Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez is a Filipino jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 2000 to 2008. She was the last appointment to the Court made by President Joseph Estrada. Sandoval-Gutierrez earned her law degree from the University of Santo Tomas in 1960. After two years working at the National Bureau of Investigation, Sandoval-Gutierrez joined the Department of Justice in 1965, she worked as an attorney for the Supreme Court. In 1983, Sandoval-Gutierrez was appointed as a trial court judge in Manila, she was promoted as an Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals by President Corazon Aquino in 1991. She served in the appellate court until her appointment to the Supreme Court in 2000. In pursuit of post-graduate studies attended Harvard Law School Courses in 1989 and 1994, taking up Constitutional Law, Advanced Constitutional Law, Legal Medicine, Family Law and Federal Courts, she studied, as a fellow and International Law at the Academy of the American and International Law, University of Texas in Dallas.
She attended the course on trial techniques at the National Judicial College, University of Nevada at Reno and took up management and delinquency control at the University of Southern California Delinquency Control Institute, Los Angeles. Among many various honors, Sandoval-Gutierrez was the first recipient of the prestigious Cayetano Arellano Award as an Outstanding RTC Judge of the Philippines for 1990, she has the distinction of being the first winner in the judicial essay/best written decision contest among Regional Trial Court women judges sponsored by the Philippine Women Judges Association yearly for having written the best “Proposed Innovations in Judicial Management and Procedure.” From 2007 up to present, Sandoval-Gutierrez has served as the Dean of the Graduate School of Law of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. Sandoval-Gutierrez was married to the late National Bureau of Investigation Assistant Director Diego H. Gutierrez, who died in 2002, they have three children: Aileen Marie is the City Prosecutor of Muntinlupa City whose husband, Robert Victor C.
Marcon, is the Presiding Judge of the Regional Trial Court, Branch 54, Lucena City. He works in the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D. C.. On May 14, 2000, Sandoval-Gutierrez was bestowed the “Ulirang Ina Award” by the National Mother’s Day and Father’s Day Foundation. Sandoval-Gutierrez' heritage and landmark Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez Ancestral House and Memorabilia is located at her home town of Barangay Concepcion, Batangas. Estrada v. Desierto - Separate Opinion — on the validity of assumption to the presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Long v. Basa — on availability of judicial remedies following expulsion of board members in a religious corporation Prov. of Camarines Sur v. Prov. of Quezon — on boundary dispute between Camarines Sur and Quezon Chavez v. Romulo — on the right to bear arms in the Philippines Batangas CATV v. Court of Appeals — on right of municipal governments to regulate cable TV subscription rates MTRCB v. ABS-CBN — on whether a public affairs television program may be subjected to prior review by the government television review board Republic v. Lim — on enforcement of just compensation in eminent domain David v. Ermita - on constitutionality of declaration of February 2006 declaration of state of emergency Sabio v. Gordon — on immunity of PCGG officials from attendance in congressional hearings Justice Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
United Nations Commission on Human Rights
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006. It was a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council, was assisted in its work by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, it was the UN's principal mechanism and international forum concerned with the promotion and protection of human rights. On 15 March 2006, the UN General Assembly voted overwhelmingly to replace UNCHR with the UN Human Rights Council; the UNCHR was established in 1946 by ECOSOC, was one of the first two "Functional Commissions" set up within the early UN structure. It was a body created under the terms of the United Nations Charter to which all UN member states are signatories, it met for the first time in January 1947 and established a drafting committee for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations on December 10, 1948.
The body went through two distinct phases. From 1947 to 1967, it concentrated on promoting human rights and helping states elaborate treaties, but not on investigating or condemning violators, it was a period of strict observance of the sovereignty principle. In 1967, the Commission adopted interventionism as its policy; the context of the decade was of Decolonization of Africa and Asia, many countries of the continent pressed for a more active UN policy on human rights issues in light of massive violations in apartheid South Africa. The new policy meant that the Commission would investigate and produce reports on violations. To allow better fulfillment of this new policy, other changes took place. In the 1970s, the possibility of geographically-oriented workgroups was created; these groups would specialize their activities on the investigation of violations on a given region or a single country, as was the case with Chile. With the 1980s came the creation of theme-oriented workgroups, which would specialize in specific types of abuses.
None of these measures, were able to make the Commission as effective as desired because of the presence of human rights violators and the politicization of the body. During the following years until its extinction, the UNCHR became discredited among activists and governments alike; the Commission held its final meeting in Geneva on March 27, 2006 and was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in the same year. The Commission on Human Rights was intended to examine and publicly report on human rights situations in specific countries or territories as well as on major phenomena of human rights violations worldwide; the Human Rights division of the U. N. is expected to uphold and protect the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. At the time it was extinguished, the Commission consisted of representatives drawn from 53 member states, elected by the members of ECOSOC. There were no permanent members. Seats on the Commission were apportioned by region, using the mechanism of the United Nations Regional Groups.
During its last year of service in 2005, the representation by region was as follows: 15 from the African Group: Burkina Faso, Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe 12 from the Asian Group: Bhutan, People's Republic of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka 5 from the Eastern European Group: Armenia, Romania, Russian Federation, Ukraine 11 from the Latin American and Caribbean Group: Argentina, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru 10 from the Western European and Others Group: Australia, Finland, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, United StatesThe Commission would meet each year in regular session for six weeks during March and April in Geneva, Switzerland. In January 2004, Australia was elected as chair of the 60th Session. In January 2005, Indonesia was elected chair of the 61st Session. Peru was elected chair of the 62nd Session in January 2006; the Commission held its final meeting in Geneva on March 27, 2006.
In 1999 the Economic and Social Council changed its title from the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities to the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights". The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights was the main subsidiary body of the Commission on Human Rights, it was composed of twenty-six experts whose responsibility was to undertake studies in light of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, make recommendations to the Commission concerning the prevention of discrimination of any kind relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms and the protection of racial, national and linguistic minorities. Membership was selected with regard to equitable geographical distribution; the Sub-Commission established seven Working Groups that investigate specific human rights concerns, including: Minorities Transnational corporations Administration of justice Anti-terrorism Contemporary Forms of Slavery Indigenous Populations Communication Social ForumThe United Nations Human Rights Council assumed responsibility for the Sub-Commission when it replaced the Commission on Human Rights in 2006
Miriam Defensor Santiago
Miriam Palma Defensor Santiago was a Filipino academic, judge and statesman, who served in all three branches of the Philippine government: judicial and legislative. She worked at the United Nations while studying abroad; some of her alma maters are University of the Philippines, University of Michigan, Oxford University, Maryhill School of Theology, University of California, Harvard University, University of Cambridge. Defensor Santiago was named one of The 100 Most Powerful Women in the World in 1997 by The Australian magazine, she was a long-serving Senator of the Republic of the Philippines. In 1988, Defensor Santiago was named laureate of the Ramon Magsaysay Award for government service, with a citation for bold and moral leadership in cleaning up a graft-ridden government agency, she was controversially defeated. In 2012, Defensor Santiago became the first Filipina and the first Asian from a developing country to be elected a judge of the International Criminal Court, she resigned the post, citing chronic fatigue syndrome, which turned out to be lung cancer.
In 2016, she became part of the International Advisory Council of the International Development Law Organization, an intergovernmental body that promotes the rule of law. Defensor Santiago served three terms in the Philippine Senate. On 13 October 2015, Defensor Santiago declared her candidacy for President of the Philippines in the 2016 elections after her doctors from the United States declared her cancer'stable' and'receded', but lost in the elections. In December 2018, the prestigious Quezon Service Cross was posthumously conferred upon Santiago, making her the first and only woman and the sixth person since 1946 to be enthroned in the country's highest roster. Defensor Santiago was known as the Dragon Lady, the Platinum Lady, the Incorruptible Lady, the Tiger Lady, most popularly, the Iron Lady of Asia, she is colloquially known in Philippine pop culture as Miriam or MDS. Defensor Santiago was born Miriam Palma Defensor in Iloilo City, to Benjamin Defensor, a local judge, Dimpna Palma, a schoolteacher.
She was the eldest of seven children. She graduated valedictorian in high school, undergraduate school, she graduated high school in Iloilo Provincial High School and served as the Editor-in-Chief of the said high school's student publication "The Ilonggo". In 1965, Defensor Santiago graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science, magna cum laude from the University of the Philippines Visayas. After graduation, she was elected to the Pi Gamma Phi Kappa Phi honor societies, she proceeded to the University of the Philippines College of Law. There, she was champion in numerous oratorical debates, she became the first female editor of the student newspaper, The Philippine Collegian, was twice appointed ROTC muse. She graduated Bachelor of Laws, cum laude, from the University of the Philippines College of Law in Diliman. Defensor Santiago went on a fellowship to the United States, earned the Master of Laws and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
She finished both degrees in a period of only one and a half years. Following school, she took a position as special assistant to the Secretary of Justice, she taught political science at the Trinity University of Asia. She was law professor at the University of the Philippines Diliman, teaching evening classes for some ten years, she has studied including Oxford and Harvard law summer schools. She earned the degree Master of Religious Studies at the Maryhill School of Theology. In Oxford, she was a research fellow at St. Hilda's College and took a summer program in law at St. Edmund's Hall. At Cambridge, she was a research fellow at the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law, she became a special assistant to the Secretary of Justice for ten years after her higher studies abroad. At a young age, she became a legal officer to the United Nations afterwards due to her constitutional and international law knowledge and experience. Defensor Santiago served as Legal Officer of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees at Geneva, Switzerland.
She was assigned to the Conferences and Treaties Section. She became skilled at treaty drafting, she resigned her position. Defensor Santiago was appointed judge of the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City, Metro Manila by President Ferdinand Marcos, she was the youngest judge appointed to Metro Manila, exempted from the practice of first serving as a judge outside Metro Manila. As a RTC judge, she proclaimed a "no postponement" policy. At that time, cases were tried in segments that were a month apart, resulting in trials that took years to finish. Lawyers were prone to seek postponement of trial; as a result, trial judges scheduled ten or fifteen cases a day, so that they could make up for cases postponed. Defensor Santiago scheduled only five cases a day, heard each case, disposed of the highest number of cases in her first year in office. Defensor Santiago became nationally famous when she issued the first decision to rule against martial law. At that time, alleged illegal public assemblies were declared as crimes and were punishable by death.
A large group of activist students from the University of the Philippines and Ateneo, as well as activists in the film industry, staged a rally in a central business district, denounced the First Lady for her excesses. To retaliate, Marcos issued a Preventive Detention Action order which authorized the
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Incarceration in the United States
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2016 in the US, there were 655 people incarcerated per 100,000 population; this is the US incarceration rate for people tried as adults. In 2016, 2.2 million Americans have been incarcerated, which means for every 100,000 there are 655 that are inmates. This costs the United States government $80 billion dollars a year. Additionally, 4,751,400 adults in 2013 were on parole. In total, 6,899,000 adults were under correctional supervision in 2013 – about 2.8% of adults in the U. S. resident population. In 2014, the total number of persons in the adult correctional systems had fallen to 6,851,000 persons 52,200 fewer offenders than at the year end of 2013 as reported by the BJS. About 1 in 36 adults were under some form of correctional supervision – the lowest rate since 1996.
On average, the correctional population has declined by 1.0% since 2007. In 2016, the total number of persons in U. S. adult correctional systems was an estimated 6,613,500. From 2007 to 2016, the correctional population decreased by an average of 1.2% annually. By the end of 2016 1 in 38 persons in the United States were under correctional supervision. In addition, there were 54,148 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2013. Although debtor's prisons no longer exist in the United States, residents of some U. S. states can still be incarcerated for debt as of 2016. The Vera Institute of Justice reported in 2015 that majority of those incarcerated in local and county jails are there for minor violations, have been jailed for longer periods of time over the past 30 years because they are unable to pay court-imposed costs. According to a 2014 Human Rights Watch report, "tough-on-crime" laws adopted since the 1980s, have filled U. S. prisons with nonviolent offenders. However, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that, as of the end of 2015, 54% of state prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year were serving time for a violent offense.
Fifteen percent of state prisoners at year-end 2015 had been convicted of a drug offense as their most serious. In comparison, 47% of federal prisoners serving time in September 2016 were convicted of a drug offense; this policy failed to rehabilitate prisoners and many were worse on release than before incarceration. Rehabilitation programs for offenders can be more cost effective than prison. According to a 2015 study by the Brennan Center for Justice, falling crime rates cannot be ascribed to mass incarceration. Conversely, Steven Levitt showed in a 2004 paper that at least 58% of the violent crime drop in the 1990s was due to incarceration. According to a 2016 analysis of federal data by the U. S. Education Department and local spending on incarceration has grown three times as much as spending on public education since 1980. Throughout the 1500s, the people of England considered idleness to be the cause of many crimes, therefore found the solution to be creating workhouses as a system to rehabilitate criminals.
Though many of the first people in the foundation of these "houses of correction" were vagrants without homes. In the 1700s, English philanthropists began to focus on the reform of convicted criminals in prisons, which they believed needed a chance to become morally pure in order to stop or slow crime. Since at least 1740, some of these philosophers began thinking of solitary confinement as a way to create and maintain spiritually clean people in prisons; as English people immigrated to North America, so did these theories of penology. Spanish colonizers brought ideas on confinement. Spanish soldiers in St. Augustine, Florida built the first substantial prison; some of the first structures built in English-settled America were jails, by the 18th century, every English North American county had a jail. These jails served a variety of functions such as a holding place for debtors, prisoners-of-war, political prisoners, those bound in the penal transportation and slavery systems, of those accused-of but not tried for crimes.
Sentences for those convicted of crimes were longer than three months, lasted only a day. Poor citizens were imprisoned for longer than their richer neighbors, as bail was not accepted. In 1841, Dorothea Dix discovered. Prisoners were chained naked. Others, criminally insane, were placed in cellars, or closets, she insisted on changes throughout the rest of her life. While focusing on the insane, her comments resulted in changes for other inmates. In the United States criminal law is a concurrent power. Individuals who violate state laws and/or territorial laws are placed in state or territorial prisons, while those who violate United States federal law are placed in federal prisons operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, an agency of the United States Department of Justice; the BOP houses adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws due to the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. As of 2004, state prisons proportionately house more violent felons, so state prisons in general gained a more negative reputation compared to federal prisons.
In 2016 90% of prisoners were in state prisons. At senten
Capital punishment in the Philippines
Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and is suspended as of 2006. Capital punishment was legal after independence and increased in use under the Ferdinand Marcos regime. After the fall of Marcos, there was a moratorium on capital punishment from 1987 to 1999, followed by a resumption in executions from 1999 to 2006, followed - in turn - by a law ending the practice. Filipinos have mixed opinions about the death penalty, with many opposing it on religious and humanitarian grounds, while advocates see it as a way of deterring crimes. During Spanish colonial rule, the most common methods of execution were death by firing squad and garrotte. Death by hanging was another popular method. A prominent example is the national hero, José Rizal, executed by firing squad on the morning of December 30, 1896, in the park that now bears his name. In 1926, the electric chair was introduced by the United States' colonial Insular Government, making the Philippines the only other country to employ this method.
The last colonial-era execution took place under Governor-General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. in February 1932. There were no executions under Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Commonwealth; the capital crimes after regaining full sovereignty in July 1946 were murder and treason. However, no executions took place until April 1950, when Julio Gullien was executed for attempting to assassinate President Manuel Roxas. Other notable cases includes Marciál "Baby" Ama, electrocuted at the age of 16 on October 4, 1961, for murders committed while in prison for lesser charges. Ama notably became the subject of the popular 1976 film, Bitayin si... Baby Ama!. A former powerful Governor of Negros Occidental Rafael Lacson and 22 of his allies, condemned to die in August 1954 for the murder of a political opponent. Lacson was never executed. In total, 51 people were electrocuted up to 1961. Execution numbers climbed under President Ferdinand Marcos, himself sentenced to death in 1939 for the murder of Julio Nalundasan—the political rival of his father, Mariano.
A notorious triple execution took place in May 1972, when Jaime José, Basilio Pineda and Edgardo Aquino were electrocuted for the 1967 abduction and gang-rape of young actress Maggie dela Riva. The state ordered. Under the Marcos regime, drug trafficking became punishable by death by firing squad, such as the case with Lim Seng, whose execution in January 15, 1973, was ordered broadcast on national television. Future President and Chief of the Philippine Constabulary General Fidel V. Ramos was present at the execution; the electric chair was used until 1976, when execution by firing squad replaced it as the sole method of execution. Under Marcos' 20-year authoritarian rule, countless more people were summarily executed, tortured or disappeared for opposition to his rule. After Marcos was deposed in 1986, the newly drafted 1987 Constitution prohibited the death penalty but allowed the Congress to reinstate it "hereafter" for "heinous crimes". President Fidel V. Ramos promised during his campaign that he would support the re-introduction of the death penalty in response to increasing crime rates.
The new law, drafted by Ramos, was passed in 1993 restoring capital punishment. This law provided the use of the electric chair. In 1996, Republic Act 8177 was passed, prescribing the use of lethal injection as the method of carrying out capital punishment. Executions resumed in 1999, starting with Leo Echegaray, put to death by lethal injection under Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada, marking the first execution after the reinstatement of the death penalty; the next execution saw an embarrassing mishap when President Estrada decided to grant a last-minute reprieve, but failed to get through to the prison authorities in time to stop the execution. Following on a personal appeal by his spiritual advisor, Bishop Teodoro Bacani, Estrada called a moratorium in 2000 to honor the bimillenial anniversary of Christ's birth. Executions were resumed a year later. Estrada's successor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, was a vocal opponent of the death penalty and approved a moratorium on the carrying out of capital punishment.
This prohibition was formalized into a full law when the Congress passed Republic Act 9346 in 2006. The next year, the Philippines became a party to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights regarding the abolition of the death penalty; when the Philippines had the death penalty, male inmates condemned to death were held at New Bilibid Prison and female inmates condemned to death were held at Correctional Institution for Women. The death chamber for inmates to be electrocuted was in Building 14, within the Maximum Security Compound of New Bilibid; the Bureau of Corrections Museum served as the lethal injection chamber. On April 15, 2006, the sentences of 1,230 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, in what Amnesty International believes to be the "largest commutation of death sentences". Capital punishment was again suspended via Republic Act No. 9346, signed by President Arroyo on June 24, 2006. The bill followed a vote held in Congress earlier that month which overwhelmingly supported the abolition of the practice.
The penalties of life impris