The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Tsar Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession; because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists. The uprising, suppressed by Nicholas I, took place in Peter's Square in Saint Petersburg. In 1925, to mark the centenary of the event, the square was renamed Decembrist Square. At first, many officers were encouraged by Tsar Alexander I's early liberal reformation of Russian society and politics. Liberalism was encouraged on an official level, creating high expectations during the period of rapprochement between Napoleon and Alexander; the major person for reform in Alexander's regime was Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky. During his early years in the regime, Speransky helped inspire the organization of the Ministry of the Interior, the reform of ecclesiastic education, the formulation of the government's role in the country's economic development.
Speransky's role increased in 1808. From until 1812, when they feared him as a liberal similar to Napoleon invading of Russia, Speransky developed plans for the reorganization of Russia's government. Returned from exile in 1819 Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky was appointed as the Governor of Siberia, with the task of reforming local government. In 1818 the Tsar asked Count Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev to draw up a constitution; the abolition of serfdom in Baltic provinces was in 1816–1819. However and external unrest, which the Tsar believed stemmed from political liberalisation, led to a series of repressions and a return to a former government of restriction and conservatism. Meanwhile, spurred by their experiences of the Napoleonic Wars, realising many of the harsh indignities through which the peasant soldiers were forced, Decembrist officers and sympathisers displayed their contempt for the ancien régime by rejecting court lifestyle, wearing their cavalry swords at balls, committing themselves to academic study.
This new lifestyle captured the spirit of the times, as a willingness to embrace both the peasant and ongoing reformative movements abroad. The motivations for the reformist movement are outlined, in part, by Pavel Pestel: The desirability of granting freedom to the serfs was considered from the beginning; this was thought of on many occasions, but we soon came to realize that the nobility could not be persuaded. And as time went on we became more convinced, when the Ukrainian nobility rejected a similar project of their military governor. Historians have noted that the United States Declaration of Independence and the American revolution may have influenced Decembrists; the most correct name for Decembrists could be Russian Americanophiles. The Constitution written by Nikita Muravyov was the translation of the US Constitution, but Decembrists were against US slavery. Any slaves and serfs from all countries were to become free in Russia immediately. Pestel and his followers were against the US federation model in peaceful times as threatening by the split of the would-be Russian/United Slavic federation and approved the US revolutionary model only.
But while conceding with Pestel that the American revolutionary model of the federal government could be the best form for Russia, the Polish patriotic society could not agree not only with partaking with this federation establishment, but with the same form of government for unitarian Poland and requested for Lithuania and Ukraine without any Russian involvement into the affairs of these territories and any Polish federalization. In 1816, several officers of the Imperial Russian Guard founded a society known as the Union of Salvation, or of the Faithful and True Sons of the Fatherland; the society acquired a more revolutionary cast after it was joined by the idealistic Pavel Pestel, dreaming of the mass repressions against different ethnic and class groups and the total annihilation of the imperial family. The charter was similar to charters of the organizations of carbonari. Pestel was supported by Yakushkin when there were rumours that the emperor had intended to transfer the capital from Saint-Petersburg to Warsaw and to liberate all peasants without the consent of Russian landlords which could not influence the government being in Warsaw.
Yakushkin was to kill the emperor before the revolution thus. When the society consisting of Russian landlords had refused to kill an emperor because only of rumors Yakushkin left the society. More liberal Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky created a new charter similar to that of Tugendbund and without any revolutionary plans of the society called now the Union of Prosperity though still illegal similar to masonic lodges. After a mutiny in the Semenovsky Regiment in 1820, the society decided to suspend activity in 1821. Two groups, continued to function secretly: a Southern Society, based at Tulchin, a small garrison town in Ukraine, in which Pestel was the outstanding figure, a Northern Society, based at St Petersburg, led by Guard officers Nikita Muraviev, Prince S. P. Trubetskoy and Prince Eugene Obolen
The Amur River or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga; the river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus. It was common to refer to a river as "water"; the word for "water" is similar in a number of Asiatic languages: mul in Korean, muren in Mongolian, mizu in Japanese. The name "Amur" may have evolved from a root word for water, coupled with a size modifier for "Big Water"; the Chinese name for the river, Heilong Jiang, means Black Dragon River in Chinese, its Mongolian name, Khar mörön, means Black River. The river rises in the hills in the western part of Northeast China at the confluence of its two major affluents, the Shilka River and the Ergune River, at an elevation of 303 metres.
It flows east forming the border between China and Russia, makes a great arc to the southeast for about 400 kilometres, receiving many tributaries and passing many small towns. At Huma, it is joined by the Huma River. Afterwards it continues to flow south until between the cities of Blagoveschensk and Heihe, it widens as it is joined by the Zeya River, one of its most important tributaries; the Amur arcs to the east and turns southeast again at the confluence with the Bureya River does not receive another significant tributary for nearly 250 kilometres before its confluence with its largest tributary, the Songhua River, at Tongjiang. At the confluence with the Songhua the river turns northeast, now flowing towards Khabarovsk, where it joins the Ussuri River and ceases to define the Russia–China border. Now the river spreads out into a braided character, flowing north-northeast through a wide valley in eastern Russia, passing Amursk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur; the valley narrows after about 200 kilometres and the river again flows north onto plains at the confluence with the Amgun River.
Shortly after, the Amur turns east and into an estuary at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, about 20 kilometres downstream of which it flows into the Strait of Tartary. In many historical references these two geopolitical entities are known as Outer Manchuria and Inner Manchuria, respectively; the Chinese province of Heilongjiang on the south bank of the river is named after it, as is the Russian Amur Oblast on the north bank. The name Black River was used by the native Manchu people and their Qing Empire of China, who regarded this river as sacred; the Amur River is an important symbol of, geopolitical factor in, Chinese–Russian relations. The Amur was important in the period following the Sino–Soviet political split in the 1960s. For many centuries the Amur Valley was populated by the Tungusic, Mongol people, some Ainu and, near its mouth, by the Nivkhs. For many of them, fishing in the Amur and its tributaries was the main source of their livelihood; until the 17th century, these people were not known to the Europeans, little known to the Han Chinese, who sometimes collectively described them as the Wild Jurchens.
The term Yupi Dazi was used for the Nanais and related groups as well, owing to their traditional clothes made of fish skins. The Mongols, ruling the region as the Yuan dynasty, established a tenuous military presence on the lower Amur in the 13–14th centuries. During the Yongle and Xuande eras, the Ming dynasty reached the Amur as well in their drive to establish control over the lands adjacent to the Ming Empire to the northeast, which were to become known as Manchuria. Expeditions headed by the eunuch Yishiha reached Tyr several times between 1411 and the early 1430s, re-building the Yongning Temple and obtaining at least the nominal allegiance of the lower Amur's tribes to the Ming government; some sources report a Chinese presence during the same period on the middle Amur – a fort existed at Aigun for about 20 years during the Yongle era on the left shore of the Amur downstream from the mouth of the Zeya River. This Ming Dynasty Aigun was located on the opposite bank to the Aigun, relocated during the Qing Dynasty.
In any event, the Ming presence on the Amur was as short-lived. Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", Chinese motifs like the dragon, spirals and material goods like agriculture, heating, iron cooking pots and cotton spread among the Amur natives like the Udeghes and Nanais. Russian Cossack expeditions led by Vassili Poyarkov and Yerofey Khabarov explored the Amur and its tributaries in 1643–44 and 1649–51, respectively; the Cossacks established the fort of Albazin on the upper Amur, at the site of the former capital of the Solons. At the time, the Manchus were busy with conquering the region.
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
The Amur Annexation was the incorporation of the southeast corner of Siberia into Russia in 1858–1860. The two areas involved are the Priamurye between the Amur River and the Stanovoy Range to the north and the Primorye which runs down the coast from the Amur mouth to the Korean border, does not include the island of Sakhalin; the territory of Outer Manchuria was under the control of the Qing dynasty. In the modern-day geography of Russia, Priamurye corresponds to the Amur Oblast and the southern half of the Khabarovsk Krai, while Primorye corresponds to the Primorsky Krai. Hydrologically, the Stanovoy Range separates the rivers that flow north into the Arctic from those that flow south into the Amur River. Ecologically, the area is the southeastern edge of the Siberian boreal forest with some areas good for agriculture along the middle Amur, and politically, from about 600 AD, it was the northern fringe of the Chinese-Korean-Manchu world. For a Chinese view of this, see Outer Manchuria and Hulun.
In 1643 Russian adventurers spilled over the Stanovoys, but by 1689 they were driven back by the Manchus. For this, see Sino-Russian border conflicts. By the Treaty of Nerchinsk the two empires recognized the Stanovoys and the Argun River as their border; this remained stable until the 1840s. Following the voyages of Captain James Cook significant numbers of British and American vessels began entering the Pacific, they were followed by Russians like Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov who were concerned with the new Russian colonies in Alaska. This raised the problem of naval defense of the east coast of Siberia and the possibility of using the Amur River as a supply route to the Pacific. In 1845 Alexander von Middendorf wrote a report. In 1847 Aleksandr Gavrilov could not find a deep-water entrance. In 1848 Gennady Nevelskoy was sent in the'Baikal' to explore the Pacific coast. In 1849 he sailed part way up the Amur and sailed south through the Tatar Strait, thereby proving that Sakhalin was an island, a fact, kept a military secret.
In 1850 he founded Nikolayevsk-on-Amur on. Karl Nesselrode, the foreign minister, tried to overrule this, but Nicholas I declared "where once the Russian flag is raised, it must not be lowered". In the next three years, Nevelskoy established other forts on the alleged Chinese territory around the mouth of the Amur. In 1847 Nikolay Muravyov was appointed governor-general of East Siberia. Before leaving for Irkutsk he arranged for the creation of an Amur Committee to coordinate work in the area. In 1849 he made an overland trip to Okhotsk and to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. One result of this was the removal of the main naval center from Okhotsk to Petropavlovsk. To give himself a military force he created a new Cossack host, the Transbaikalian Cossacks, by arming 20,000 mining serfs. In May–June 1854 he and 1,000 men sailed down the Amur to Nikolayevsk; the Manchu governor at Aigun had no choice. News of the Crimean War reached the far east in July. In September an Anglo-French naval force was defeated at the Siege of Petropavlovsk.
Judging that Petropavlovsk could not be defended, Muravyov ordered Rear Admiral Vasily Zavoyko to move his forces to the Amur area. In May 1855 Charles Elliot's force found Zavoyko at De Kastri Bay. Under cover of fog, Zavoiko withdrew north to the mouth of the Amur, which baffled the British since they thought that Sakhalin was connected to the mainland. In 1855 Muravyov sent a 3,000 man force including settlers; the Chinese did nothing. In 1855 Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda which temporarily resolved their conflict in Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands; the Russian representative was Admiral Putyatin. The Second Opium War broke out in 1856. By 1858 the British and French had captured Canton; when news of this reached Saint Petersburg, the foreign minister, Alexander Gorchakov, who had replaced Nesselrode, decided that it was time to "activate Russian Far Eastern Policy". Muravyov was given plenipotentiary powers and Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin was sent to Peking to negotiate a more favorable relation.
In 1856 and 1857 Muravyov sent more settlers down the Amur. In 1858 he went himself, his instructions were not to use force except to rescue captives. On reaching Aigun he presented the local governor with a treaty, signed; this "Treaty of Aigun" assigned all the land north of the Amur to Russia and declared the area east of the Ussuri River and south of the Amur to be a Russo-Chinese condominium until further negotiations. Muravyov founded Khabarovsk at the mouth of the Ussuri. Next September, Alexander II promoted him to full general and granted him the suffix'-Amursky'. In 1859 he sent an exploring expedition down the coast as far as Vladivostok. Meanwhile, Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin was travelling overland to China. Reaching Kyakhta, he was refused entry, so he sailed down the Amur and took ship to Tientsin. Refused entry again, he joined the French at Shanghai; when the allies took the Taku Forts Putyatin offered himself as a mediator. The result was the Treaties of Tientsin. Without informing the allies, Putyatin made a separate deal with the Chinese.
In return for cannon, 20,000 rifles and military instructors, the frontier would be adjusted in some unspecified way. After the alli
Soviet Census (1989)
The 1989 Soviet census, conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR. The census found the total population to be 286,730,819 inhabitants. In 1989, the Soviet Union ranked as the third most populous in the world, above the United States, although it was well behind China and India. In 1989, about half of the Soviet Union's total population lived in the Russian SFSR, one-sixth of them in Ukraine. Two-thirds of the population was urban, leaving the rural population with 34.3%. In this way, its gradual increase continued, as shown by the series represented by 47.9%, 56.3% and 62.3% of 1959, 1970 and 1979 respectively. The last two national censuses showed that the country had been experiencing an average annual increase of about 2.5 million people, although it was a slight decrease from a figure of around 3 million per year in the previous intercensal period, 1959-1970. This post-war increase had contributed to the USSR's partial demographic recovery from the significant population loss that the USSR had suffered during the Great Patriotic War, before it, during Stalin's Great Purge of 1936-1938.
The previous postwar censuses, conducted in 1959, 1970 and 1979, had enumerated 208,826,650, 241,720,134, 262,436,227 inhabitants respectively. In 1990, the Soviet Union was more populated than both the United States and Canada together, having some 40 million more inhabitants than the U. S. alone. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, the combined population of the 15 former Soviet republics stagnated at around 290 million inhabitants for the period 1995-2000; this significant slowdown may in part be due to the remarkable socio-economic changes that followed the disintegration of the USSR, that have tended to reduce more the decreasing birth rates. The next census was planned for 1999. Demographics of the Soviet Union Republics of the Soviet Union Soviet Census First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Growth and diversity of the population of the Soviet Union", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 510, No.
1, 155-177, 1990. Ralph S. Clem, Ed. Research Guide to Russian and Soviet Censuses, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. John C. Dewdney, "Population change in the Soviet Union, 1979-1989," Geography, Vol. 75, Pt. 3, No. 328, July 1990, 273-277. Subjects of Russia, on the www.statoids.com website
To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. In Roman law, exsilium denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a capital punishment alternative to death. Deportation was forced exile, entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property. Relegation was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's property; the terms diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice. A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport, the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.
S. citizenship before his company's IPO. The dual Brazilian/U. S. Citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U. S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom. Examples include: Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 Jews who fled persecution from Nazi Germany People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, it is an alternative theory developed by a young anthropologist, Balan in 2018.
According to him, comfortable exile is a “social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society. Such people are considered “aliens” or internal “others” on the grounds of their religious, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation and civil rights in their own country and capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture.” When a large group, or a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to the Jewish homeland. After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, following the uprisings against the partitioning powers, many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas in France and the United States.
The entire population of Crimean Tatars that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK. Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature, it is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children consider themselves to be Cuban exiles, it is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens. During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.
One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Other examples include the Free French Forces government of Charles De Gaulle of the same time, the Central Tibetan A
Zabaykalsky Krai is a federal subject of Russia, created on March 1, 2008 as a result of a merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug, after a referendum held on the issue on March 11, 2007. Part of the Siberian Federal District, the Krai is now part of the Russian Far East as of November 2018 in accordance with a decree issued by Russian President Vladimir Putin; the administrative center of the krai is located in the city of Chita. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 1,107,107; the krai is located within the historical region of Transbaikalia and has extensive international borders with China and Mongolia. The first traces of human presence in the area dates to 150-35 thousand years ago. Early evidence was found on the surface of ancient river gravels Gyrshelunki near the city of Chita, near Ust-Menza on the Chikoy River. Mongolic-related Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in Baikal territory; the territory of Zabaykalsky Krai has been governed by the Xiongnu Empire and Mongolian Xianbei state, Rouran Khaganate, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan.
Medieval Mongol tribes like Merkit, Tayichiud and Khamag Mongols inhabited in the krai. In the 17th century, some or all of Mongolic-speaking Daurs lived along the Shilka, upper Amur, on the Bureya River, they thus gave their name to the region of Dauria called Transbaikal, now the area of Russia east of Lake Baikal. Today Buryat-Mongols remained in the territory of the krai. Preliminary work on the unification of the Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug was started at the level of regional authorities in April 2006; the governor of Chita Oblast Ravil Geniatulin, mayor of the Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug Bair Zhamsuyev, head of the regional parliament Anatoly Romanov, Dashi Dugarov sent a letter to the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, on November 17, 2006, he supported the initiative. A referendum on unification took place on March 11, 2007. In Chita Oblast, "yes" was the predominant answer to the following question: "Do you agree that the Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug merged into a new entity of the Russian Federation - Zabaykalsky Krai, which included Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug will be an administrative-territorial unit with special status, defined by the charter of the province in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation?"
In Chita Oblast, 90.29% of the voters voted for the union versus - 8.89% who voted against it. 72.82% of the electorate participated. In the Aga Buryat Autonomous Region 94% voted for the union versus - 5.16% 82.95% of the electorate voters participated. On July 23, 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a federal constitutional law "On Establishment in the Russian Federation of a new subject of the Russian Federation in the merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug", adopted by the State Duma on July 5, 2007. and approved by the Federation Council on July 11, 2007. Large companies in the region include the Priargunskoe Mining and Chemical Association, Territorial Generating Company №14, Novo-Shirokinsky mine, Kharanorskaya State District Power Plant, Kharanorskiy coal mine. Ravil Geniatulin, the Governor of Chita Oblast, was elected Governor of Zabaykalsky Krai on February 5, 2008 by the majority of the deputies of both Chita Oblast Duma and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug Duma.
He assumed the post on March 1, 2008. United Russia candidate Natalia Zhdanova was elected governor with 54% of the vote on September 18, 2016. Population: 1,107,107 . According to the 2010 Census, Russians made up 89.9% of the population while Buryats were 6.8%. Other significant groups were Ukrainian, Belorussian, Evenks. 19,981 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. 2007Births: 16,652. Deaths: 16,186. Natural Growth Rate: 0.04% per year.2008Source: Births: 17,809 Deaths: 16,053 NGR: 0.16% Net Immigration: -3,621Vital statistics for 2012Births: 17 706 Deaths: 14 310 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.89 | 2010 - 1.87 | 2011 - 1.87 | 2012 - 2.00 | 2013 - 2.01 | 2014 - 2.08 | 2015 - 2.06 | 2016 - 1.99 As of a 2012 survey 25% of the population of Zabaykalsky Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6.25% to Buddhism, 6% declares to be generically unaffiliated Christian, 2% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or being member of other Orthodox churches.
In addition, 28% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 17% to be atheist, 16.15% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey. List of Chairmen of the Legislative Assembly of Zabaikalsky Krai Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №125-ЗЗК от 17 февраля 2009 г. «Устав Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №1307-ЗЗК от 25 марта 2016 г «О внесении изменени