Kings Langley Palace
Kings Langley Palace was a 13th-century Royal Palace, located to the west of the Hertfordshire village of Kings Langley in England. During the Middle Ages, the palace served as a residence of the Plantagenet kings of England, it became a ruin. Today, nothing remains of the building except for some archaeological remains; the site is a scheduled ancient monument. The origins of Kings Langley Palace are not known, but it is thought that the estate land was the property of the Manor of Chilterne Langley or Langley Chenduit; the estate would have part of a large, dense forest stretching from London out to Berkhamsted, abundant in deer, a hunting lodge is known to have existed on the estate during the reign of Henry III. The Manor became a royal possession in 1276 when Queen Eleanor of Castile, wife of King Edward I, acquired the estate and supervised the development of a lavish royal household. There are records of a "new start" in 1277, these are thought to be either improvements to an existing property or a new house being built at the top of the hill.
Little is known about the early development of the palace, but records exist from 1279-1281 which indicate that the palace had private chambers for the Edward I and Eleanor and for their son, Earl of Chester. King's Langley Palace served as a family home for Eleanor, their son, Edward of Caernarfon, born in Caernarfon Castle in 1284, spent much of his youth at Langley Palace. Prince Alfonso, heir to the throne, died only months after the young Edward's birth, Queen Eleanor died unexpectedly in 1290. With Prince Edward now heir to the throne, Langley Palace, was destined to be inherited by the young prince. After Eleanor's death, the King took residence at Ashridge and held Parliament there in 1290 and 1291. In 1299 the aging King Edward I remarried to Margaret of France, granting her Berkhamsted and Hertford Castles, he returned to Langley; that same year, he summoned the Bishop of Norwich, John Salmon, John of Berkhamsted, Abbot of St. Albans, Aymon, Count of Savoy, to celebrate the feast day of All Saints with him and Queen Margraret at King's Langley.
After Prince Edward was invested as Prince of Wales, King Edward I granted Langley to him in 1302. The young prince was enthusiastic about music, the arts, horse racing and kept a small menagerie, which included a lion and a camel, at Langley, he allowed his favourite, Piers Gaveston, to live with him at the palace, a companionship which scandalised England at the time. In 1307 Edward II was crowned king and founded the neighbouring King's Langley Priory in 1308 in the park of his manor adjacent to the palace, it was here. Langley Palace remained the King's favourite residence until his death in 1327. Today, Gaveston's tomb remain. During the reign of Edward III, his fifth son, Edmund of Langley was born in Langley Palace in 1341 and drew his name from the manor. After his death in 1402, Edmund was buried in the priory there. In the late 1340s, England was being ravaged by the spread of Black Death. Edward removed his extensive collection of religious relics from the Tower of London and brought them to Kings Langley for safekeeping.
The author of The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer, would have visited the palace during his appointment as Clerk of the Kings Works to King Richard II between 1389 and 1391. King Richard II celebrated Christmas there; the Palace was damaged by a serious fire in 1431. However, records of subsequent repair work to the buildings indicate that the palace was not destroyed by the fire; the last evidence of the Palace being used for official occasions was in 1476 when William Wallingford, Abbot of St. Albans, held a banquet there for the Bishop of Llandaff; the manor was transferred to Eton College but reverted to the Crown, for Henry VIII conveyed it upon Catherine of Aragon, whom he was about to marry. During Henry's reign, a new class of landowner emerged. Holders of high office were granted freehold land as a reward from the king, they used their new property as a source of income. John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, was given custody of the royal park at Kings Langley in 1538, one of many perquisites he accumulated at the court of Henry VIII.
The park was acquired by a wealthy lawyer, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England and the builder of Old Gorhambury House near St Albans. During the reign of Charles I, Kings Langley royal park was cleared to make way for agriculture and tenant farmers cultivated the land. By 1652 there were 10 farmers on the estate. In 1626, Charles I granted the Langley Estate to Sir Charles Morrison, owner of the Estate of Cassiobury at nearby Watford who held a lease on part of the land at Langley. Upon his death in 1628, the estate passed to his daughter, Elizabeth Morrison and her husband Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham. Capell, a Royalist in the English Civil War was executed in 1649, the estate was granted to a Parliamentarian, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. Following the Restora
East of England Ambulance Service
The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing National Health Service ambulance services in the counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk, in the East of England region. These consist of 7,500 square miles, it is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency medical services, is part of the NHS, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's Charter every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; as well as providing an emergency ambulance service, the Trust provides non emergency patient transport services, commercial services and special operations such as emergency planning, hazardous materials incident response. The service support a number of emergency charities, such as air ambulances, who provide doctors for serious incidents; the Trust controls the mobilisation of critical care charities throughout its area.
These include Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance, East Anglian Air Ambulance, BASICS Essex Accident Rescue Service, SARS, NARS and BASICS Hertfordshire. The service can if required, mobilise London's Air Ambulance and the Kent and Sussex Air Ambulance if there is a major incident requiring more than one critical care team, where other teams in the region are operating at maximum capacity; the trauma teams are dispatched by a Critical Care Paramedic at the Critical Care Desk, in their Control Room in Chelmsford, who filters through every call the ambulance service receives and makes a clinical decision on whether to dispatch a critical care resource. The trust was formed on 1 July 2006 following the three-way merger of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust and the Essex Ambulance Service NHS Trust; the result was a service covering an area of over 7,500 square miles with a population of 5.8 million people, one which answers more than one million emergency calls per year.
The East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust had been formed in 1994 from the three-way merger of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Ambulance Services. In 2009, the Trust was censured by the Care Quality Commission after inspection of an ambulance depot and seven of its 100 ambulance stations found patient-carrying vehicles were "dirty" and that staff were "unsure of basic measures for infection prevention and control"; the service launched an "urgent and comprehensive review" of its ambulance cleaning programme and reiterated its stance on patient safety, adding that "ensuring consistent high standards of cleanliness is a challenge" with so many stations, covering six counties and an area of 7,500 square-miles. In 2015/16, the trust received 1,037,119 emergency calls and handled 500,620 non-emergency patient transport journeys; the trust arrived at 73.6% of emergency Red 1 calls within eight minutes, 69.4% of emergency Red 2 calls within eight minutes. EEAST has around 1,500 volunteers; as of July 2016, the Trust has the following resources in operation: 357 front-line emergency ambulances 201 marked rapid-response vehicles 164 non-emergency ambulances 52 major incident support vehicles Over 130 ambulance stations and response posts 3 emergency operations centers in Bedford and NorwichThe Trust has its own emergency driving school, which trains drivers in 999 emergency driving under blue lights and sirens.
The Trust used the Mercedes Sprinter as front-line Double Staffed Ambulances, with the exception of a single Vauxhall Movano 4 wheel drive vehicle for use at Newmarket Racecourse. In 2009, the service started the transition to a brand-new Sprinter only fleet from a wide range of other brands - including Fords and older Mercedes vehicles; the scheme was finished in 2016, when the last brand-new Sprinter was delivered, although many of the older ones are now ending their cycle life. In March 2018, four new vehicles will be trialled across the East of England, with one concept vehicle being designed for and by the Trust. In May 2018 the trust bought 32 five-year-old vehicles decommissioned by the West Midlands Ambulance Service - described as "clapped out vehicles which colleagues in other trusts would have sent to the scrapyard" and contrasted with the luxury cars with which senior managers were provided in 2017. Ford Mondeos and Skoda Octavia Scouts are the most common amongst the fleet. In addition Land Rover Freelander and Land Rover Discovery Sport operate out of a limited number of bases.
Some Land Rover are used as Officer Cars. Renault Masters and Vauxhall Movanos are used for the Patient Transport Service. A number of these vehicles are fitted with blue sirens for High Dependency transfers; the Hazardous Area Response Team team uses Volkswagen Transporters and Mercedes Sprinters, all of which have 4x4 capability. The new fleet arrived in 2017, standardising these vehicles across the 10 ambulances services in England and Wales, it replaced Iveco Dailys. The trust provides Critical Care Paramedics to 3 local charity air ambulances in the region: Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance and the East Anglian Air Ambulance; these paramedics work alongside doctors to administer advanced treatment at the scene of the accident. Although the service uses the air ambulances, it does not fund the charit
Battle of the Somme
The Battle of the Somme known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of World War I fought by the armies of the British Empire and French Third Republic against the German Empire. It took place between 1 July and 18 November 1916 on both sides of the upper reaches of the River Somme in France; the battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies and was the largest battle of the First World War on the Western Front. More than three million men fought in the battle and one million men were wounded or killed, making it one of the bloodiest battles in human history; the Battle of the Somme was fought in the traditional style of World War I battles on the Western Front: trench warfare. The trench warfare gave the Germans an advantage because they dug their trenches deeper than the allied forces which gave them a better line of sight for warfare; the Battle of the Somme has the distinction of being the first battle fought with tanks. However, the tanks were still in the early stages of development, as a result, many broke down after maxing out at their top speed of 4 miles per hour.
The French and British had committed themselves to an offensive on the Somme during Allied discussions at Chantilly, Oise, in December 1915. The Allies agreed upon a strategy of combined offensives against the Central Powers in 1916, by the French, Russian and Italian armies, with the Somme offensive as the Franco-British contribution. Initial plans called for the French army to undertake the main part of the Somme offensive, supported on the northern flank by the Fourth Army of the British Expeditionary Force; when the Imperial German Army began the Battle of Verdun on the Meuse on 21 February 1916, French commanders diverted many of the divisions intended for the Somme and the "supporting" attack by the British became the principal effort. The first day on the Somme saw a serious defeat for the German Second Army, forced out of its first position by the French Sixth Army, from Foucaucourt-en-Santerre south of the Somme to Maricourt on the north bank, by the Fourth Army from Maricourt to the vicinity of the Albert–Bapaume road.
The first day on the Somme was, in terms of casualties the worst day in the history of the British army, which suffered 57,470 casualties. These occurred on the front between the Albert–Bapaume road and Gommecourt, where the attack was defeated and few British troops reached the German front line; the British troops on the Somme comprised a mixture of the remains of the pre-war regular army. The battle is notable for the first use of the tank. At the end of the battle and French forces had penetrated 10 km into German-occupied territory, taking more ground than in any of their offensives since the Battle of the Marne in 1914; the Anglo-French armies failed to capture Péronne and halted 5 km from Bapaume, where the German armies maintained their positions over the winter. British attacks in the Ancre valley resumed in January 1917 and forced the Germans into local withdrawals to reserve lines in February, before the scheduled retirement to the Siegfriedstellung began in March. Debate continues over the necessity and effect of the battle.
Allied war strategy for 1916 was decided at the Chantilly Conference from 6–8 December 1915. Simultaneous offensives on the Eastern Front by the Russian army, on the Italian Front by the Italian army, on the Western Front by the Franco-British armies, were to be carried out to deny time for the Central Powers to move troops between fronts during lulls. In December 1915, General Sir Douglas Haig replaced Field Marshal Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the BEF. Haig favoured a British offensive in Flanders close to BEF supply routes, to drive the Germans from the Belgian coast and end the U-boat threat from Belgian waters. Haig was not formally subordinate to Marshal Joseph Joffre but the British played a lesser role on the Western Front and complied with French strategy. In January 1916, Joffre had agreed to the BEF making its main effort in Flanders, but in February 1916 it was decided to mount a combined offensive where the French and British armies met, astride the Somme River in Picardy before the British offensive in Flanders.
A week the Germans began an offensive against the French at Verdun. The costly defence of Verdun forced the French army to commit divisions intended for the Somme offensive reducing the French contribution to 13 divisions in the Sixth Army, against 20 British divisions. By 31 May, the ambitious Franco-British plan for a decisive victory, had been reduced to a limited offensive to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun with a battle of attrition on the Somme; the Chief of the German General Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn, intended to end the war by splitting the Anglo-French Entente in 1916, before its material superiority became unbeatable. Falkenhayn planned to defeat the large amount of reserves which the Entente could move into the path of a breakthrough, by threatening a sensitive point close to the existing front line and provoking the French into counter-attacking German positions. Falkenhayn chose to attack towards Verdun to make Verdun untenable; the French would have to conduct a counter-offensive on ground dominated by the German army and ringed with masses of heavy artillery, leading to huge losses and bring the French army close to collapse.
The British would have to begin a hasty relief offensive and would suffer huge losses. Falkenhayn expected the relief offensive to fall south of Arra
The River Chess, a chalk stream, rises just north of Chesham in the Chiltern Hills, to flow through Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire to join the River Colne in Rickmansworth. The Chess, along with the Colne and Gade, gives rise to the name of the district of Three Rivers, where it forms its confluence with the Colne at Rickmansworth; the River Chess fall is 60 metres and its length is 11 miles. Its name arose by back-formation from the name of Chesham, it was once known as the Pittlesburne which incorporates the old word burna used in the Chilterns to describe a clear spring-fed stream on a lower dip-slope with a stony bed. Examples are the rivers Misbourne and Bulbourn, the river Ver was the Redbourne; the Chess is fed by groundwater held in the chalk aquifer of the Chiltern Hills and rises from three springs which surface as Vale brook, from Bury Pond, alongside the Missenden Road near Pednor just to the north of Chesham. It flows within culverts beneath the town before flowing in a southeasterly direction through Waterside.
The river flows below parkland landscaped by Capability Brown at Latimer House and the site of a 1st Century Roman villa close to the village of Latimer. The Chess flows under the M25 motorway at Solesbridge Lane, before passing through the private housing estate of Loudwater, whose name was associated with the river at this point. Below this the river passes several disused water mills which supplied power and water for paper manufacture during the 18th and 19th Centuries. At Rickmansworth it joins the River Colne to the east of the town; the river banks are not public rights of way, only small stretches of the river are accessible. It is navigable only in its lower reaches; the river suffered from a severe lack of water for two years between 2004 and 2006 and again in 2011 and 2012. Well below average rainfall over long periods was a contributory factor. Winter rainfall is important for replenishing ground water. However, the exceptional rainfall in April and June 2012 allowed the ground water to rise at a time of the year when ground water levels start to fall.
Levels in the river Chess were showing signs of improvement by July 2012. Local speculation during the river drought of 2005 was that over-extraction for bottling, by Nestlé's Powwow Water was a significant contributing factor. Indeed after extraction had stopped, the river recovered somewhat, the bed was now so overgrown it was a struggle for the river to recover until much of the growth was removed by volunteers in 2012. In 2005 Councillor Justine Fulford campaigned to prevent the extension of the licence on the grounds that it was damaging to the local environment; the Chess Valley is within the Chiltern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, with wildlife characteristic of chalk streams and chiltern hills. It supports several key species listed in the Government's UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Mammals such as the water vole, birds including the green sandpiper, grey heron, grey wagtail, little egret, mute swan, water rail and kingfisher, flora such as water crowfoot, purple loosestrife, hemp agrimony, water forget-me not and branched bur-reed.
Freshwater fish, found include the brown trout and bullhead. To support the fish population there is a rich diversity including the mayfly; the valley has a long history of human habitation. There are a number of Roman villa sites including Latimer Park. At Sarratt strip lynchets can be seen in terraces along the hillside made by the action of ploughing along the slope and thought to have been the site of medieval vineyards. Human habitation has altered the valley and the river in many ways, not all of them beneficial for wildlife. River modifications such as dredging and widening slow the current, allow silt to accumulate and smother the gravel riverbed. Changes in the land use adjacent to the river can have impact. Water meadows have been replaced by arable fields and building developments, altering drainage patterns and causing pollution. Abstraction of water from the underlying chalk aquifer reduces river flows and lowers the river's ability to tolerate drought; the introduction of alien species to the catchment has had a major effect on the wildlife of the river.
Water vole populations declined catastrophically along the Chess between 2001 & 2003 with a 97% population decrease being observed. This population crash was caused by the North American mink, a species introduced to the British Isles for the fur trade. In 2004 a water vole recovery project was set up by the Chilterns Chalk Streams Project and the Environment Agency, combining mink control with habitat improvement to try to halt this decline. In 2005 a survey found. A less positive story is that of the native white-clawed crayfish, which has suffered at the hands of another American import, the signal crayfish. Imported by the aquaculture industry, the signal crayfish was seen as a way for trout farms to diversify and exploit new markets. However, due to their expert, escapologist nature, signal crayfish soon escaped into surrounding river systems and spread throughout the majority of the UK's southern river system. Signal crayfish have carried crayfish plague, to which they are resistant, but the native white-clawed crayfish is not.
The result has been the gradual eradication of native crayfish from the UK's rivers. In the case of the Chess, white-clawed crayfish have been extinct since the mid-1990s; the Chess is home to a number of i
Evening Prayer (Anglican)
Evening Prayer is a liturgy in use in the Anglican tradition celebrated in the late afternoon or evening. It is commonly known as Evensong when the office is rendered chorally, that is, when most of the service is sung, it is the equivalent of Vespers in the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran churches, although it was formed by combining the monastic offices of Vespers and Compline. Although many churches now take their services from Common Worship or other modern prayer books, if a church has a choir, Choral Evensong from the Book of Common Prayer, still the only official prayer book of the Church of England remains in use because of the greater musical provision. Evening Prayer, like Morning Prayer and in contrast to the Eucharist, may be led by a layperson, is recited by some devout Anglicans daily in private; the service of Evening Prayer, according to traditional prayer books such as the 1662 English or 1959 Canadian Book of Common Prayer, is similar in structure to the equivalent Morning Prayer, but with different canticles and with evening-specific collects.
It is made up of the following elements: A spoken penitential introduction, including the General Confession and the Lord's Prayer. These are omitted at daily choral Evensong. Preces – a series of verses and responses including the Gloria Patri. A portion of the psalter, i.e. one or more prose psalms, concluding with the Gloria Patri. Two lessons from the Bible; the first is taken from the Old Testament and the second from the New Testament. Two canticles, one after each of the lessons the Magnificat and the Nunc dimittis, each concluding with the Gloria Patri; the Apostles' Creed chanted on a monotone. Several prayers and responses chanted; these include the Kyrie eleison and the Lord's Prayer, followed by several verses and responses, the collect of the day and two additional collects. An anthem following the third collect. Additional spoken prayers. If the service is accompanied, the organ will be played before and after the service. Many institutions have regular unaccompanied evensongs: at Durham Cathedral, Southwell Minster, Exeter Cathedral, Llandaff Cathedral and Ripon Cathedral, as well as the Chapels of New College and King's College, for example, Evensong on Fridays is sung to a cappella settings of the liturgy.
A further variation to the standard rendering of choral Evensong is men's voices services. In institutions where the choir is made up of adult men and trebles who sing the upper-most part, one day a week the service may be sung by men only; when this occurs, the musical settings are for alto and bass voices only. At Durham Cathedral, it is the norm for Thursday evenings to be sung by the men of the choir. In practice, the penitential introduction is omitted at sung services. A sermon or homily may be preached at the end on Sundays or feast days, but does not form a set part of the liturgy. One or more congregational hymns may be added to the service. In Anglo-Catholic churches, Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament follows Evensong. Common Worship: Daily Prayer offers a contemporary form of the liturgy. After the opening versicle, a hymn, prayer or canticle are sung. A prayer is followed by psalms and readings; the service concludes with the collect and the Lord's Prayer. The structure is: Preparation: an opening versicle, O God make speed to save us, its response, seasonally appropriate versicle and response.
One or more of the following: a prayer of thanksgiving, varying according to season and ending with “Blessed be God for ever.” A suitable hymn an opening canticle an opening prayer, if desired a Form of Penitence may replace the Preparation:The Word of God: psalmody, each with antiphon and psalm prayer. A New Testament canticle reading from Holy Scripture a Responsory; this varies according to the season, in ordinary time, the same is used as the Responsory in Morning Prayer. The Magnificat as the preferred Gospel Canticle and concluded with antiphons specific for each day, with ferial and seasonal variations. Prayers: intercessions and in the evening, thanksgivings the Collect of the day, or the prayer, printed the Lord’s PrayerConclusion: on Sundays and feasts a hymn or canticle may be used. A blessing or the Grace a concluding response, if desired the Peace may replace or follow the Conclusion In the Episcopal Church of the United States, like the Eucharist, the Burial of the Dead, A Penitential Order and Evening Prayer are given in the 1979 US Book of Common Prayer in two forms: "Rite One" and "Rite Two".
Rite One is a modified version of the traditional order for Evening Prayer. It is somewhat similar to the traditional Prayer Book rite, but the Confession of Sin has been truncated, the Phos Hilaron may be said, only one reading need be used; the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis may both be used, or one of them may be used, or an alternative canticle may be used. Rite One is based on the 1928 Prayer Book and is found in the Anglican Service Book, a traditional language adaption of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer. Rite Two is similar, but is rendered in modern language; the American Book of Common Prayer offers an "Order of Worship for the Evening", which may be used as a service in itself or as an introduction to Evening Prayer. The Book of Alternative Service
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a