Chauchilla Cemetery is a cemetery that contains prehispanic mummified human remains and archeological artifacts, located 30 kilometres south of the city of Nazca in Peru. The cemetery was discovered in the 1920s, but had not been used since the 9th century AD, the cemetery includes many important burials over a period of 600 to 700 years. The start of the interments was in about 200 AD and it is important as a source of archaeology to Nazca culture. The cemetery has been plundered by huaqueros who have left human bones. Similar local cemeteries have been damaged to a greater extent, the site has been protected by Peruvian law since 1997 and tourists pay around seven U. S. dollars to take the two-hour tour of this ancient necropolis. The site is by the Poroma riverbed and can be accessed via a road from the Panamerican Highway. In 1997, the majority of the bones and plundered pottery were restored to the tombs. The bodies are so remarkably preserved due mainly to the dry climate in the Peruvian Desert, the bodies were clothed in embroidered cotton and painted with a resin and kept in purpose-built tombs made from mud bricks.
The resin is thought to have kept out insects and slowed bacteria trying to feed on the bodies, the nearby site of Estaquería may provide clues to the remarkable preservation of the numerous bodies in these cemeteries. At that site, archeologists found wooden pillars initially thought to have used for astronomical sightings. However, it is now believed that the posts were used to dry bodies in a mummification process and this may account for the high degree of preservation seen in thousand-year-old bodies which still have hair and the remains of soft tissue, such as skin. Chauchilla Cemetery is a prominent setting in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, though not called by name in the film, the cemetery is explicitly identified in the screenplay, promotional materials, and merchandise. This fictionalized version of the features a number of embellishments, including mask-wearing Nazcan guards. The cemetery is depicted as being built on a promontory overlooking the Nazca Valley, offering the characters a view of the famous Nazca Lines
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the coastal part of the country. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms an urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of almost 10 million, Lima is the most populous area of Peru. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18,1535 and it became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru, around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the New World, the National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12,1551 during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. In October 2013 Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games and it hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant.
In October 2015 Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group, according to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century and this oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted, the chronicles show Límac replacing Ychma as the common name for the area. Modern scholars speculate that the word Lima originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq, linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of lime, the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell into disuse and Lima became the name of choice, on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru.
The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people assume that this is because its original Inca name is Talking River. However, the inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua, later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river, historically, the Flag of Lima has been known as the «Banner of Perus Kings City»
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Chan Chan, the largest city of the pre-Columbian era in South America, is now an archaeological site in La Libertad Region 5 kilometres west of Trujillo, Peru. Chan Chan is located in the mouth of the Moche Valley and was the capital of the empire of the Chimor from 900 to 1470. Chimor, a conquest state, developed from the Chimú culture which established itself along the Peruvian coast around 1400 AD, in the Chimú tongue, Chan Chan means Sun Sun, it was named for its sunny climate which is cooled year round by a southerly breeze. Chan Chan is in a particularly arid section of the desert of northern Peru. Due to the lack of rain in this area, the source of water for Chan Chan is in the form of rivers carrying surface runoff from the Andes. This runoff allows for control of land and water through irrigation systems, the city of Chan Chan spanned 20 km² and had a dense urban center of 6 km² which contained extravagant ciudadelas. Ciudadelas were large architectural masterpieces which housed plazas, the splendor of these ciudadelas suggests their association with the royal class.
Housing for the classes of Chan Chans hierarchical society are known as small. Because the lower classes were often artisans whose role in the empire was to produce crafts, many of these SIARs were used as workshops. In this figure, it can be seen that Verlarde and Bandelier form the border of Chan Chan while Uhle, Tschudi. The location chosen for the coordinates is in the center of these cities, the name is probabilly derived from the Quingnam Jiang or Chang which means Sun, from which Chan-Chan would be literally, Sun-Sun. It is hypothesized that its meaning would be, Great sun, resplendent Sun. Another theory says that the name would derive from the term, the Shi voice translates as Moon and An as house, meaning House of the Moon, making known that the Moon was the main deity. Chan Chan is believed to have been constructed around 850 AD by the Chimú and it was the Chimor empire capital city with an estimated population of 40, 000-60,000 people. After the Inca conquered the Chimú around 1470 AD, Chan Chan fell into decline, in 1535 AD, Francisco Pizarro founded the Spanish city of Trujillo which pushed Chan Chan further into the shadows.
While no longer a capital city, Chan Chan was still well known for its great riches and was consequently looted by the Spaniards. An indication of the great Chimú wealth is seen in a sixteenth century list of items looted from a tomb in Chan Chan. In 1969, Michael Moseley and Carol J. Mackey began excavations of Chan Chan, the plan was approved by the Peruvian Government
Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 AD to about 500 AD in the coastal area of the Central Andes. It overlooked some of the Nazca lines, the Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating at the site for the past few decades. The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures, the past several years long time researcher Omar Faizi has conducted in depth study of the Nazca lines with startling conclusions to his study. Scholars once thought the site was the capital of the Nazca state but have determined that the permanent population was quite small and they believe that it was a pilgrimage center, whose population increased greatly in relation to major ceremonial events. New research has suggested that 40 of the mounds were natural hills modified to appear as artificial constructions, looting is the greatest problem facing the site today. Most of the burial sites surrounding Cahuachi were not known until recently and are tempting targets for looters, the Cahuachi site is located near the south coast of Peru, and found in the Nazca Valley.
Within the Nazca Valley is the Río Grande de Nazca drainage system and is where the Nasca culture developed, the area is ecologically classified as “pre-mountain desert formation. Yunga refers to the Quechua Yungas meaning warm valley, the site itself can be found on the southern side of the Nazca River, one of ten major tributaries that form the Río Grande de Nazca drainage system. The Nazca Valley Grande drainage area is dry in the summer. Precipitation varies between none and 125 mm, the Río Grande regions soils are available for irrigation agriculture with limitations. Cahuachi is located off of the bottom of the treeless hills and terraces beneath Pampa de Atarco. It is on these hills that formed the core majority of artificial constructions at Cahuachi. Dr. Frabee was the first to acknowledge and excavate the site of Cahuachi in the Nazca region in 1922. The following researchers have studied and interpreted the site, Tello, Strong. Among the most extensive research done at Cahuachi was the conducted by William Strong.
Strong was one of the archaeologists who took a broad approach to the site, contextualizing it within Nasca society. He set out to find evidence that would resolve the gap between Paracas and Nasca styles in the region. He did settlement pattern studies in order to out the kinds of activities that went on at Cahuachi
Asana is an archaeological site by the Asana River, a tributary of the Osmore River, in the south-central Andes of southern Peru. The site is situated at an elevation of 3,430 metres, with land use documented from 3, 000–4,800 metres. Asana was occupied over the course of 8,000 years, though the inhabitants were initially mobile foragers, Asana is located on the north bank of the Asana River in the flat fertile valley along 11,270 feet of the river. The geological and geomorphological features are factors for its unique setting. An archaeological study of the Asana river valley was conducted 1986–89, the area studied was along a river length of about 20 kilometres, between Tumilaca Molina and Cueva Quellaveco and from the origin of the minor tributary of the river Charoque to Tala village. The valley floors and hill slopes, covering an area of 4.8 square kilometres, led to the discovery of the Asana site and six rock shelters. One of the shelters, was discovered on the left bank of the river valley at an elevation of 3,000 metres, in a series of river terraces at an elevation range of 3.
Human habitation has been traced to 10,500 BP at Asana, excavations have revealed six stratigraphic zones from 10,500 BP to 3500 BP, before the site became abandoned in 3500 BP. During the settlement period and taruka were the local wild herbivores, over the centuries, the guanaco were domesticated. The Asana at the elevation had formed the base camp of the earliest settlers who were hunter gatherers, hunting guanaco. Up to 5000 BP, settlement became more permanent, the gradual change from forager over to the pastoral society was recorded between 4800 and 4400 BP. By Middle Halocene age, guanacos had been domesticated, if these limits increased they would establish new camps. Human settlement abruptly ended at Asana, lithic material found at the site attests to the shifting of camps and supports links existing between the settlements of the lower and upper elevations. Both residential and non-residential structures were found and indicated a type of growth. Structure were dated between 5500–3600 BP, a ceremonial structure was found in an open air pre-ceramic site during excavations conducted from 1989–90.
It is inferred that activities occurred at the site during a 250–500-year period. A feature identified as a ground, dated to 4800 BP, was thought to be used for feasts. Aldenderfer, Mark S. Montane Foragers and the South-Central Andean Archaic, Iowa City, University of Iowa Press