biological contactor, which uses disks rotating on a horizontal shaft. Nearly 40 percent of the disks are submerged at any given time, the shaft rotates at a rate of one or two revolutions per minute.

CFSGAS systems, as the name implies, are designed to handle continuous flow, do not provide a bed for a bacterial film, relying rather on bacteria suspended in the wastewater. The suspension and aeration are provided by an air pump, which pumps air through the aeration chamber, providing a constant stirring of the wastewater in addition to the oxygenation. A medium to promote fixed film bacterial growth may be added to some systems designed to handle higher than normal levels of biomass in the wastewater. Another common use of aerobic treatment is for the remediation of failing or failed anaerobic septic systems, by retrofitting an existing system with an aerobic feature; this class of product, known as aerobic remediation, is designed to remediate biologically failed and failing anaerobic distribution systems by reducing the biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids of the effluent. The reduction of the BOD5 and TSS reverses the developed bio-mat. Further, effluent with high dissolved oxygen and aerobic bacteria flow to the distribution component and digest the bio-mat.

Composting toilets are designed to treat only toilet waste, rather than general residential waste water, are used with water-free toilets rather than the flush toilets associated with the above types of aerobic treatment systems. These systems treat the waste as a moist solid, rather than in liquid suspension, therefore separate urine from feces during treatment to maintain the correct moisture content in the system. An example of a composting toilet is the clivus multrum, which consists of an inclined chamber that separates urine and feces and a fan to provide positive ventilation and prevent odors from escaping through the toilet. Within the chamber, the urine and feces are independently broken down not only by aerobic bacteria, but by fungi and earthworms. Treatment times are long, with a minimum time between removals of solid waste of a year. Pathogens are eliminated from the waste by the long durations in inhospitable conditions in the treatment chamber; the aeration stage and the disinfecting stage are the primary differences from a traditional septic system.