The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
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According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are
Guy de Chauliac
Guy de Chauliac called Guido or Guigo de Cauliaco, was a French physician and surgeon who wrote a lengthy and influential treatise on surgery in Latin, titled Chirurgia Magna. It was translated into many other languages and read by physicians in late medieval Europe. Guy de Chauliac was in born in Chaulhac, Lozère, into a family of modest means, he began his study of medicine in Toulouse before going to study in Montpellier, the center for medical knowledge in the 14th century of France. He was in Paris between 1315 and 1320, around 1325, he became a Master of Medicine and Surgery. After receiving his degree, he went to Bologna to study anatomy under Nicola Bertuccio, from whom he may have learned surgical techniques, it is unknown. Charles H. Talbot writes, "It was from books that learned his surgery.... He may have used the knife when embalming the bodies of dead popes, but he was careful to avoid it on living patients". Others, including Thevenet, claim that Chauliac moved to Mende and Lyons to practice medicine after learning the art of surgery from Bertuccio.
Chauliac's reputation as a physician grew quickly. He was invited to the Papal Court in Avignon, France, to serve as a personal physician to Pope Clement VI, he went on to become personal physician to Pope Innocent VI, to Pope Urban V. He died in Avignon in 1368, he completed his great treatise in 1363. When the Black Death arrived in Avignon in 1348, physicians fled the city. However, Chauliac stayed on, documenting symptoms meticulously, he survived the disease. Through his observations, Chauliac distinguished between the two forms of the disease, the Bubonic Plague and the Pneumonic Plague; as a precautionary measure, he advised Pope Clement to keep a fire burning continuously in his chamber and to keep visitors out. He gave the following description to the papal court:The great death toll began in our case in the month of January, lasted for the space of seven months, it was of two kinds: the first lasted two months. The second lasted for the whole of the remainder of the time with continuous fever, with ulcers and boils in the extremities, principally under the arm-pits and in the groin.
And was of so great a contagion that not only through living in the same house but through looking, one person caught it from the other. The plague was recognized as being contagious; the outbreak of plague and widespread death was blamed on Jews, who were heretics, in some areas were believed to have poisoned wells. Chauliac's seminal work on surgery, Chirurgia magna, was finished in 1363 in Avignon. In seven volumes, the treatise covers anatomy, cauterization, anesthetics, fractures, special diseases, antidotes. Among de Chaulic's treatments he described the use of bandages and he believed pus from an infection was beneficial to the healing process, he describes surgical techniques such as intubation and suturing. Chauliac quoted from other medical works, written by contemporaries or those written by earlier physicians and anatomists, as he sought to describe the history of medicine, he claimed that surgery began with Hippocrates and Galen, was developed in the Arab world by Haly Abbas, Al-Razi.
Through his position as papal physician, Chauliac had access to Galen's texts translated by Niccolò da Reggio from original Greek versions, which were more accurate than the Latin translations. As well as owing a debt to Galen, Chirurgia magna was influenced by Islamic scientists, de Chauliac references Avicenna in the work; the work became popular and was translated into English, Dutch and Provençal. It was reworked multiple times, including to remove references to Islamic scientists, to the point that the work was no longer recognizable as Chauliac's own. De Chauliac recognized the importance of Montpellier with respect to surgical study. Galen's influence on Chauliac can be seen in the latter's belief that surgeons should have a thorough understanding of anatomy, he wrote, "A surgeon who does not know his anatomy is like a blind man carving a log". He describes the dissection of a corpse in accordance with Galen's beliefs about the human body. De Chauliac's unwillingness to look outside of textbook knowledge was one of the reasons that Chauliac's anatomical descriptions are not always correct.
Three other works were written by Chauliac: an essay on astrology. Guigo De Caulhiaco, Inventarium Sive Chirurgia Magna, Michael R. McVaugh, Margrete S. Ogden, Brill Publishers, 1997. ISBN 90-04-10784-3. Reviewed here: Guy de Chauliac Biography, 2008. ISBN 90-04-10784-3. Reviewed here: Ogden, Margaret.. "Review of Guy de Chauliac's Middle English Translation". The Review of English Studies. Vol 28, number 111
Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI, born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement reigned during the first visitation of the Black Death, during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague. Roger steadfastly resisted temporal encroachments on the Church's ecclesiastical jurisdiction and, as Clement VI, entrenched French dominance of the Church and opened its coffers to enhance the regal splendour of the Papacy, he recruited composers and music theorists for his court, including figures associated with the then-innovative Ars Nova style of France and the Low Countries. His nepotism was reflected in the 44 statues of relatives which surrounded his sarcophagus. Pierre Roger was born in the château of Maumont, today part of the commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Corrèze, in Limousin, the son of the lord of Maumont-Rosiers-d'Égletons, he had an elder brother, who married three times and had thirteen children. Pierre had two sisters: Delphine, who married Jacques de Besse.
His brother Guillaume became Seigneur de Chambon, thanks to his wife's dowry, with the benefit of his papal brother's influence on King Philip VI, became Vicomte de Beaufort. Roger entered the Benedictine order as a boy in 1301, at the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu in the diocese of Clermont in the Auvergne. After six years there, he was directed to higher studies by the Bishop of Le Puy, Jean de Cumenis, his own abbot, Hugues d'Arc. In 1307 he took up studies in Paris at the College de Sorbonne, where he entered the Collège de Narbonne. To support him, beyond what was supplied by his bishop and his abbot, he was granted the post of Prior of St. Pantaléon in the diocese of Limoges. In the summer of 1323, after Pierre had been studying both theology and canon law in Paris for sixteen years, the Chancellor of Paris was ordered by Pope John XXII, on the recommendation of King Charles IV, to confer on him the doctorate in Theology, a chair, a license to teach. Pierre was in his thirty-first year, he lectured publicly on the Sententiae of Peter Lombard, defended and promoted the works of Thomas Aquinas.
He was appalled by the Defensor Pacis of Marsilius of Padua, wrote a treatise in 1325 condemning its principles and defending Pope John XXII. He was granted the priory of St. Baudil, a dependency of the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu, on 24 April 1324, at the personal order of Pope John XXII, he held the position until 1329. Pierre Roger was called to Avignon through the influence of his friend and protector, Cardinal Pierre de Mortemart, both of whom were close to King Charles IV. King Charles IV died on 1 February 1328, the last Capetian king of France in the direct line; as Abbot of Fécamp, therefore a feudal subject of Edward III, Pierre was assigned the task in 1328 of summoning Edward III of England to pay homage to Philip VI of France for the duchy of Aquitaine. He received no reply, from King Edward, was forced to return to France, his mission unaccomplished. On 3 December 1328 Peter Roger was named Bishop of Arras, in which capacity he became a royal councilor of King Philip VI, he held the diocese of Arras only until 24 November 1329, less than a year, when he was promoted to the Archdiocese of Sens.
He held the Archbishopric of Sens for one year and one month, until his promotion to the See of Rouen on 14 December 1330. In 1329, while Pierre Roger was still Archbishop-elect of Sens, a major assembly of the French Clergy was held at Vincennes in the presence of King Philip VI, to deal with issues involving the judicial powers of ecclesiastical authorities. Many propositions were put forward against ecclesiastical jurisdiction, which were ably argued by Pierre de Cugnières. Pierre Roger made the rejoinders on 22 December 1329, on behalf of the ecclesiastical authority; when Pierre Roger became Archbishop of Rouen in December 1330, he was expected to swear allegiance to his feudal overlord. King Philip VI had given his son Jean the Dukedom of Normandy as an apanage, Pierre was worried about what might happen if someone other than a member of the French royal family might become Duke of Normandy, he therefore asked the King for time to consider his position, but the King was firm and seized the temporalities of the Archbishop.
Pierre was forced to go to Paris, where an agreement was worked out that, should someone other than a member of the royal family become Duke the Archbishop would swear fealty directly to the King. As Archbishop of Rouen, Roger was one of the Peers of France and he was a member of the embassy sent by King Philip and Prince John, in 1333, to swear in their name to take the cross and serve in a crusade in the Holy Land. In the year, in Paris in the Prés des Clercs, the King received the cross from the hands of Archbishop Roger, it is said that he was promoted to the office of Chancellor of France, though there is no documentary proof. The earliest claim that he was Chancellor is made by Alfonso Chacon. In 1333, the issue of the Beatific Vision, under discussion since a sermon of Pope John XXII in 1329, reached a serious stage; the French Royal Court had been hearing complaints from various quarters, the King and Queen decided to seek competent advice. The Pope knew that the University of Paris was hostile to his id
Montpellier is a city near the south coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the Hérault department, it is located in the Occitanie region. In 2016, 607,896 people lived in 281,613 in the city itself. Nearly one third of the population are students from three universities and from three higher education institutions that are outside the university framework in the city. Montpellier is the third-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Nice, it is the 7th-largest city of France, is the fastest-growing city in the country over the past 25 years. In the Early Middle Ages, the nearby episcopal town of Maguelone was the major settlement in the area, but raids by pirates encouraged settlement a little further inland. Montpellier, first mentioned in a document of 985, was founded under a local feudal dynasty, the Guilhem, who combined two hamlets and built a castle and walls around the united settlement; the two surviving towers of the city walls, the Tour des Pins and the Tour de la Babotte, were built around the year 1200.
Montpellier came to prominence in the 12th century—as a trading centre, with trading links across the Mediterranean world, a rich Jewish cultural life that flourished within traditions of tolerance of Muslims and Cathars—and of its Protestants. William VIII of Montpellier gave freedom for all to teach medicine in Montpellier in 1180; the city's faculties of law and medicine were established in 1220 by Cardinal Conrad of Urach, legate of Pope Honorius III. This era marked the high point of Montpellier's prominence; the city became a possession of the Kings of Aragon in 1204 by the marriage of Peter II of Aragon with Marie of Montpellier, given the city and its dependencies as part of her dowry. Montpellier gained a charter in 1204 when Peter and Marie confirmed the city's traditional freedoms and granted the city the right to choose twelve governing consuls annually. Under the Kings of Aragon, Montpellier became a important city, a major economic centre and the primary centre for the spice trade in the Kingdom of France.
It was the second or third most important city of France at that time, with some 40,000 inhabitants before the Black Death. Montpellier remained a possession of the crown of Aragon until it passed to James III of Majorca, who sold the city to the French king Philip VI in 1349, to raise funds for his ongoing struggle with Peter IV of Aragon. In the 14th century, Pope Urban VIII gave Montpellier a new monastery dedicated to Saint Peter, noteworthy for the unusual porch of its chapel, supported by two high, somewhat rocket-like towers. With its importance increasing, the city gained a bishop, who moved from Maguelone in 1536, the huge monastery chapel became a cathedral. In 1432, Jacques Cœur established himself in the city and it became an important economic centre, until 1481 when Marseille overshadowed it in this role. At the time of the Reformation in the 16th century, many of the inhabitants of Montpellier became Protestants and the city became a stronghold of Protestant resistance to the Catholic French crown.
In 1622, King Louis XIII besieged the city which surrendered after a two months siege, afterwards building the Citadel of Montpellier to secure it. Louis XIV made Montpellier capital of Bas Languedoc, the town started to embellish itself, by building the Promenade du Peyrou, the Esplanade and a large number of houses in the historic centre. After the French Revolution, the city became the capital of the much smaller Hérault. During the 19th century the city thrived on the wine culture that it was able to produce due to the abundance of sun throughout the year; the wine consumption in France allowed Montpellier's citizens to become wealthy until in the 1890's a fungal disease had spread amongst the vineyards and the people were no longer able to grow the grapes needed for wine. After this the city had grown because it welcomed immigrants from Algeria and other parts of northern Africa after Algeria's independence from France. In the 21st century Montpellier is between 8th largest city; the city had another influx in population more largely due to the student population, who make up about one-third of Montpellier's population.
The school of medicine is what kickstarted the city's thriving university culture,however many other universities have been well established in the coastal city that has developments such as the Corum and the Antigone that too have been drawing in more and more students. William I of Montpellier William II of Montpellier William III of Montpellier William IV of Montpellier William V of Montpellier William VI of Montpellier William VII of Montpellier William VIII of Montpellier Marie of Montpellier and King Peter II of Aragon James I of Aragon James II of Majorca James III of Majorca The city is situated on hilly ground 10 km inland from the Mediterranean coast, on the River Lez; the name of the city, Monspessulanus, is said to have stood for mont pelé, or le mont de la colline Montpellier is located 170 km from Marseille, 242 km from Toulouse, 748 km from Paris. Montpellier's highest point is the Place du Peyrou, at an altitude of 57 m; the city is built on two hills and Montpelliéret, thus some o
Josep Trueta i Raspall was a Spanish medical doctor. As a Catalan nationalist, he was forced into exile to England after the Spanish Civil War, during which he had been the chief of trauma services for the city of Barcelona. In 1939 his English-language work, Treatment of War Wounds and Fractures, with special reference to the Closed Method as used in the war in Spain, was published in London, his work was accepted by the British RAMC, so influencing British Army medical practice. During World War II, he helped to organize medical emergency services, his use of a new plaster cast method for the treatment of open wounds and fractures helped save a great number of lives during several wars. Trueta formed part of a group of Catalans exiled in the United Kingdom who denounced the situation of Catalonia under Franco's regime, he wrote The Spirit of Catalonia, a book aimed at explaining Catalan history to English-speaking society. He joined the team run by Florey and Chain that developed penicillin in Oxford, held the first live animal to be injected with the revolutionary antibiotic.
From 1949 to 1966 he was the third Nuffield Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Oxford and directed the Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre. On his retirement in 1966, he returned to Catalonia; the main hospital of Girona was named in his honour. Every year the government of Catalonia awards Trueta medals and plaques to professionals and institutions that excel in the Catalan medical field. Pérez, Fariña L A. "Studies on the kidney and the renal circulation, by Josep Trueta i Raspall". Actas urologicas españolas. Spain. 32: 276–80. ISSN 0210-4806. PMID 18512383. Fernández Vázquez, Juan Manuel. "Mister Josep Trueta". Acta ortopédica mexicana. Mexico. 21: 168–72. PMID 17937183; the Spirit of Catalonia. Josep Trueta. 1946 - Digital edition JosepTrueta.com Personal papers and books of Josep Trueta are preserved in the Biblioteca de Catalunya
Middle English was a form of the English language, spoken after the Norman conquest until the late 15th century. English underwent distinct developments following the Old English period. Scholarly opinion varies, but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period when Middle English was spoken as being from 1150 to 1500; this stage of the development of the English language followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English saw significant changes to its grammar and orthography. Writing conventions during the Middle English period varied widely. Examples of writing from this period that have survived show extensive regional variation; the more standardized Old English language became fragmented and was for the most part, being improvised. By the end of the period and aided by the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439, a standard based on the London dialect had become established; this formed the basis for Modern English spelling, although pronunciation has changed since that time.
Middle English was succeeded in England by the era of Early Modern English, which lasted until about 1650. Scots language developed concurrently from a variant of the Northumbrian dialect. During the Middle English period, many Old English grammatical features either became simplified or disappeared altogether. Noun and verb inflections were simplified by the reduction of most grammatical case distinctions. Middle English saw considerable adoption of Norman French vocabulary in the areas of politics, the arts and religion. Conventional English vocabulary retained its Germanic etiology, with Old Norse influences becoming more apparent. Significant changes in pronunciation took place involving long vowels and diphthongs which in the Middle English period, began to undergo the Great Vowel Shift. Little survives of early Middle English literature, due in part to Norman domination and the prestige that came with writing in French rather than English. During the 14th century, a new style of literature emerged with the works of writers including John Wycliffe and Geoffrey Chaucer, whose Canterbury Tales remains one of the most studied and read works of the period.
Transition from Late Old English to Early Middle English occurred in the latter part of the 11th century. The influence of Old Norse aided the development of English from a synthetic language with free word order, to a more analytic or isolating language with a more strict word order. Both Old English and Old Norse were synthetic languages with complicated inflections; the eagerness of Vikings in the Danelaw to communicate with their southern Anglo-Saxon neighbours resulted in the erosion of inflection in both languages. Old Norse may have had a more profound impact on Middle and Modern English development than any other language. Simeon Potter notes: "No less far-reaching was the influence of Scandinavian upon the inflexional endings of English in hastening that wearing away and leveling of grammatical forms which spread from north to south.". Viking influence on Old English is most apparent in the more indispensable elements of the language. Pronouns, comparatives, pronominal adverbs and prepositions, show the most marked Danish influence.
The best evidence of Scandinavian influence appears in extensive word borrowings, yet no texts exist in either Scandinavia or in Northern England from this period to give certain evidence of an influence on syntax. The change to Old English from Old Norse was substantive, of a democratic character. Like close cousins, Old Norse and Old English resembled each other, with some words in common, they understood each other, it is most "important to recognise that in many words the English and Scandinavian language differed chiefly in their inflectional elements. The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding. In the mixed population which existed in the Danelaw these endings must have led to much confusion, tending to become obscured and lost." This blending of peoples and languages resulted in "simplifying English grammar."While the influence of Scandinavian languages was strongest in the dialects of the Danelaw region and Scotland, words in the spoken language emerge in the tenth and eleventh centuries near the transition from the Old to Middle English.
Influence on the written language only appeared at the beginning of the thirteenth century because of a scarcity of literary texts from an earlier date. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 saw the replacement of the top levels of the English-speaking political and ecclesiastical hierarchies by Norman rulers who spoke a dialect of Old French known as Old Norman, which developed in England into Anglo-Norman; the use of Norman as the preferred language of literature and polite discourse fundamentally altered the role of Old English in education and administration though many Normans of this period were illiterate and depended on the clergy for written communication and record-keeping. A significant number of words of French origin began to appear in the English language alongside native English words of similar meaning, giving rise to such Modern English synonyms as pig/pork, chicken/poultry, calf/veal, cow/beef, sheep/mutton, wood/forest, house/mansion, worthy/valuable, bold/courageous