The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
The Bruce Peninsula is a peninsula in Ontario, that lies between Georgian Bay and the main basin of Lake Huron. The peninsula extends northwestwards from the rest of Southwestern Ontario, pointing towards Manitoulin Island, with which it forms the widest strait joining Georgian Bay to the rest of Lake Huron; the Bruce Peninsula contains part of the geological formation known as the Niagara Escarpment. From an administrative standpoint, the Bruce Peninsula is part of Bruce County, named after James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Governor General of Canada. A popular tourist destination for camping and fishing, the area has two national parks, more than half a dozen nature reserves, the Bruce Peninsula Bird Observatory; the Bruce Trail runs through the region to its northern terminus in the town of Tobermory. The Bruce Peninsula is a key area for both animal wildlife. Part of the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve, the peninsula has the largest remaining area of forest and natural habitat in Southern Ontario and is home to some of the oldest trees in eastern North America.
An important flyway for migrating birds, the peninsula is habitat to a variety of animals, including black bear, massasauga rattlesnake, barred owl. Up until the mid-19th century, the area known as the Bruce Peninsula was territory controlled by the Saugeen Ojibway Nations; the nations included the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Saugeen First Nation. Historical and archaeological evidence from the area concludes that at the time of first contact with Europeans, the peninsula was inhabited by the Odawa people, from whom a large number of local native people are descended. Oral history from Saugeen and Nawash suggests their ancestors have been here as early as 7500 years ago; the area of Hope Bay is known to Place of Healing. In 1836 the Saugeen Ojibway signed a treaty with Sir Francis Bond Head to cede lands south of the peninsula to the Canadian government in exchange for learning agriculture, proper housing, assistance in becoming "civilized," and for permanent protection of the peninsula.
In 1854, the Saugeen Ojibway agreed to sign another treaty – this time for the peninsula itself. In 1994, after decades on increasing First Nations activism, the Saugeen Ojibway filed a suit for a land claim for part of their traditional territory; the claim seeks the return of lands still held by the Crown and financial compensation for other lands. This claim is still active. European settlement began on the peninsula in the mid-19th century, despite its poor potential for agricultural development. Attracted by the rich fisheries and lush forest, settlers found the land known as the "Indian or Saugeen Peninsula" to be irresistible. In 1881 settlers built the first sawmill on the peninsula in Tobermory. In less than 20 years most of the valuable timber was gone and timber industry jobs declined. Fuelled by the waste left behind by the rapid logging and land clearances, intense fires sprang up around the peninsula. By the mid-1920s abundant forests of the peninsula were nearly barren; when the lamprey eel was accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in 1932, the devastation on the fish supply made the peninsula a less attractive place to live.
Many left. The peninsula underwent a steady decline in population until the 1970s. In the late 20th century, the peninsula started to attract a new kind of the cottager. Today seasonal residents out-number permanent residents; the peninsula is a victim of its own success. The summer influx of tourists is so great that many attractions and infrastructure are overwhelmed by sheer numbers. In its southern Ontario portion, the Niagara Escarpment is a ridge of rock several hundred metres high in some locations, stretching 725 kilometres from Queenston on the Niagara River, to Tobermory at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula. Today, in Ontario, the Escarpment contains more than 100 sites of geological significance, including some of the best exposures of rocks and fossils of the Silurian and Ordovician periods to be found anywhere in the world; the Niagara Escarpment has origins dating to the Silurian age some 430 to 450 million years ago, a time when the area lay under a shallow warm sea. This sea lay in a depression of the Earth's crust, centred in what is now the lower peninsula of the State of Michigan.
Known geologically as the Michigan Basin, the outer rim of this massive saucer-shaped feature governs the location of the Niagara Escarpment, shaped like a gigantic horseshoe. The Escarpment can be traced from near Rochester, New York, south of Lake Ontario to Hamilton, north to Tobermory on the Bruce Peninsula, it is covered by the waters of Lake Huron, appearing as Manitoulin Island across the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and down the west side of Lake Michigan into the State of Wisconsin. As occurs with present-day water bodies, such as Hudson Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, rivers flowing into this ancient sea carried sand and clay to be deposited as thick layers of sediment. At the same time lime-rich organic material from the abundant sea life was accumulating. Over millions of years these materials became compressed into massive layers of sedimentary rocks and ancient reef structures now visible along the Escarpment; some rock layers now consist of soft sandstones while others are made up of dolostone.
Today, fossil remains illustrating the various life forms can be found in many of the rocks as they are s
Bruce County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada comprising eight lower-tier municipalities and with a 2016 population of 66,491. It is named for James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, sixth Governor General of the Province of Canada; the Bruce name is linked to the Bruce Trail and the Bruce Peninsula. It has three distinct areas; the Peninsula is part of the Niagara Escarpment and is known for its views, rock formations and hiking trails. The Lakeshore includes nearly a hundred kilometers of soft sandy beaches; the Interior Region has a strong history in farming. Bruce County comprises eight municipalities: Two First Nation communities are included within the Bruce census division, but are separate from the county administration: Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation Saugeen First Nation The territory of the County arose from various surrenders of First Nations lands: The Queen's Bush, coming from the 1836 Saugeen Tract Agreement The cession of the Indian Strip in 1851, for a road between Owen Sound and Southampton The Saugeen Surrenders of 1854, which transferred the Bruce Peninsula to the Crown Huron County was organized in the Huron District in 1845, the District itself was abolished at the beginning of 1850.
Legislation passed in the same session of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada provided instead for it to be reconstituted as the United Counties of Huron and Bruce, with the territory of the Bruce Peninsula withdrawn and annexed to Waterloo County. The Bruce Peninsula was withdrawn from Waterloo and transferred to Bruce in 1851; the County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time, was separated from the United Counties in 1853. In 1849, the Huron District Council united the area of the county with the United Townships of Wawanosh and Ashfield as a single municipality, which lasted until 1851 when Wawanosh and Ashfield were withdrawn; the area became known as the "United Townships in the County of Bruce", which lasted until its division into municipalities in 1854. A Provisional Municipal Council was established for Bruce County at the beginning of 1857, Walkerton was proclaimed as the county seat, in preference to Kincardine, but local opposition forced the proclamation to be deferred until each town and village had presented a case for its selection.
A subsequent proclamation confirmed Walkerton's selection. In 1863, the provisional council promoted a bill in the Legislative Assembly to divide the county into the counties of Bruce and Wallace, but it only went as far as second reading and did not proceed further; the provisional council asked for legislation to provide for a referendum as to whether Walkerton, Kincardine or another place would be the most acceptable choice. The referendum was held in September 1864, Paisley received a plurality of the votes. In early 1865, the provisional council asked for legislation to confirm the result, but changed its mind in the year in favour of Walkerton. Confirming legislation was passed in 1866 to provide for the dissolution of the United Counties on January 1, 1867, with Huron and Bruce becoming separate counties for all purposes. Bruce County had a population of 68,147 based on the 2016 Canada census, representing a 3.1% growth since the 2011 census, lower than the provincial average of 4.6%.
Residents of Bruce County are poorer than the Ontario average. As of 2016, the median age of Bruce County is 48.5 years, much older than the Ontario median of 41.3. The median household income was $71,193, lower than the provincial average of $74,287. Bruce County has no visible minorities, representing only 3% of the population compared to the provincial average of 29%, but has a high aboriginal population representing 6% of the population, higher than the provincial average of 4%. Bruce County is overwhelmingly English speaking, with 92% of the population having English as their mother tongue, but has a German speaking population consisting of 3%; the County of Bruce is governed by a council consisting of a warden and mayors of the area municipalities. County council meetings are held in the Bruce County Administration building in Ontario; the function of the Business to Bruce Program is to support business development, business recruitment and business enhancement. This program focuses on "inspiring and supporting business owners and entrepreneurs by engaging and mobilizing the local business communities and municipalities while using County level resources to give the project reach and scale".
Explore the Bruce, a tourism sub-brand of Bruce County and promotes the area as a place to visit. Explore the Bruce runs the annual Adventure Passport program; this program is a Bruce County-wide scavenger hunt that takes participants off the beaten track in Bruce County. It takes place from May 1st until October 31st each year and families and individuals of all ages can participate. In 2015, the Adventure Passport program was presented with a Tourism Marketing Campaign Award at the Ontario Tourism Summit in Toronto. Spruce the Bruce supports local community efforts to facilitate long-term downtown revitalization plans, bringing together stakeholders to build community capacity and assist with strategic policy and capital investment; the program provides communities with th
John Borrows is a Canadian academic and jurist. He is a full professor of law at the University of Victoria Faculty of Law, where he holds the Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law, he is known as a leading authority on Canadian Indigenous law and constitutional law and has been cited by the Supreme Court of Canada. Borrows is Anishinaabe/Ojibway, a member of the Chippewas of the Nawash First Nation in Ontario, Canada. Borrows grew up near the Cape Croker reserve on Georgian Bay in Ontario. Borrows's mother ran away. Borrows credits her with teaching him about Indigenous laws while he grew up on the land that his family farmed. Borrows's uncle was a former chief, a great-grandfather was a long-serving councillor, his great-great-grandfather was one of the signatories to a land treaty with the Crown. Borrows received a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Arts from the University of Toronto in politics and history, he went on to earn his Doctor of Law and Master of Laws at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, his Doctor of Philosophy at Osgoode Hall Law School.
While he was at Osgoode, he started an international Indigenous legal exchange program, still active as of November 2018. Borrows taught at the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law from 1992 until 1998, where he was the first First Nations Legal Studies Director. While there, he helped create an Indigenous Peoples' legal clinic to serve members of Vancouver's Downtown Eastside, still active as of November 2018. From 1998, until 2001, Borrows taught law at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, where he helped start the June Callwood program in Aboriginal law. In 1999, Borrows worked in the newly-created northern territory of Nunavut to help develop its legal infrastructure, he taught as part of the Akitsiraq Law School, a temporary branch of the University of Victoria Faculty of Law. In 2001, Borrows joined the University of Victoria Faculty of Law, teaching there for most of the next decade. By 2003, Borrows became the Law Foundation chair in Aboriginal justice at the UVic, he taught at the University of Melbourne, the University of Waikato Law School in New Zealand, the University of Minnesota, where he was the Robina Chair in Law and Society.
In 2015, Borrows returned to the University of Victoria. In 2017, he became the Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law. After the retirement of Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin from the Supreme Court of Canada, there was widespread speculation that Borrows was a leading contender to be the first Indigenous jurist to sit on the country's top court; the seat went to Sheilah Martin, which led to Indigenous legal figures such as Scott Robertson, the president of the Indigenous Bar Association to publicly express their disappointment with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's decision not to pick an Indigenous person. According to the Toronto Star, Borrows's name was not on the shortlist, so either he did not apply or did not make it to the final shortlist. Borrows, along with his colleague Val Napoleon, was instrumental in creating the joint common law and Indigenous law degree program at the University of Victoria Faculty of Law, the first program in a Canadian law school to allow an integrated study of the Canadian common law and indigenous legal traditions.
The program is a four-year program, opened in Fall 2018. Borrows has been involved in the Indigenous Law programs at Osgoode Hall, the University of Windsor Faculty of Law, Western Law, McGill University Faculty of Law. Borrows was a visiting professor at Arizona State University College of Law, University of New South Wales, Waikato University, Brigham Young University, University of Arizona, Princeton University, McGill University. Borrows is known as a leading authority on Canadian indigenous law and constitutional law and has been cited multiples times by the Supreme Court of Canada. Pamela Palmater, the chair of Indigenous governance at Ryerson University, credits Borrows, Val Napoleon and Taiaiake Alfred at the University of Victoria, Glen Coulthard at the University of British Columbia with a sea change in the study of Indigenous law in Canada in the last two decades from Canadian law applied to Indigenous peoples to actual Indigenous law. Borrows was awarded an National Aboriginal Achievement Award for his legal work.
He has been a Fellow of the Trudeau Foundation, a Fellow of the Academy of Arts and Sciences of Canada of the Royal Society of Canada. In 2012, he received the Indigenous Peoples Counsel from the Indigenous Bar Association. In 2017, Borrows won the Killam Prize for Social Science. In 2018, was named one of the twenty-five most influential lawyers in Canada. Borrows has received several honorary degrees, including one from Dalhousie University. In 2018, he received an honorary doctorate from York University. Victoria Law Profile
Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation
Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation "Cape Croker" is an Ojibway First Nations band in the Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada. Along with the Saugeen First Nation, they form the Chippewas of Saugeen Ojibway Territory. Chippewas of Nawash has a population of 700 individuals living on the reserve; the size of all reserves is 71.83 km². The First Nation has 3 reserves, Neyaashiinigmiing 27, Cape Croker Hunting Ground 60B and Saugeen and Cape Croker Fishing Islands 1. Leaders of the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation are elected every two years by the population registered on the band list; the next election date has not yet been set however it will be held around the same time in 2019. The current Chief and Council are: Chief Greg Nadjiwon Carlene Keeshig Bernard Keeshig Anthony Chegahno Arlene Chegahno Martha Pedoniquotte Sydney Nadjiwon Peggy Mansur Nick Saunders Joss-Ann Russell-Taylor Neyaashiinigmiing has always been the home of the Chippewas of Nawash, their traditional lands included the entire Bruce Peninsula and 2 million acres south of it.
In 1993, the First Nation won a court battle giving them the right to fish for trade and commerce in their traditional waters surrounding the Bruce Peninsula. Cape Croker lighthouse is located on the south-east corner of Neyaashiinigmiing, it was replaced in 1902 with the current lighthouse. The lighthouse was the first of its type and was the first to have an electrically ran light and foghorn; the lighthouse is an octagonal lighthouse, with a height of 18 meters/53 feet. The original lighthouse was a wooden lighthouse; the lighthouse has a fresnel light and its range is 24 km. Cape Croker park is a 520-acre park located in Neyaashiinigmiing. Surrounding Sydney Bay, it offers host the Cape Croker tradition pow-wow every year. The Bruce Trail goes on some of the bluffs on Neyaashiinigmiing; the reserve Neyaashiinigmiing is home to two bluffs the Jones Bluff and the Sydney Bay Bluff, the Bruce trail goes on both of the bluffs. The name Chippewas of Nawash is from Chief Nawash who fought with Tecumseh during the war of 1812The name Neyaashiinigmiing loosely translated from Ojibwe as point of land surrounded on 3 sides by water.
Which describes the location of Neyaashiinigmiing 27. Chippewas of Nawash have three reserves in perpetuity, amassing to 71.83 km². Of these three, the 63.81 km² Neyaashiinigmiing 27 is considered the main reserve and Saugeen & Cape Croker Fishing Island 1 is shared with Saugeen First Nation. Known as Cape Croker 27, this reserve is located within Bruce County, Ontario, it is 63.81 km2 big. It is the largest reserve of the three; the reserve is sourroned by Bruce Peninsula National Park and Saugeen Hunting Grounds 60A. The reserve consist of 89 island shared with Saugeen First Nation. FM Radio Station 100.1 - CHFN - The Chippewas of Nawash operate a low power FM station that plays an eclectic mix of Rock, country and pow wow. Local newspaper: Community Newsletter Eziwehbak Winter Count: Neyaashiinigmiing's History Newsletter Dibaudjimoh The Chippewas of Nawash hold a Traditional Pow Wow every year. Chippewas of Nawash is the home of musician Ira Nadjiwon, Marc Merilainen, Jacques Pigeon, Kevin Lavalley, Bryden "Gwiss" Kiwenzie who grew up on Nawash.
In 1994, the Nawash and the Saugeen First Nations filed a lawsuit against the Government of Canada. "The two First Nations are claiming aboriginal title to the lands under the water covering an area of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay from south of Goderich, west to the international border and north to the mid-point between the tip of the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island. This suit has yet to be resolved; the Official Plan for the Town of Saugeen Shores includes the following comment about this issue: "The Chippewas of the Saugeen First Nation and the Chippewas of Nawash First Nation have filed a Native Land Claim for the islands in the Saugeen River, the lands that border the north side of the Saugeen River and the shoreline from the mouth of the Saugeen River northerly around the Bruce Peninsula." Mary Louise McLeod Canada's Silver Cross Mother for 1972. The first Native woman to be so recognized. Basil H. Johnston and educator, residential school survivor Verna Patronella Johnston author of "Tales of Nokomis", subject of "I Am Nokomis, Too", by Rosamond M. Vanderburgh, the Native Women's Association of Canada 1976 Woman of the Year.
John Borrows, Professor Borrows, B. A. M. A. J. D. LL. M. Ph. D. LL. D. F. R. S. C. is Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law at the University of Victoria Law School. Lenore Keeshig-Tobias and major advocate for Indigenous writers in Canada Kateri Akiwenzie-Damm, founder of Kegedonce Press Clifford Solomon, television actor Delmar Ashkewe, artist Chris'Ice Bear' Johnston, artist Mark LaVallee, musician, co-founder of "Chippewa Travellers". Polly Keeshig-Tobias, artist and illustrator of The Illustrated History of the Chippewas of Nawash Jeremy Proulx, award-winning actor Andrea Fowler, founded Johnston Research Inc and researcher Nyle Johnston, artist Adrian Nadjiwon, artist Bradley Kiwenzie, artist Kevin'The Hooch' Lavallee, musician Bryden Gwiss Kiwenzie, musician Charmaine Jenner, artist Naomi Smith, artist Michelle LaVallee, curator and educator Patr
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta