China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Mildew is a form of fungus. It is distinguished from its related counterpart, mold by its color: moulds appear in shades of black, blue and green, whereas mildew is white, it appears as a thin, superficial growth consisting of minute hyphae produced on living plants or organic matter such as wood, paper or leather. Both mould and mildew produce distinct offensive odors, both have been identified as the cause of certain human ailments. In horticulture, mildew is either species of fungus in the order Erysiphales, or fungus-like organisms in the family Peronosporaceae, it is used more to mean mould growth. In Old English, mildew meant honeydew, came to mean mould or fungus. What horticulturalists and gardeners refer to as mildew is more powdery mildew, it is caused by many different species of fungi in the order Erysiphales. Most species are specific to a narrow range of hosts, all are obligate parasites of flowering plants; the species that affects roses is Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae. Another plant-associated type of mildew is downy mildew, caused by fungus-like organisms in the family Peronosporaceae.
They are obligate plant pathogens, the many species are each parasitic on a narrow range of hosts. In agriculture, downy mildews are a particular problem for potato, grape and cucurbits farmers; the term mildew is used generically to refer to mold growth with a flat growth habit. Moulds can thrive on many organic materials, including clothing, leather and the ceilings and floors of homes or offices with poor moisture control. Mildew can be cleaned using substances such as bleach. There are many species of mould; the black mould which grows in attics, on window sills, other places where moisture levels are moderate is Cladosporium. Color alone is not always a reliable indicator of the species of mould. Proper identification requires a mycologist. Mould growth found on cellulose-based substrates or materials where moisture levels are high is Stachybotrys chartarum. “Black mould,” known as “toxic black mould,” properly refers to S. chartarum. This species is found indoors on wet materials containing cellulose, such as wallboard, wicker, straw baskets, other paper materials.
S. chartarum does not, grow on plastic, concrete, ceramic tile, or metals. A variety of other mould species, such as Penicillium or Aspergillus, may appear to grow on non-cellulosic surfaces but are growing on the bio-film that adheres to these surfaces. Glass and concrete provide no food for organic growth and as such cannot support mould or mildew growth alone without bio-film present. In places with stagnant air, such as basements, moulds can produce a strong musty odor; the pink "mildew" found on plastic shower curtains and bathroom tile is a red yeast, Rhodotorula. Mildew requires certain factors to develop. Without any one of these, it can not grow; the requirements are a food source, sufficient ambient moisture, reasonable warmth. Acidic conditions are preferred. At warmer temperatures, air is able to hold a greater volume of water; this can work to bring moisture onto surfaces where mildew is likely to grow. Preventing the growth of mildew requires a balance between moisture and temperature either in such a way that minimal moisture is available in the air and the air temperature is low enough to inhibit growth (at or below 70 °F without causing condensation to occur, or by in such a way that warmer air temperatures, without an actual change in the amount of water vapor in that air, is by its nature "drier" than cooler air and will tend to inhibit mildew growth in this way.
Warm temperatures coupled with high relative humidity set the stage for mildew growth. Air conditioners are one effective tool for removing moisture and heat from otherwise humid warm air; the coils of an air conditioner cause moisture in the air to condense on them losing this excess moisture through a drain and placing it back into the environment. They can inhibit mildew growth by lowering indoor temperatures. In order for them to be effective, air conditioners must recirculate the existing indoor air and not be exposed to warm, humid outside air; some energy efficient air conditioners may cool a room so that they do not have an opportunity to effectively collect and drain significant ambient water vapor. Phase I environmental site assessment SAFECROP - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew
Turpan known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It has an area of 70,049 square kilometres and a population of 632,000; the original name of the city is unknown. The form Turfan, was not used until the middle of the 2nd millennium CE and its use became widespread only in the post-Mongol period. Many settlements in the Tarim Basin have been given a number of different names; some of these names have referred to more than one place: Turpan/Turfan/Tulufan is one such example. Others include Gaochang/Qocho/Karakhoja and Jiaohe/Yarkhoto; the center of the region has shifted a number of times, from Yar-Khoto to Qocho, to Turpan itself. Turpan has long been the centre of an important trade centre, it was located along the Silk Road. At that time, other kingdoms of the region included Yanqi. Along with city-states such as Krorän and Kucha, Turfan appears to have been inhabited by people speaking the Indo-European Tocharian languages in prehistory.
The Jushi Kingdom ruled the area in the 1st millennium BC, until it was conquered by the Chinese Han dynasty in 107 BC. It was subdivided into its enemy the Xiongnu Empire; the city changed hands several times between the Xiongnu and the Han, interspersed with short periods of independence. Nearer Jushi has been linked to the Turpan Oasis, while Further Jushi to the north of the mountains near modern Jimsar. After the fall of the Han dynasty in 220, the region was independent but tributary to various dynasties; until the 5th century AD, the capital of this kingdom was Jiaohe. Many Han Chinese along with Sogdians settled in Turfan during the post Han dynasty era; the Chinese character dominated Turfan in the eyes of the Sogdians. Kuchean-speakers made up the original inhabitants before the Chinese and Sogdian influx; the oldest evidence of the use of Chinese characters was found in Turfan in a document dated to 273 AD. From 487 to 541 AD, Turpan was an independent Kingdom ruled by a Turkic tribe known to the Chinese as the Tiele.
The Rouran Khaganate defeated the Tiele and subjugated Turpan, but soon afterwards the Rouran were destroyed by the Göktürks. The Tang dynasty had reconquered the Tarim Basin by the 7th century AD and for the next three centuries the Tibetan Empire, the Tang dynasty, the Turks fought over dominion of the Tarim Basin. Sogdians and Chinese engaged in extensive commercial activities with each other under Tang rule; the Sogdians were Mazdaist at this time. The Turpan region was renamed Xi Prefecture when the Tang conquered it in 640 AD, had a history of commerce and trade along the Silk Road centuries old; as a result of the Tang conquest, policies forcing minority group relocation and encouraging Han settlement led to Turpan's name in the Sogdian language becoming known as “Chinatown” or "Town of the Chinese". In Astana Cemetery, a contract written in Sogdian detailing the sale of a Sogdian girl to a Chinese man was discovered dated to 639 AD. Individual slaves were common among silk route houses.
Twenty-one 7th-century marriage contracts were found that showed, where one Sogdian spouse was present, for 18 of them their partner was a Sogdian. The only Sogdian men who married Chinese women were eminent officials. Several commercial interactions were recorded, for example a camel was sold priced at 14 silk bolts in 673, a Chang'an native bought a girl age 11 for 40 silk bolts in 731 from a Sogdian merchant. Five men swore that the girl was never free before enslavement, since the Tang Code forbade commoners to be sold as slaves; the Tang dynasty became weakened due to the An Lushan Rebellion, the Tibetans took the opportunity to expand into Gansu and the Western Regions. The Tibetans took control of Turfan in 792. Clothing for corpses was made out of discarded, used paper in Turfan, why the Astana graveyard is a source of a plethora of texts.7th or 8th century old dumplings and wontons were found in Turfan. In 803, the Uyghurs of the Uyghur Khaganate seized Turfan from the Tibetans; the Uyghur Khaganate however was destroyed by the Kirghiz and its capital Ordu-Baliq in Mongolia sacked in 840.
The defeat resulted in the mass movement of the Uyghurs out of Mongolia and their dispersal into Gansu and Central Asia, many joined other Uyghurs present in Turfan. In the early twentieth century, a collection of some 900 Christian manuscripts dating to the ninth to the twelfth centuries was found at a monastery site at Turfan; the Uyghurs established a Kingdom in the Turpan region with its capital in Kara-Khoja. The kingdom was known as the Uyghuria Idikut state or Kara-Khoja Kingdom that lasted from 856 to 1389 AD; the Uyghurs were Manichaean but converted to Buddhism and funded the construction the cave temples in the Bezeklik Caves. The Uyghurs formed an alliance with the rulers of Dunhuang; the Uyghur state became a vassal state of the Kara-Khitans, as a vassal of the Mongol Empire. This Kingdom was led by Saint Spiritual Rulers; the last Idikut left Turpan area in 1284 for Kumul, Gansu to seek protection of Yuan Dynasty, but local Uyghur Buddhist rulers still held power until the invasion by the Moghul Khizr Khoja in 1389.
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The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of different groups; the term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit word lākshā representing the number 100,000, used for both the lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion, rich in shellac, that it produces, used as wood finish in ancient India and neighbouring areas. Asian lacquerware, which may be called "true lacquer", are objects coated with the treated and dried sap of Toxicodendron vernicifluum or related trees, applied in several coats to a base, wood; this dries to a hard and smooth surface layer, durable and attractive to feel and look at. Asian lacquer is sometimes painted with pictures, inlaid with shell and other materials, or carved, as well as dusted with gold and given other further decorative treatments. In modern techniques, lacquer means a range of clear or coloured wood finishes that dry by solvent evaporation or a curing process that produces a hard, durable finish.
The finish can be of any sheen level from ultra matte to high gloss, it can be further polished as required. It is used for "lacquer paint", a paint that dries better on a hard and smooth surface. In terms of modern products for coating finishes, lac-based finishes are to be referred to as shellac, while lacquer refers to other polymers dissolved in volatile organic compounds, such as nitrocellulose, acrylic compounds dissolved in lacquer thinner, a mixture of several solvents containing butyl acetate and xylene or toluene. Lacquer is more durable than shellac; the English lacquer is from the archaic French word lacre "a kind of sealing wax", from Portuguese lacre, itself an unexplained variant of Medieval Latin lacca "resinous substance" from Arabic lakk, from Persian lak, from Hindi lakh. These derive from Sanskrit lākshā, used for both the Lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion it produces, used as wood finish. Lac resin was once imported in sizeable quantity into Europe from India along with Eastern woods.
Lacquer sheen is a measurement of the shine for a given lacquer. Different manufacturers have their own standards for their sheen; the most common names from least shiny to most shiny are: flat, egg shell, semi-gloss, gloss. In India the insect lac, or shellac was used since ancient times. Shellac is the secretion of the lac bug, it is used for the production of a red dye and pigment, for the production of different grades of shellac, used in surface coating. Urushiol-based lacquers differ from most others, being slow-drying, set by oxidation and polymerization, rather than by evaporation alone. In order for it to set properly it requires a warm environment; the phenols oxidize and polymerize under the action of an enzyme laccase, yielding a substrate that, upon proper evaporation of its water content, is hard. These lacquers produce hard, durable finishes that are both beautiful and resistant to damage by water, alkali or abrasion; the active ingredient of the resin is urushiol, a mixture of various phenols suspended in water, plus a few proteins.
The resin is derived from trees indigenous to East Asia, like lacquer tree Toxicodendron vernicifluum, wax tree Toxicodendron succedaneum. The fresh resin from the T. vernicifluum trees causes urushiol-induced contact dermatitis and great care is required in its use. The Chinese treated the allergic reaction with crushed shellfish, which prevents lacquer from drying properly. Lacquer skills became highly developed in Asia, many decorated pieces were produced. During the Shang Dynasty, the sophisticated techniques used in the lacquer process were first developed and it became a artistic craft, although various prehistoric lacquerwares have been unearthed in China dating back to the Neolithic period and objects with lacquer coating in Japan from the late Jōmon period; the earliest extant lacquer object, a red wooden bowl, was unearthed at a Hemudu culture site in China. By the Han Dynasty, many centres of lacquer production became established; the knowledge of the Chinese methods of the lacquer process spread from China during the Han and Song dynasties.
It was introduced to Korea, Japan and South Asia. Trade of lacquer objects travelled through various routes to the Middle East. Known applications of lacquer in China included coffins, music instruments and various household items. Lacquer mixed with powdered cinnabar is used to produce the traditional red lacquerware from China; the trees must be at least ten years old before cutting to bleed the resin. It sets by a process called absorbing oxygen to set. Lacquer-yielding trees in Thailand, Vietnam and Taiwan, called Thitsi, are different; the end result is similar but softer than the Japanese lacquer. Burmese lacquer sets slower, is painted by craftsmen's hands without using brushes. Raw lacquer can be "coloured" by the addition of small amounts of iron oxides, giving red or black depending on the oxide. There is some evidence that its use is older than 8,000 years from archaeological digs in China. Pigments were added to make colours, it is used not only as a finish, but mixed with ground fired and unfired clays applied to a mould
Textile arts are arts and crafts that use plant, animal, or synthetic fibers to construct practical or decorative objects. Textiles have been a fundamental part of human life since the beginning of civilization; the methods and materials used to make them have expanded enormously, while the functions of textiles have remained the same. The history of textile arts is the history of international trade. Tyrian purple dye was an important trade good in the ancient Mediterranean; the Silk Road brought Chinese silk to India and Europe. Tastes for imported luxury fabrics led to sumptuary laws during the Middle Ages and Renaissance; the Industrial Revolution was shaped by innovation in textiles technology: the cotton gin, the spinning jenny, the power loom mechanized production and led to the Luddite rebellion. The word textile is from Latin texere which means "to weave", "to braid" or "to construct"; the simplest textile art is felting, in which animal fibers are matted together using heat and moisture.
Most textile arts begin with plying fibers to make yarn. The yarn is knotted, braided, or woven to make flexible fabric or cloth, cloth can be used to make clothing and soft furnishings. All of these items – felt, yarn and finished objects – are collectively referred to as textiles; the textile arts include those techniques which are used to embellish or decorate textiles – dyeing and printing to add color and pattern. Construction methods such as sewing, knitting and tailoring, as well as the tools employed, techniques employed and the objects made all fall under the category of textile arts. From early times, textiles have been used to protect it from the elements; the persistence of ancient textile arts and functions, their elaboration for decorative effect, can be seen in a Jacobean era portrait of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales by Robert Peake the Elder. The prince's capotain hat is made of felt using the most basic of textile techniques, his clothing is made of woven cloth, richly embroidered in silk, his stockings are knitted.
He stands on an oriental rug of wool which softens and warms the floor, heavy curtains both decorate the room and block cold drafts from the window. Goldwork embroidery on the tablecloth and curtains proclaim the status of the home's owner, in the same way that the felted fur hat, sheer linen shirt trimmed with reticella lace, opulent embroidery on the prince's clothes proclaim his social position. Traditionally the term art was used to refer to any skill or mastery, a concept which altered during the Romantic period of the nineteenth century, when art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science"; this distinction between craft and fine art is applied to the textile arts as well, where the term fiber art or textile art is now used to describe textile-based decorative objects which are not intended for practical use. Natural fibers have been an important aspect of human society since 7000 B. C. and it is suspected that they were first used in ornamental cloths since 400 B.
C. in India where cotton was first grown. Natural fibers have been used for the past 4000 to 5000 years to make cloth, plant and animal fibers were the only way that clothing and fabrics could be created up until 1885 when the first synthetic fiber was made. Cotton and flax are two of the most common natural fibers that are used today, but natural fibers were made of most parts of the plant, including bark, leaf, seed hairs, sap. Flax is believed to be the oldest fiber, used to create textiles, as it was found in the tombs of mummies from as early as 6500 B. C; the fibers from the flax are taken from the filaments in the stem of the plant, spun together to create long strands, woven into long pieces of linen that were used from anything from bandages to clothing and tapestries. Each fiber's length depends on the height of the leaf that it is serving, with 10 filaments in a bundle serving each leaf on the plant; each filament is the same thickness, giving it a consistency, ideal for spinning yarn.
The yarn was best used on warping boards or warping reels to create large pieces of cloth that could be dyed and woven into different patterns to create elaborate tapestries and embroideries. One example of how linen was used is in the picture of a bandage that a mummy was wrapped in, dated between 305 and 30 B. C; some of the bandages were painted with hieroglyphs if the person being buried was of importance to the community. Cotton was first used in 5000 B. C. in India and the Middle East, spread to Europe after they invaded India in 327 B. C; the manufacture and production of cotton spread in the 18th century, it became one of the most important textile fibers because of its comfort and absorbency. Cotton fibers are seed hairs formed in a capsule; the fibers complete their growth cycle and burst to release about 30 seeds that each have between 200 and 7000 seed hairs that are between 22 and 50 millimeters long. About 90% of the seed hairs are cellulose, with the other 10% being wax, pectate and other minerals.
Once it is processed, cotton can be spun into yarn of various thicknesses to be woven or knitted into various different products such as velvet, corduroy, flannel, and
Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook. The name is derived from the French term crochet, meaning'small hook'; these are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The salient difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before the next one is begun, while knitting keeps a large number of stitches open at a time; the word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, both meaning "hook". It was used in 17th-century French lace making, crochetage designating a stitch used to join separate pieces of lace, crochet subsequently designating both a specific type of fabric and the hooked needle used to produce it. Although the fabric is not known to be crochet in the present sense, a genealogical relationship between the techniques sharing that name appears likely.
Knitted textiles survive from early periods, but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric relates to its appearance in Europe during the 19th century. Earlier work identified as crochet was made by nålebinding, a different looped yarn technique; the first known published instructions for crochet explicitly using that term to designate the craft in its present sense appeared in the Dutch magazine Penélopé in 1823. This includes a color plate showing five styles of purse of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread; the first is "simple open crochet". The second starts in a semi-open form, where chain-stitch arches alternate with long segments of slip-stitch crochet, closes with a star made with "double-crochet stitches"; the third purse is made in double-crochet. The instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle and introduce a number of decorative techniques; the earliest dated English reference to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook—shepherd's knitting—is in The Memoirs of a Highland Lady by Elizabeth Grant.
The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its subsequently published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, the actual date of publication was first in 1898. Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherd's hook, recommends its use for crochet with coarser yarn. In 1842, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states: "Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds' hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood, they have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and drawn through the work. These instruments are to be procured of various sizes..."Two years the same author, writes: "Crochet, — a species of knitting practised by the peasants in Scotland, with a small hooked needle called a shepherd’s hook, — has, within the last seven years, aided by taste and fashion, obtained the preference over all other ornamental works of a similar nature. It derives its present name from the French.
This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, both countries, although unjustifiably, have claimed the invention."An instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or Single Crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U. S. American terminology always using the latter, it equates "Double" and "French crochet". Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is solid evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet; the former method of production was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderot's Encyclopedia. The tip of the needle shown there is indistinguishable from that of a present-day inline crochet hook and the chain stitch separated from a cloth support is a fundamental element of the latter technique; the 1823 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.
This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of that work, 1847. The strong taper of the shepherd's hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time. Early yarn hooks were continuously tapered but enough to accommodate multiple loops; the design with a cylindrical shaft, commonplace today was reserved for tambour-style steel needles. Both types merged into the modern form that appeared toward the end of the 19th century, including both tapered and cylindrical segments, the continuously tapered bone hook remained in industrial production until World War II; the early instruction books make frequent reference to the alternative use of'ivory, bone, or wooden hooks' and'steel needles in a handle', as appropriate to the stitch being made. Taken with the synonymous labeling of shepherd's- and single crochet, the similar equivalence of French- and double crochet, there is a strong suggestion that crochet is rooted both in tambour embroidery and shepherd's knitting, leading to thread and yarn crochet
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China spanning the 7th to 10th centuries. It was followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty; the Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day. The Lǐ family founded the dynasty, seizing power during the collapse of the Sui Empire; the dynasty was interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people, yet when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of the population in the 9th century, it is estimated that the population had grown by to about 80 million people.
With its large population base, the dynasty was able to raise professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of thousands of troops to contend with nomadic powers in dominating Inner Asia and the lucrative trade-routes along the Silk Road. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring East Asian states such as those in Japan and Korea; the Tang dynasty was a period of progress and stability in the first half of the dynasty's rule, until the An Lushan Rebellion and the decline of central authority in the half of the dynasty. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a civil-service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office; the rise of regional military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century undermined this civil order.
Chinese culture further matured during the Tang era. Two of China's most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, Zhou Fang. Scholars of this period compiled a rich variety of historical literature, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works; the adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asia's first "simultaneous kingship". Many notable innovations occurred including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became a major influence with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, in the 840s the Emperor Wuzong of Tang enacted policies to persecute Buddhism, which subsequently declined in influence. Although the dynasty and central government had gone into decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish; the weakened central government withdrew from managing the economy, but the country's mercantile affairs stayed intact and commercial trade continued to thrive regardless.
However, agrarian rebellions in the latter half of the 9th century resulted in damaging atrocities such as the Guangzhou massacre of 878–879. The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the Sui dynasty and claimed to be paternally descended from the Daoist founder, Laozi the Han dynasty General Li Guang and Western Liang ruler Li Gao; this family was known as the Longxi Li lineage. The Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tang's Xianbei mother, Duchess Dugu. Li Yuan was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan, modern Shanxi, during the Sui dynasty's collapse, caused in part by the Sui failure to conquer the northern part of the Korean peninsula during the Goguryeo–Sui War, he had prestige and military experience, was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui. Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Chang'an, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Yang You.
On the news of Emperor Yang's murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18, 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang. Li Yuan, known as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, ruled until 626, when he was forcefully deposed by his son Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin. Li Shimin had commanded troops since the age of 18, had prowess with bow and arrow and lance and was known for his effective cavalry charges. Fighting a numerically superior army, he defeated Dou Jiande at Luoyang in the Battle of Hulao on May 28, 621. In a violent elimination of royal family due to fear of assassination, Li Shimin ambushed and killed two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and Crown prince Li Jiancheng, in the Xuanwu Gate Incident on July 2, 626. Shortly thereafter, his father abdicated in his favor and Li Shimin ascended the throne, he is conventionally known by his temple name Taizong. Although killing two brothers and deposing his father contradicted the Confucian value of filial piety, Taizong showed himself to be a capable leader who listened to the advice of the wisest members of his council.
In 628, Emperor Taizong held a Buddhist memorial service for the casualties of war, in 629 he ha