CF Chinook Centre
Chinook Centre is the largest shopping mall in Calgary, Canada. It is located near the geographic centre of the city on Macleod Trail, north of Glenmore Trail about 5 km south of downtown, three blocks west of the Chinook C-Train station; the mall is operated by Cadillac Fairview. CF Chinook Centre covers of space, includes three major anchor stores and 250 stores and restaurants; as the largest shopping destination in Calgary, it offers a range of mid-priced retailers as well as higher-end offerings in a luxury wing anchored by Saks Fifth Avenue. Junior anchors include Sport Chek, H&M, Old Navy, Chapters; the centre includes a professional tower, bowling alley, 900-seat Dining Hall, the 16-screen Scotiabank Theatre Chinook. An enclosed pedestrian bridge spanning Macleod Trail helps funnel traffic from the C-Train directly into the property; the focal point of the mall is a four-storey-high rotunda, including a time capsule at the centre's axis, set to be opened on December 31, 2999. In 1960, with Calgary's population and city limits expanding, the first section of Chinook Centre was opened August 16 on the site of the Chinook Drive-In Theatre and the adjacent Skyline drive-in and driving range.
Designed as an open-air complex, the mall was anchored by Woodward's, Holt Renfrew, a bowling alley, a branch of the Calgary Public Library. In the mid-1960s, a separate mall, was opened across the street from Chinook. Built to be a competing centre with Sears and 30 other stores, Southridge operated separately until 1974, when the malls came under common ownership and an expansion was built to bridge the centres together; the new, larger mall was renamed Chinook Ridge Shopping Centre, included a major enclosed parking structure, a movie theatre, an office tower, a food court. In the 1980s, a two-storey wing of specialty retailers was added leading to a new anchor store and a new food court; this expansion brought the mall's store count to 300. In the late 1990s, Chinook Centre underwent a $300 million, three-year renovation; the complex was rebuilt in three phases, added new stores for Sears, The Bay and Zellers, as well as the south parkade and theatre complex. The move to larger format retailers reduced the number of stores to 200.
This re-merchandising program was unkind to smaller, locally owned businesses who were squeezed out by the'upscaling' of the property. On September 29, 2010, a major 180,000-square-foot 2-level expansion was opened; the new wing added 60 new retailers, many of which were new to the Calgary market or considered high-end luxury brand stores. The expansion increased the number of retailers to 250, added two levels of underground parking. Former Anchors: Sears Canada Target Canada Zellers CF Chinook Centre is working on designs to add 2.3 million square feet of retail and mixed-use space. List of largest shopping malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Canada
Chinook is a Washington winery located in the Yakima Valley AVA. Founded in 1983 by the wife and husband team of Kay Simon and Clay Mackey, Chinook was one of the pioneering wineries that established Prosser, Washington as a major wine-producing region in Washington state. Kay Simon, who began her career after graduating in 1976 from University of California-Davis in California's San Joaquin Valley and at Chateau Ste. Michelle, was one of the first female winemaker in Washington State. Chinook wines are regarded for their quality and help spread recognition for Washington wines, they are considered by wine experts such as Paul Gregutt to be "the classic expression of Yakima Valley fruit". Chinook's work with Cabernet franc, in particular, has garnered the statewide acclaim with the dry Cabernet franc rosé described in wine reviews as a "Washington Chinon"; the winery is named after the Chinook wind that blows through the Pacific Northwest rather than the Chinook salmon, common to the region. Chinook was founded in 1983 in the Yakima Valley by the wife-husband team of Kay Simon and Clay Mackey who met while both were working at Chateau Ste.
Michelle with Simon as a winemaker and Mackey as a viticulturalist. They opened their winery at a time that the Washington wine industry began developing in leaps and bound and Chinook was part of a wave of small "mom and pop" wineries that opened in the 1980s; that same year, the Yakima Valley AVA was established as the first American Viticultural Area in Washington State. Chinook released their first wines from the 1983 harvest, a Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc in August, 1984. In November of that year they released a sparkling Riesling that they served at their wedding reception. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Chinook did much to help establish the Prosser area as a major winemaking center in the Yakima Valley, beginning with opening their tasting room off of Interstate 82 in Prosser in 1986. Chinook works with many of the best vineyards in the valley including Boushey Vineyard and Klipsun Vineyard in the Red Mountain AVA. Clay Mackey, who began his winemaking career in Napa Valley served as a mentor to Paul Champoux of the notable Horse Heaven Hills AVA vineyard Champoux Vineyard.
In 1999, both Simon and Mackey served on the committee of Washington winemakers that established the standards for the Washington Wine Quality Alliance which dictates, among other things, that no more than 10% of a winery's production can be labeled "Reserved"—a practice commonplace in many Old World wine regions such as Europe but less seen in New World wine regions. Despite their success, Chinook still maintains a low-key operation producing around 3500 cases of wine a year. Kay Simon and Clay Mackey are pouring at the tasting room themselves or making deliveries of their wines to restaurants and retailers across the state in Seattle. Raised in Northern California, Kay Simon graduated in 1976 from the enology program at University of California-Davis with a degree in fermentation science after entering college to become a nutritionist. After studying in Germany, Simon developed an interest in beer making. While studying brewing she took some winemaking courses at Davis and switched to wine because she found it more "interesting".
While at UC-Davis, Simon was one of only 3 female winemaking students in a class of 45. After receiving job offers from American brewer Anheuser-Busch and Washington winery Chateau Ste. Michelle, Simon spent some time working for large producers in California's San Joaquin Valley before moving to Washington State in 1977 to work at Chateau Ste. Michelle where she worked with the Washington producer's red wines. After leaving Chateau Ste. Michelle, Simon did some consulting work with other Washington wineries prior to starting Chinook with her husband Clay Mackey in 1984. Among her accomplishments, Simon was elected vice-president of the Washington Wine Institute, one of the main trade associations for the Washington wine industry, in 1985 and in 2008 she received a lifetime achievement award for her contributions to the Washington wine industry at the annual Auction of Washington Wines gala. Clay Mackey came from a vine growing family in California's Napa Valley where he worked at the family vineyard in the early 1970s.
In 1979, he headed to Washington State where he served as the Eastern Washington vineyard manager for Chateau Ste. Michelle until 1982. There he met assistant winemaker Kay Simon and the two were married in 1983. Chinook wines are made to pair well with food, they are fermented to dryness and aged in both the barrel and bottle until Simon and Mackey feel that they are ready. Among the grape varieties that Chinook works with are Chardonnay, Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet franc which they produce in both a varietal style and as a dry rosé. While many of Chinook's wines have received acclaim, the dry rosé has garnered a reputation in Washington state as an "cult wine" that sells outs and is only found on select restaurant wine lists. Chinook Wines - Official site The Chinook Winemaking Process-Grape to Bottle
Chinook is a city in and the county seat of Blaine County, United States. The population was 1,203 at the 2010 census. Points of interest are the Bear Paw Battlefield Museum located in the small town's center and the Bear Paw Battlefield, located just twenty miles south of Chinook. Chinook is located at 48°35′N 109°14′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.51 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,203 people, 599 households, 313 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,358.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 697 housing units at an average density of 1,366.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.4% White, 9.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 599 households of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.7% were non-families.
43.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age in the city was 46.7 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,386 people, 657 households, 375 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,693.2 people per square mile. There were 732 housing units at an average density of 1,422.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.34% White, 0.36% African American, 6.35% "Native American", 0.07% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 1.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.58% of the population. There were 657 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.9% were non-families.
39.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 23.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 89.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,461, the median income for a family was $35,577. Males had a median income of $26,667 versus $20,179 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,038. About 12.1% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.8% of those under age 18 and 20.1% of those age 65 or over. Chinook experiences a semi-arid climate with long, dry winters and hot, wetter summers. Chinook High School experienced national notoriety when a USA today contest was held to discover the nation's oddest mascot.
Chinook's mascot, the Sugarbeeter, finished third in the voting and has since been the topic of multiple articles. Chinook has been home to the Sugarbeeters since the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, which had a factory in the town, helped purchase the jerseys for the boy's basketball team in 1929. Since the team made their debut in the jerseys, which presented a Sugarbeet logo on the front, the nickname has been adopted; the factory is long gone. Elliott Blackstone, sergeant of the San Francisco Police Department and longtime advocate for LGBT rights, was born here. Chet Blaylock, former member of the Montana State Senate, taught school here. U. S. Grant Sharp, Jr. former United States Navy four star admiral and Commander in Chief of the United States Pacific Fleet, was born here. Mike Tilleman, NFL defensive tackle, was born here. Ken Overcast, Montana Cowboy award-winning singer, story teller and songwriter lives on their ranch near here with his wife, Dawn. Chauncey L. Austad, Retired SGM United States ARMY, Field Artillery, 26 years active duty and 17 years Federal Employee Service for a total of 43 years of service, was born here.
Ian McIntosh, All World Quarterback, was born here. Zachary Schellin, All World Left Guard, was born here
Chinookan peoples include several groups of indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest in the United States who speak the Chinookan languages. In the early 19th century, the Chinookan-speaking peoples resided along the Lower and Middle Columbia River from the river's gorge downstream to the river's mouth, along adjacent portions of the coasts, from Tillamook Bay of present-day Oregon in the south, north to Willapa Bay in southwest Washington. In 1805 the Lewis and Clark Expedition encountered the Chinook tribe on the lower Columbia; the name ″Chinook″ came from a Chehalis word Tsinúk for the inhabitants of and a particular village site on Baker Bay. Since the late 20th century, the unrecognized Chinook Indian Nation of Washington made up of 2700 members of westernmost Lower Chinook peoples, has worked to obtain federal recognition, it gained this in 2001 from the Department of Interior under President Bill Clinton. After President George W. Bush was elected, his political appointees reviewed the case and, in a unusual action, revoked the recognition.
The tribe has sought Congressional support for recognition by the legislature. However, it has been determined by the US government that the Chinook Indian Nation does not meet the seven criteria established by law to be recognized as a tribe; the unrecognized Tchinouk Indians of Oregon trace their Chinook ancestry to two Chinook women who married French Canadians traders from the Hudson's Bay Company prior to 1830. The specific Chinook band these women were from or if they were Lower or Upper Chinook could not be determined; these individuals, settled in the French Prairie region of northwestern Oregon, becoming part of the community of French-Canadians and Métis. There is no evidence; the Chinook Indian Nation denied that the Tchinouk had any common history with them or any organizational affiliation. On January 16, 1986, the Bureau of Indian Affairs determined that the Tchinouk Indians of Oregon do not meet the requirements necessary to be a federally recognized tribe; the unrecognized Clatsop-Nehalem Confederate Tribes has 130 members today and claim to have Clatsop and Salish-speaking Tillamook ancestry, contested by the Chinook Indian Nation.
The Chinookan peoples were settled and occupied traditional tribal geographic areas, where they hunted and fished. The women gathered and processed many nuts, seeds and other foods, they had a society marked by social stratification, consisting of a number of distinct social castes of greater or lesser status. Upper castes included shamans and successful traders, they composed a minority of the community population compared to common members. Members of the superior castes are said to have practiced social discrimination, limiting contact with commoners and forbidding play between the children of the different social groups; some Chinookan peoples practiced slavery, a practice borrowed from the northernmost tribes of the Pacific Northwest. They took slaves as captives in warfare, used them to practice thievery on behalf of their masters; the latter refrained from such practices as unworthy of high status. The elite of some Chinookan tribes had the practice of head binding, flattening their children's forehead and top of the skull as a mark of social status.
They bound the infant's head under pressure between boards when the infant was about 3 months old and continued until the child was about one year of age. This custom was a means of marking social hierarchy; those with flattened skulls refused to enslave other persons who were marked, thereby reinforcing the association of a round head with servility. The Chinook were known colloquially by early white explorers in the region as "Flathead Indians." Living near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, the Chinook were skilled elk fishermen. The most popular fish was salmon. Owing to their settled living patterns, the Chinook and other coastal tribes had little conflict over land, as they did not migrate through each other's territories and they had rich resources in the natural environment. In the manner of numerous settled tribes, the Chinook resided in long houses. More than fifty people, related through extended kinship resided in one long house, their long houses were made of planks made from red cedar trees.
The houses were 50-150 feet long. The Chinook peoples have long had a community on the lower Columbia River, they re-organized in the 20th century, setting up an elected form of government and reviving tribal culture. They first sought recognition as a federally recognized sovereign tribe in the late 20th century, as this would provide certain benefits for education and welfare; the Department of Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs rejected their application in 1997. Since the late 20th century, the Chinook Indian Nation has engaged in a continuing effort to secure formal recognition, conducting research and developing documentation to demonstrate its history, they are referred to in government and historic accounts, but never made a treaty with the government to cede land and establish a reservation, which would have meant automatic recognition. In 2001, the U. S. Department of Interior recognized the Chinook Indian Nation, a confederation of the Cathlamet, Lower Chinook and Willapa Indians, as a tribe, according to its rules estab
The Chinook salmon is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. The common name refers to the Chinookan peoples. Other vernacular names for the species include king salmon, Quinnat salmon, spring salmon, chrome hog, Tyee salmon; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name chavycha. Chinook are anadromous fish native to the North Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America, ranging from California to Alaska, as well as Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Arctic north-east Siberia, they have been introduced to other parts of the world, including New Zealand, the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia. A large Chinook is a sought-after catch for a sporting angler; the flesh of the salmon is highly valued for its dietary nutritional content, which includes high levels of important omega-3 fatty acids. Some populations are endangered; the Chinook salmon has not been assessed for the IUCN Red List. According to NOAA the Chinook salmon population along the California coast is declining, due to factors like overfishing, loss of freshwater and estuarine habitat, hydropower development, poor ocean conditions, hatchery practices.
The native distribution of Chinook salmon in North America ranged from the Ventura River in California in the south to Kotzebue Sound in Alaska in the north. Populations have disappeared from large areas where they once flourished, shrinking by as much as 40 percent. In some regions, their inland range has been cut off by dams and habitat alterations: from Southern California, some areas east of the Coast Ranges of California and Oregon, large areas in the Snake River and upper Columbia River drainage basins. In certain areas like California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, it was revealed that low populations of juvenile Chinook salmon were surviving. In the western Pacific, the distribution ranges from northern Japan in the south to the Arctic Ocean as far as the East Siberian Sea and Palyavaam River in the north, they are present and the distribution is well known only in Kamchatka. Elsewhere, information is scarce, but they have a patchy presence in the Anadyr River basin and parts of the Chukchi Peninsula.
In parts of the northern Magadan Oblast near the Shelikhov Gulf and Penzhina Bay stocks might persist, but remain poorly studied. In 1967, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources planted Chinook in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to control the alewife, an invasive species of nuisance fish from the Atlantic Ocean. Alewives constituted 90% of the biota in these lakes. Coho salmon had been planted the year before and the program was a success. Chinook and Coho salmon spawned in the lakes' tributaries. After this success, Chinook were planted in the other Great Lakes, where sport fishermen prize them for their aggressive behavior on the hook; the species has established itself in Patagonian waters in South America, where both introduced and escaped hatchery fish have colonized rivers and established stable spawning runs. Chinook salmon have been found spawning in headwater reaches of the Rio Santa Cruz having migrated over 1,000 km from the ocean; the population is thought to be derived from a single stocking of juveniles in the lower river around 1930.
Sporadic efforts to introduce the fish to New Zealand waters in the late 1800s were failures and led to no evident establishments. Early ova were imported from the Baird hatchery of the McCloud River in California. Further efforts in the early 1900s were more successful and subsequently led to the establishment of spawning runs in the rivers of Cantebury and North Otago; the success of the latter introductions is thought to be attributable to the use of ova from autumn-run populations as opposed to ova from spring-run populations used in the first attempts. Whilst other salmon have been introduced into New Zealand, only Chinook salmon have established sizeable pelagic runs; the Chinook is blue-green, red, or purple on the back and top of the head, with silvery sides and white ventral surfaces. It has the upper half of its body. Chinook have a Black gum line, present in both salt and freshwater. Adult fish may be up to 58 in in length. In the Kenai River of Alaska, mature Chinook averaged 16.8 kg.
The current sport-caught world record, 97.25 lb, was caught on May 1985, in the Kenai River. The commercial catch world record is 126 lb caught near Rivers Inlet, British Columbia, in the late 1970s. Chinook may spend one to eight years in the ocean before returning to their home rivers to spawn; the salmon undergo radical morphological changes as they prepare for the spawning event ahead. All salmon lose the silvery blue they had as ocean fish, their colour darkens, sometimes with a radical change in hue. Salmon are sexually dimorphic, the male salmon develop canine-like teeth and their jaws develop a pronounced curve or hook, called a "kype". Studies have shown that larger and more dominant male salmon have a reproductive advantage as female Chinook are more aggressive toward smaller males. Chinook spawn in larger and deeper waters than other salmon species and can be found on the spawning redds from Sept
Washington State Route 410
State Route 410 is a 107.44-mile long state highway that traverses Pierce and Yakima counties in the US state of Washington. It begins at an interchange with SR 167 in Sumner and travels southeast across the Cascade Range to a junction with U. S. Route 12 in Naches. While the western part of SR 410 is a freeway that serves built-up, urban areas, the remainder of the route is a surface road that traverses rural areas as it passes through the mountains; the route starts as a limited-access southerly bypass of Downtown Sumner, but becomes a surface road east of the city. Traveling eastward, the roadway serves Bonney Lake and Buckley, crosses and parallels the White River into Enumclaw and Greenwater. SR 410 enters the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest and heads into Mount Rainier National Park, crossing the Cayuse and Chinook passes, leaves the park southeast along the American River into Wenatchee National Forest. SR 410 leaves the national forest and travels parallel to the Naches River to end in Naches, a city located west of Yakima.
The Chinook Scenic Byway begins in Enumclaw and follows the highway through the two national forests and Mount Rainier National Park to US 12 in Naches. Modern SR 410 was parts of various state wagon roads until 1926 when US 410 was established, extending from Aberdeen to Lewiston, Idaho. US 410 was decommissioned after US 12 was extended over the majority of the highway in 1967, bypassing Olympia and Chinook Pass. A segment of former US 410 from Elma to Olympia became SR 8 and the Tacoma to Naches segment became SR 410; the highway was shortened to end in Sumner and was replaced by SR 167 from Tacoma to Sumner. SR 410 begins as a freeway at an interchange with SR 167 near Downtown Sumner; the highway travels southeast across suburban areas, crossing the Stuck River and passing a partial cloverleaf interchange with Linden Drive named Traffic Avenue. After a second partial cloverleaf interchange with Thompson Avenue, SR 410 goes under a railroad trestle owned by BNSF Railway and used by Amtrak's Cascades rail service, near the northern bank of the Puyallup River.
After turning northeast, SR 410 encounters the western terminus of SR 162 by way of a diamond interchange. SR 162 travels north into Downtown Sumner as Valley Avenue and south over the Puyallup River towards Orting; the freeway section near the interchange was the busiest recorded part of SR 410 in 2008 with a daily average of 59,000 motorists using the freeway. Continuing northeast, SR 410 connects to 166th Avenue and turns southeast as an undivided highway into the community of Bonney Lake. East of Bonney Lake, the roadway heads east, passing two shopping centers before entering Buckley and intersecting SR 165. In Buckley, the street travels northeast through Downtown and turns north to cross the White River and enter King County. After leaving Pierce County, the highway travels northeast through rural areas into Enumclaw and passes Enumclaw High School before turning east and being renamed Roosevelt Avenue; as Roosevelt Avenue, the street intersects Griffin Avenue designated SR 164, which travels northwest to SR 169 and Auburn.
The roadway, now named the Chinook Scenic Byway, passes by the King County Fairgrounds and Enumclaw King County Park. Leaving Enumclaw in a southeastern direction, SR 410 begins to parallel the White River upriver into Federation Forest State Park, a 619-acre state park consisting of old growth evergreen forests; the highway crosses the Greenwater River, northeast of its confluence with the White River, re-enters Pierce County. The bridge ends in the community of Greenwater, named for the river, where the roadway encounters Forest Road 70, proposed to become SR 168 over Naches Pass as an alternative to the Chinook Scenic Byway. From Greenwater, the road travels south alongside the White River into Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, passing Ranger Creek State Airport, a state-owned airport, open in the summer and early fall; the byway travels south into Mount Rainier National Park. SR 410 is closed at the gate to Morse Creek, about 5 miles east of the Chinook Pass Summit during the winter and early spring due to high wind, limited cell service and avalanche danger.
It intersects SR 123 at Cayuse Pass. SR 410 turns east at the intersection and heads through a series of hairpin turns, passing Tipsoo Lake, to Chinook Pass. Chinook Pass is the border between Pierce and Yakima counties and Mount Rainier National Park and the Wenatchee National Forest; the pass is where the highway crosses the Pacific Crest Trail, a National Scenic Trail, completed in 1993. East of Chinook Pass, the roadway begins to parallel the American River northeast to follow the Little Naches River, which becomes the Naches River. After a junction with the other end of the proposed SR 168, named Little Naches Road, the highway exits the Wenatchee National Forest and enters Naches; the byway ends at US 12 in Naches near the Naches Selah Canal. The first portion of SR 410, defined under law to be built by the state of Washington was a state wagon road that extended from a county road in King County to a county road near Naches; the road ran up alongside the White River until it reached the summit of the Cascades and continued traveling down parallel to the American River before ending at the county road connecting to Naches.
This road was approved and built in 1897, making it one of the oldest state roads in Washington state. In 1905, the road became known as State Road 1 and was incorporated into the first state highway system. By 1907, the road was named the White River – Natches Road and was shortened to end at Cedar Springs; the rest of the road was tr
Chinook winds, or Chinooks, are föhn winds in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains meet various mountain ranges, although the original usage is in reference to wet, warm coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest. Chinook is claimed by popular folk-etymology to mean'ice-eater', however it is the name of the people in the region where the usage was first derived; the reference to a wind or weather system, simply'a Chinook' meant a warming wind from the ocean into the interior regions of the Pacific Northwest of the USA. A strong föhn wind can make snow one foot deep vanish in one day; the snow melts and sublimates in the dry wind. Chinook winds have been observed to raise winter temperature from below −20 °C to as high as 10–20 °C for a few hours or days temperatures plummet to their base levels; the greatest recorded temperature change in 24 hours was caused by Chinook winds on 15 January 1972, in Loma, Montana. Chinooks are most prevalent over southern Alberta in Canada in a belt from Pincher Creek and Crowsnest Pass through Lethbridge, which get 30–35 Chinook days per year, on average.
Chinooks become less frequent further south in the United States, are not as common north of Red Deer, but they can and do occur annually as far north as High Level in northwestern Alberta and Fort St. John in northeastern British Columbia, as far south as Las Vegas, to Carlsbad, in eastern New Mexico. In southwestern Alberta, Chinook winds can gust in excess of hurricane force 120 km/h. On 19–November 1962, an powerful Chinook in Lethbridge gusted to 171 km/h. In Pincher Creek, the temperature rose by 41 °C, from −19 to 22 °C, in one hour in 1962. Trains have been known to be derailed by Chinook winds. During the winter, driving can be treacherous, as the wind blows snow across roadways, sometimes causing roads to vanish and snowdrifts to pile up higher than a metre. Empty semitrailer trucks driving along Highway 3 and other routes in southern Alberta have been blown over by the high gusts of wind caused by Chinooks. Calgary, Alberta gets many Chinooks – the Bow Valley in the Canadian Rockies west of the city acts as a natural wind tunnel, funneling the chinook winds.
On 27 February 1992, Alberta a small city just south of Calgary. These are some of Canada's highest February temperatures; the Chinook can seem to do battle with the Arctic air mass at times. It is not unheard of for people in Lethbridge to complain of −20 °C temperatures while those in desert region, just 77 km down the road, enjoy 10 °C temperatures; this clash of temperatures can remain stationary, or move back and forth, in the latter case causing such fluctuations as a warm morning, a bitterly cold afternoon, a warm evening. A curtain of fog accompanies the clash between warm to the west and cold to the east. One of its most striking features is the Chinook arch, a föhn cloud in the form of a band of stationary stratus clouds caused by air rippling over the mountains due to orographic lifting. To those unfamiliar with it, the Chinook arch may look like a threatening storm cloud at times. However, they produce rain or snow, they can create stunning sunrises and sunsets. The stunning colours seen in the Chinook arch are quite common.
The colours will change throughout the day, starting with yellow, orange and pink shades in the morning as the sun comes up, grey shades at midday changing to pink / red colours, orange / yellow hues just before the sun sets. The Chinook is a föhn wind, a rain shadow wind which results from the subsequent adiabatic warming of air which has dropped most of its moisture on windward slopes; as a consequence of the different adiabatic rates of moist and dry air, the air on the leeward slopes becomes warmer than equivalent elevations on the windward slopes. As moist winds from the Pacific are forced to rise over the mountains, the moisture in the air is condensed and falls out as precipitation, while the air cools at the moist adiabatic rate of 5 °C / 1000 m; the dried air descends on the leeward side of the mountains, warming at the dry adiabatic rate of 10 °C / 1000 m. The turbulence of the high winds can prevent the usual nocturnal temperature inversion from forming on the lee side of the slope, allowing night-time temperatures to remain elevated.
Quite when the Pacific Northwest coast is being drenched by rain, the windward side of the Rockies is being hammered by snow, the leeward side of the Rockies in Alberta is basking in a föhn Chinook. The three different weather conditions are all caused by the same flow of air, hence the confusion over the use of the name "Chinook wind". Two common cloud patterns seen during this time are a chinook arch overhead, a bank of clouds obscuring the mountains to the west, it does not advance any further east. A Chinook is preceded by a "Manyberries Chinook" during the end of a cold spell; this southeast wind was named for the small village Manyberries, now a hamlet, in southeastern Alberta, from where the wind seems to originate. It can be strong and cause bitter windchill and blowing snow; the wind will swing around to the southwest and the temperature rises as the real Chinook arrives. The term Chinook wind is used i