Patrick Sammy Mills is an Australian professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. Mills was selected by the Portland Trail Blazers with the 55th overall pick in the 2009 NBA draft after playing two years of college basketball for Saint Mary's. Born and raised in Canberra, Mills is of Torres Strait Aboriginal Australian descent. In 2007, he became only the third indigenous basketball player to play for Australia behind Olympians Michael Ah Matt and Danny Morseu. Mills began his NBA career with the Portland Trail Blazers in 2010. In 2011, during the NBA lockout, Mills returned to Australia to play for the Melbourne Tigers of the National Basketball League. After playing in China with the Xinjiang Flying Tigers, Mills returned to the United States in March 2012 and signed with the San Antonio Spurs, where he has remained since. Mills became a strong contributor off the bench and helped the Spurs win the 2014 NBA Championship against the Miami Heat.
Mills is a regular member of the Boomers. Mills was born in the Australian capital city of Canberra. Mills' father, Benny, is a Torres Strait Islander, his mother, Yvonne, is an Aboriginal Australian, his mother was a victim of the Stolen Generations – one of the darkest chapters of Australian history, with the forced removal of many Indigenous children from their families from the earliest days of European settlement until the 1960s. Mills first took up basketball as a four-year-old for a local Indigenous club his parents established called "The Shadows". Growing up, he was the ball boy for the Canberra Cannons of the National Basketball League. Mills' future coach at Saint Mary's, David Patrick, played for the Cannons during that time and developed a relationship with the Mills family. Mills attended Canberra's Marist College, but left at the end of 2004 to attend the Australian Institute of Sport and Lake Ginninderra College; as well as playing basketball, Mills played underage Australian rules football at a high level.
In 2004, Mills was competing for the Australian Capital Territory in the national schoolboys Australian rules tournament in Perth when a recruiter for the Sydney Swans asked him if he'd like to come to Sydney and play in the Australian Football League. Mills thought about taking up the Swans scholarship before rejecting it to concentrate on basketball. In 2005, he made a strong impression at the Australian Olympic Youth Festival, an event considered to be a showcase for future elite sporting talents. In January 2006, Mills was awarded the prestigious RE Staunton Medal at the U20 Nationals in Perth and attended the Australian Junior Camp in his home town of Canberra at the beginning of 2006; as a member of the 2006 Junior National Men's Team, Mills helped Australia defeat New Zealand and qualify for the 2007 Junior Men's World Championships. In April, Mills was a member of the World Junior Select Team that competed against the United States in the Nike Hoop Summit. Mills was named the 2006 SEABL U/21 Australian Youth Player of the Year.
Mills averaged 3.9 rebounds and helped the AIS to a 16 -- 10 regular season record. He finished the season third in assists in the SEABL. In 2006, Mills was the youngest athlete selected in the 22-man extended Australian Boomers squad ahead of the 2006 FIBA World Championship. In July, he was named the 2006 Junior Male Player of the Year at Basketball Australia's annual Junior Basketball Awards. Mills was named the "most promising new sports talent" at the 2006 Deadlys Awards; the Deadlys Awards honor Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders achievements in sports, music and community. In addition to receiving the Deadlys Award, Mills was named the 2006 Australia Basketball Player of the Year and the National Sportsperson of the Year by the NAIDOC. In November 2006, Mills signed to play college basketball for Saint Mary's College of California beginning in the 2007–08 season, he joined fellow Australians Lucas Carlin Hughes on the Gaels for the 2007 -- 08 season. Mills was named the WCC Newcomer of the Year and earned All-WCC First Team honours after helping the Gaels earn a top 25 ranking for the first time since the 1988–89 season.
He started all 32 games for the Gaels as a freshman, posting a team-high 14.8 points, 2.1 rebounds, 3.5 assists and 1.8 steals in 32.1 minutes. He set a Saint Mary’s freshman record for points in a season with 472, set the school freshman mark for points in a game with a 37-point performance against Oregon on 20 November 2007, he was a three-time WCC Player of the Week honouree. As a sophomore in 2008–09, Mills averaged 18.4 points, 3.9 assists, 2.4 rebounds and 2.2 steals in 32.1 minutes and was named WCC Player of the Week twice. He was subsequently named All-WCC First Team for a second straight year. In April 2009, Mills declared for the NBA draft, forgoing his final two years of college eligibility. On 25 June 2009, Mills was selected with the 55th overall pick by the Portland Trail Blazers, becoming the first Saint Mary's player since 1983 to be drafted, was the highest pick since 1961. On 9 July 2009, Mills fractured the fifth metatarsal in his right foot during practice and was subsequently ruled out of the NBA Summer League.
On 16 October 2009, he signed a contract with the Trail Blazers. After completing rehabilitation, Mills was assigned to the Idaho Stampede of the NBA Development League on 29 December 2009. On 4 January 2010, Mills was called up to the NBA by the Trail Blazers. Mills made his NBA debut that night, he was reassigned to the Stampede on 13 January before being recalled again on 23 January. Mills appeared in 10 games with t
LaMarcus Nurae Aldridge is an American professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. The power forward played college basketball for two seasons with the Texas Longhorns. Aldridge was selected second overall in the 2006 NBA draft. After spending nine seasons with the Portland Trail Blazers, he signed with the Spurs in 2015, he is a seven-time NBA All-Star. He is known for his signature fadeaway jump shot. Aldridge attended Seagoville High School, where he became a second-team Parade All-American and Texas Association of Basketball Coaches Class 4A Player of the Year. Considered a five-star recruit by Rivals.com, Aldridge was listed as the No. 4 best center and the No. 16 player in the nation in 2004. Aldridge attended the University of Texas at Austin, he declared for the 2004 NBA draft but withdrew his name. According to one report, Aldridge's initial decision to attend college rather than entering the pro ranks directly from high school was influenced by Shaquille O'Neal's personal advice that he should go to college and evaluate his NBA prospects.
However, in April 2006, after the end of his second year with the Longhorns, Aldridge announced that he would leave college to enter the 2006 NBA draft. Aldridge was drafted second overall in the 2006 NBA draft by the Chicago Bulls, only to have his rights traded to the Portland Trail Blazers for their pick, Tyrus Thomas, Viktor Khryapa, shortly after; the Bulls acquired the pick from the New York Knicks in the 2005 Eddy Curry trade. Aldridge missed the first seven games of the 2006–07 NBA season due to off-season shoulder surgery, but returned ahead of schedule due in part to an injury to fellow rookie teammate Brandon Roy. Aldridge made an immediate impact on offense, averaging 8.4 points on 54% shooting from the field through his first 14 games. After the loss of starting center Joel Przybilla, in February 2007 to season-ending knee surgery, Aldridge was awarded the starting center position and improved his scoring to 14.7 points with 8.0 rebounds per game in the month of March. This placed him second in the voting for the Western Conference Rookie of the Month to Roy.
On March 31, 2007, in the first quarter against the Los Angeles Clippers, Aldridge was taken to Providence Hospital in Portland for shortness of breath and irregular heartbeat. He was diagnosed with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome on April 9 and missed the remaining eight games of the 2006–07 season. Aldridge started 22 games his rookie season. Aldridge was one of six players named to the 2007 NBA All-Rookie first team. Aldridge elevated his play in his second season, with career highs in points, assists and steals, finished third in voting for the NBA Most Improved Player Award. During this season, Aldridge had injury troubles due to plantar fasciitis, which caused him to miss games from December 11 to 18, 2007. After the time missed, Aldridge still had some trouble with the foot but was able to play effectively. Aldridge played inconsistently adjusting to more defensive pressure, he called the first 15 games "the worst funk" of his life but improved as the season went on. Aldridge developed his offensive game over the course of the season, still relying on his midrange fade away shot.
He finished the season averaging 7.5 rebounds. Aldridge scored over 20 points in half of the last 28 games of the season. For his first time in the league Aldridge nearly played a full season. In late October, Aldridge signed a five-year, $65 million contract extension with Portland. Before committing to Aldridge, the Trail Blazers finalized a five-year, $80 million deal with All-Star Brandon Roy. Aldridge put up similar numbers to the previous season. Early in December, Greg Oden suffered a season-ending injury. Aldridge received offensive opportunities as a result. Aldridge further emerged as both a player and a leader after Brandon Roy went out with knee problems in December 2010. In spite of Portland's "send LA to LA" program – the NBA All-Star game was in Los Angeles and Aldridge's nickname is "L-A" – Aldridge failed to get named to the Western Conference squad, he was, awarded the NBA Player of the Week for January 17–23 and February 7–13, scored a career-high 42 points against the Chicago Bulls on February 7, 2011.
On March 2, he joined Clyde Drexler and Kelvin Ransey as the only Blazers to receive the NBA Player of the Month award. Aldridge was runner-up to Kevin Love for the Most Improved Player Award, voted to the All-NBA Third Team with 135 votes. Due to the lockout, the 2011–12 season did not start until Christmas Day 2011. Blazer fans were hopeful that the three players advertised in their "Rise With Us" promotional campaign would have a chance to play together for a "full" season; those plans evaporated when Roy, who suffered from chronic knee problems due to the lack of cartilage in them and Oden, who had only played in 82 games in the previous four seasons, had yet another setback in his effort to rehabilitate his knees. Aldridge was named a reserve on the Western Conference All-Star team in 2012. On November 12, 2012, Aldridge recorded a career-high eight assists in an 87-95 loss to the Atlanta Hawks. In 2013, Aldridge was named an All-Star for the second time in his career, he averaged 21.1 points per game, a career-high 9.1 rebounds per game and recorded a career-high 2.6 assists per game in 37.7 minutes per game.
The Trail Blazers missed the playoffs for the second straight year. Despite trade rumors during the 2013 offseason, Aldridge
San Antonio Spurs
The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. The Spurs compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays its home games at the AT&T Center in San Antonio. The Spurs are one of four former American Basketball Association teams to remain intact in the NBA after the 1976 ABA–NBA merger and are the only former ABA team to have won an NBA championship; the franchise has won NBA championships in 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2014. As of May 2015, the Spurs had the highest winning percentage among active NBA franchises; as of April 2019, the Spurs have won 22 division titles since joining the NBA and have only missed the playoffs four times. From 1999–2000 to 2016–17, the Spurs won 50 games each season, setting a record of 18 consecutive 50-win seasons. In the 2018–19 season, the Spurs matched an NBA record for most consecutive playoff appearances with 22; the team's recent success coincides with the tenure of current head coach Gregg Popovich, who has coached the team since 1996.
The Spurs are the city's only team in any of the four major U. S. professional sports leagues and the only major-league team in the city's history to have lasted more than five years. Spurs players are active members of the San Antonio community, many former Spurs are still active in San Antonio including David Robinson with the Carver Academy and George Gervin with the George Gervin Youth Center; the Spurs set several NBA attendance records while playing at the Alamodome including the largest crowd for an NBA Finals game in 1999, the Spurs continue to sell out the smaller AT&T Center on a regular basis. Since 2003, the team has been forced on an extended road trip for much of February since the AT&T Center hosts the San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo; this is informally known as the "Rodeo Road Trip". The Spurs have posted winning road records during this period, including an NBA-record longest single road trip winning streak; when the Spurs have won the NBA title, the team's victory parades have been boat trips on the San Antonio River Walk.
The San Antonio Spurs started out as the Dallas Chaparrals of the original version of the American Basketball Association. Coached by player/coach Cliff Hagan the Dallas Chaparrals were one of 11 teams to take the floor in the inaugural season of the upstart ABA; the Chaps' second season was a bit of a disappointment, as the team finished in 4th place with a mediocre 41–37 record. In the playoffs the Chaparrals fell to the New Orleans Buccaneers; the team suffered from general disinterest in Dallas. In fact, during the 1970–71 season, the name "Dallas" was dropped in favor of "Texas" and an attempt was made to make the team a regional one, playing games in Fort Worth, at the Tarrant County Convention Center, as well as Lubbock, at the Lubbock Municipal Coliseum, but this proved a failure and the team returned full-time to Dallas in time for the 1971–72 season, splitting their games at Moody Coliseum and Dallas Convention Center Arena. While the Chaparrals had been modestly successful on the court, they were sinking financially by their third season because the ownership group refused to spend much money on the team.
After missing the playoffs for the first time in their existence in the 1972–73 season, nearly all of the owners wanted out. A group of 36 San Antonio businessmen, led by Manager/Angelo Drossos, Chairman of the Board/John Schaefer and President/Red McCombs, worked out a "lend-lease" deal with the Dallas ownership group. Drossos and his group would lease the team for three years and move it to San Antonio, agreed to return the team to Dallas if no purchase occurred by 1975. After the deal was signed, the team was renamed the San Antonio Gunslingers. However, before they played a game the name was changed to Spurs; the team's primary colors were changed from the red and blue of the Chaparrals to the now familiar black and white motif of the Spurs. In the first game at the HemisFair Arena the Spurs lost to the San Diego Conquistadors, despite attracting a noisy crowd of 6,000 fans. A smothering defense was the team's image, as they held opponents to less than 100 points for an ABA record of 49 times.
The early Spurs were led by ABA veteran James Silas, the team would get stronger as the season went on as they twice took advantage of the Virginia Squires, acquiring Swen Nater, who would go on to win Rookie of the Year, in November, "The Iceman" George Gervin in January. The ABA tried to halt the Gervin deal, claiming it was detrimental to the league, but a judge would rule in the Spurs' favor, Gervin made his Spurs debut on February 7; the Spurs would go on to finish with a 45 -- good for 3rd place in the Western Division. In the playoffs, the Spurs would battle the Indiana Pacers to the bitter end before falling in seven games. San Antonio embraced the Spurs with open arms. Schaefer, Drossos and McCombs knew a runaway hit. After only one year, they exercised their option to tear up the lease agreement, buy the franchise outright and keep the team in San Antonio for good; the team made themselves at home at HemisFair Arena, playing to large and raucous crowds. Despite a respectable 17–10 start during the 1974–75 season, Coach Tom Nissalke was fired as owners become tired of the Spurs' slow defensive style of games.
He would be replaced by Bob Bass, who stated that the Spurs would have an new playing style: "It is my belief that you cannot throw a set offense at another professional team for 48 minutes. You've got to
Drew Eubanks is an American professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association, on a two-way contract with the Austin Spurs of the NBA G League. Eubanks played college basketball in Oregon State University. Eubanks played for the Oregon State Beavers of the Pac-12 Conference, he was rated a 4 star recruit, rated Number 1 in the state of Oregon and committed to the Beavers over Cal, Gonzaga and others. Eubanks averaged 14.5 points, 8.3 rebounds and 2.2 blocks per game as a sophomore on a team that won five games. As a junior, Eubanks averaged 6.8 rebounds and 1.7 blocks per game. He declared for the 2018 NBA draft after the season, forgoing his final season of collegiate eligibility. After going undrafted in the 2018 NBA draft, Eubanks signed with the San Antonio Spurs for NBA Summer League play. On September 17, 2018, Eubanks signed a two-way deal with the San Antonio Spurs. Eubanks made his NBA debut on October 20, 2018 in a 108-121 loss against the Portland Trailblazers, playing three and a half minutes and scoring two points.
Drew Eubanks was born in Starkville and lived in Louisville, Mississippi before moving to Troutdale, Oregon at age 2. Oregon State Beavers bio
Dejounte Dashaun Murray is an American professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. He played one season of college basketball for the Washington Huskies, where he earned second-team all-conference honors in the Pac-12 as a freshman in 2015–16, he was selected by the Spurs in the first round of the 2016 NBA draft with the 29th overall pick. Murray attended Rainier Beach High School in Washington; as a freshman at the University of Washington in 2015–16, Murray was named second-team All-Pac-12 and Pac-12 All-Freshman Team after averaging 16.1 points, 5.9 rebounds, 4.4 assists and 1.8 steals in 33.5 minutes while starting all 34 games. On March 23, 2016, Murray declared for the NBA draft, forgoing his final three years of college eligibility. On June 23, 2016, Murray was selected by the San Antonio Spurs with the 29th overall pick in the 2016 NBA draft, he joined the Spurs for the 2016 NBA Summer League, on July 14, he signed his rookie scale contract with the team.
On October 29, 2016, in the Spurs' third game of the 2016–17 season, Murray made his NBA debut. In just under nine minutes off the bench, he recorded two rebounds and one assist in a 98–79 win over the New Orleans Pelicans. On January 12, 2017, he scored a season-high 10 points in a 134–94 win over the Los Angeles Lakers, he surpassed that mark on January scoring 24 points in a 118 -- 104 win over the Denver Nuggets. He became the youngest player in Spurs history to score at least 24 points, breaking Tony Parker's record. During his rookie season, he had multiple assignments with the Austin Spurs of the NBA Development League. On May 5, 2017, with Tony Parker ruled out for the rest of the playoffs with a leg injury, the Spurs opted to start Murray at point guard in Game 3 of their second-round series against the Houston Rockets, he scored two points in 15 minutes. He helped the Spurs clinch the series against the Rockets with 11 points, 10 rebounds and 5 assists in a Game 6 win, he became just the fourth rookie in Spurs history to record a point/rebound double-double in a playoff game, joining David Robinson, Tim Duncan and Kawhi Leonard.
The Spurs went on to lose to the Golden State Warriors in the Western Conference Finals. In the Spurs' season opener on October 18, 2017, Murray had 16 points, five rebounds and two assists while starting in place of Parker in a 107–99 win over the Minnesota Timberwolves. Five days he recorded 14 rebounds in a 101–97 win over the Toronto Raptors. In the Spurs' previous game against the Chicago Bulls, Murray hauled in 10 rebounds. Murray became just the second Spurs point guard to have multiple double-digit rebounding performances in the same season—Rod Strickland had two double-digit rebounding games in the 1989–90 season. On December 9, 2017, he tied his career high with 14 rebounds in a 104–101 win over the Phoenix Suns. On January 21, 2018 against the Indiana Pacers, Murray started over long-time Spurs starting point guard Tony Parker as a coach's decision by Gregg Popovich. Murray had eight points, seven rebounds, four assists and four turnovers in 28 minutes in a 94–86 loss. Two days he had 19 points, 10 rebounds and seven steals in his second start since replacing a healthy Tony Parker, helping the Spurs defeat the Cleveland Cavaliers 114–102.
On February 3, 2018, in a 120–111 loss to the Utah Jazz, Murray became the first player since Kawhi Leonard with 500 points and 300 rebounds in his first 100 games with the Spurs. On March 19, 2018, in an 89–75 win over the Warriors, Murray had eight rebounds to set the franchise record for rebounds in a single season by a point guard. Murray reached 385 rebounds in 1,436 minutes, surpassing Johnny Moore's total of 378 collected in 2,689 minutes. In Game 4 of the Spurs' first-round playoff series against the Warriors, Murray was 3 for 3 on 3-pointers in the first half, the most 3s made in the playoffs without a miss by a Spurs player since Steve Kerr and Patty Mills were 4 for 4 in a half. At the season's end, he earned NBA All-Defensive Second Team honors, becoming the youngest player in NBA history to be named All-Defense. On October 7, 2018, Murray suffered a torn right anterior cruciate ligament in a preseason game against the Houston Rockets. Murray grew up in Washington. In May 2017, he began dating Instagram model Jilly Anais.
He has a daughter, born on July 31, 2017. Career statistics and player information from NBA.com, or Basketball-Reference.com Washington Huskies bio
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort; the main campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015; as of 2018, Duke holds a top-ten position in several national rankings. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter; the academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men.
With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.
In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs; the separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's r
Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e. without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they hold, but whether this renunciation causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved; the massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another, many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people; this included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they included the aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land. Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of migrants, most of them economic migrants.
For economic, political and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national – jus matrimonii – or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrant population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations, for example, in Spain by José Luis Zapatero's government and in Italy by Berlusconi's government; the People's Republic of China gives citizenship to persons with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason. In practice, only few people gain Chinese citizenship.
The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application"; the Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Constitution of India provides single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Indian legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, amended by the Citizenship Act 1986, the Citizenship Act 1992, the Citizenship Act 2003, the Citizenship Ordinance 2005.
The Citizenship Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005. Following these reforms, Indian nationality law follows the jus sanguinis as opposed to the jus soli; the Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons. Automatically Jus sanguinis: for birth. Following declaration By descent. Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006. The Indonesia