The chloride ion is the anion Cl−. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are very soluble in water, it is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. Less the word chloride may form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion. A chloride ion is much smaller than a chlorine atom, 99 pm, respectively; the ion is diamagnetic. In aqueous solution, it is soluble in most cases. In aqueous solution, chloride is bound by the protic end of the water molecules. Sea water contains 1.94% chloride. Some chloride-containing minerals include the chlorides of sodium and magnesium, hydrated MgCl2.

The concentration of chloride in the blood is called serum chloride, this concentration is regulated by the kidneys. A chloride ion is a structural component of e.g. it is present in the amylase enzyme. Chloride is found as an electrolyte, can flow through chloride channels and is transported by KCC2 and NKCC2 transporters. Chloride is at a higher extracellular concentration, causing it to have a negative reversal potential. Chloride is an essential electrolyte, trafficking in and out of cells through chloride channels and playing a key role in maintaining cell homeostasis and transmitting action potentials in neurons. Characteristic concentrations of chloride in model organisms are: in both E. coli and budding yeast are 10-200mM, in mammalian cell 5-100mM and in blood plasma 100mM. The chlor-alkali industry is a major consumer of the world's energy budget; this process converts sodium chloride into chlorine and sodium hydroxide, which are used to make many other materials and chemicals. The process involves two parallel reactions: 2 Cl− → Cl2 + 2 e− 2 H2O + 2 e− → H2 + 2 OH− Another major application involving chloride is desalination, which involves the energy intensive removal of chloride salts to give potable water.

In the petroleum industry, the chlorides are a monitored constituent of the mud system. An increase of the chlorides in the mud system may be an indication of drilling into a high-pressure saltwater formation, its increase can indicate the poor quality of a target sand. Chloride is a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage & potable water. Many water regulating companies around the world utilize chloride to check the contamination levels of the rivers and potable water sources. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are used to preserve food; the presence of chlorides, e.g. in seawater aggravates the conditions for pitting corrosion of most metals by enhancing the formatio, like most chloride salts is colorless and water-soluble.]] Chloride can be oxidized but not reduced. The first oxidation, as employed in the chlor-alkali process, is conversion to chlorine gas. Chlorine can be further oxidized to other oxides and oxyanions including hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide and perchlorate.

In terms of its acid–base properties, chloride is a weak base as indicated by the negative value of the pKa of hydrochloric acid. Chloride can be protonated by strong acids, such as sulfuric acid: NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HClIonic chloride salts reaction with other salts to exchange anions; the presence of chloride is detected by its formation of an insoluble silver chloride upon treatment with silver ion: Cl− + Ag+ → AgClThe concentration of chloride in an assay can be determined using a chloridometer, which detects silver ions once all chloride in the assay has precipitated via this reaction. Chlorided silver electrodes are used in ex vivo electrophysiology. An example is table salt, sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. In water, it dissociates into Na Cl − ions. Salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride have varied uses ranging from medical treatments to cement formation. Calcium chloride is a salt, marketed in pellet form for removing dampness from rooms.

Calcium chloride is used for maintaining unpaved roads and for fortifying roadbases for new construction. In addition, calcium chloride is used as a de-icer, since it is effective in lowering the melting point when applied to ice. Examples of covalently bonded chlorides are phosphorus trichloride, phosphorus pentachloride, thionyl chloride, all three of which are reactive chlorinating reagents that have been used in a laboratory. Chlorine can assume oxidation states of −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. Several neutral chlorine oxides are known. Halide Renal chloride reabsorption


Trekonomics: The Economics of Star Trek is a book by French economist Manu Saadia. The book deals with the topic of the scarcity in the economy by looking at it in reverse; the author describes the 24th-century Star Trek universe. The book explores a post-scarcity age where it questions if we as humans are equipped for the events happening in that age, it looks at the expectations regarding automation and artificial intelligence and takes readers through a journey of the fictional, moneyless world of Star Trek. It looks at the challenges to the Star Trek economy. In 2017 the narrated version of Trekonomics was nominated for an Audie Award and came out as a finalist. Societies are working under scarcity, so half of the people in the world are living under scarcity. Robots are coming closer. We must think about. In the future, we will not worry about money. We may not work to earn money in the future, so we can escape from the fear of scarcity. Instead of that, we will work hard to get a good reputation from people.

In this world scientists are the most important and famous persons and everyone would be working for them. Star Trek is this form of society. Saadia analysed the economics of Star Trek, he explored the underlying economic theory beyond demand. He asks the readers "What would the world look like if everyone had everything they wanted or needed?"The author argues that while a warp drive may not be possible, post-scarcity economy is much more realistic. The first chapter focuses on the absence of currency in it. In a society where the economic problems have been overcome, money is meaningless, it explains how that nation functions without the pricing mechanism and the results of eliminating money as both a unit of account and as an information signal. The status of human labor in the Star Trek universe is the topic of the second chapter; the Star Trek universe is a utopia because people do not have to work, but yet the ones we see on the show are all paradoxically busy. The motivations of people who chose to work are analyzed.

The third chapter talks about the replicator, the machine that makes Star Trek's post-scarcity possible. Post-scarcity's meaning is the infinite social wealth; the replicator is as a metaphor for automation, an endpoint of the industrial revolution. Crucially, in the Star Trek's society it and its produces are public good; the fourth chapter focuses on natural limits of growth. In particular, it deals with the issue of whether resources are indeed limited, how can different societies coexist if some view resources as limited and others, like the Federation, much less so, it tackles examples to examine that Star Trek's universe follows the economic theory. The fifth chapter is focused on negative externalities, such as whether different alien species can manage common resources; this chapter analyses the Star Trek-themed prisoner's dilemma game, discusses whether rational and well-governed societies, like the idealistic and utopian Federation, can react appropriately when faced with an uncooperative foreign power.

This chapter considers the theories of Elinor Ostrom who discusses methods of solving similar scenarios by using mutually beneficial collective action. A simple history of Star Trek and Trekonomics is introduced in the sixth chapter; the seventh chapter explains human nature. Some Star Trek characters such as Spock and Captain Picard are different from 21st century humans, they live from the economic necessity, so they devote their lives to science and justice. The chapter highlights how psychology change under the post-scarcity; the eighth chapter deals with the Ferengis, an economically powerful alien species in the Star Trek universe, with an economy based on trade and capitalism. They are profit seekers, all profit seekers can change. Deep Space 9, the third show, tells about how the Ferengis abandon their old ways and evolve into Keynesian social democrats; the final chapter reveals how the Star Trek society exists in some local and unevenly distributed forms. The expanding world prosperity, combined with the spread of public goods on a global scale, the rise of "free" stuff makes society approach closer to Trekonomics, the challenge being distributional rather than technological.

The Federation: These characters are different from 20th century humans when it comes to a conventional way of living. The post-scarcity age has influenced them in a way. Being untroubled by belongings makes them have no interest in conspicuous consumption, they are most interested in things of a much higher nature such as the cultivation of the mind, love, art and, of course, discovery. The Ferengi: These are imaginary extraterrestrial species that as only other species charge money for the use of certain products replicators, they are a parody of 2000s American acquisitive businessman. The Ferengi are seen as awful but funny at the same time; the Ferengi do change over time, due to contact by the federation, they start to look more like the federation and become Keynesian social democrats. Saadia thinks that the Ferengi becoming more humanitarian is a metaphor for us becoming better by watching Star Trek; the Borg: This is one of the most powerful extraterrestrial species. The Borg are one of the most efficient species in the Star Trek series and look a lot like the Federation.

They have perfect allocation of a perfect assignment to supply and demand. This is one of the other societies that

Wisconsin Highway 23

State Trunk Highway 23 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The route is signed as a north–south route from Shullsburg to Wisconsin Dells and as an east–west route from Wisconsin Dells to Sheboygan. With the exception of freeway segments between Sheboygan Falls and Sheboygan, an expressway segment between Sheboygan Falls and near Greenbush, a freeway concurrency with I-39, an expressway segment concurrent with U. S. Route 151, the highway is either two-lane surface road or urban multilane arterial. WIS 23 provides access to several important Wisconsin destinations, such as the House on the Rock, the Wisconsin Dells area and various state parks. WIS 23 begins at WIS 11 in Lafayette County, five miles east of Shullsburg, passes north through Darlington. WIS 23 shares one mile of road with WIS 81 starting at Avon, just south of the city, ending in Darlington. WIS 23 passes through rolling hills in the town of Willow Springs and enters Iowa County ten miles north of the city. From the county line, WIS 23 turns northwestward to Mineral Point.

WIS 39 joins the route one mile southeast of the city, turns west off in the downtown area. WIS 23 joins US 151 for a four-mile expressway concurrency. WIS 23 passes through downtown Dodgeville; the highway crosses US 18 on the north side. Access to Governor Dodge State Park is provided off WIS 23; the highway passes the House on the Rock nine miles north of Dodgeville. WIS 23 passes Tower Hill State Park at the Sauk County line. WIS 23 passes through Spring Green upon entering Sauk County and crosses US 14 just north of the village; the highway passes through Plain about six miles north of US 14 and Loganville another eleven miles further north. WIS 154 joins the route in Loganville. Turns off the route to the east three miles further north. After another four miles, WIS 23 joins WIS 33 and becomes an east–west route in Reedsburg and follows the route east for six miles, before turning off northeast and stair-stepping in that direction toward Lake Delton; the highway passes through Mirror Lake State Park just prior to entering the village via Monroe Avenue.

WIS 23 joins US 12 west and both routes turn north into the heart of the Wisconsin Dells tourism district along Wisconsin Dells Parkway north – passing attractions such as Noah's Ark Waterpark the Wisconsin Ducks boat tours, Tommy Bartlett's Thrill Show WIS 23 turns at the junction with WIS 13 and WIS 16 with both routes following it eastbound along Broadway Street through downtown Wisconsin Dells and into Columbia CountyWIS 13 turns north and WIS 16 turns south just east of the city and WIS 23 turns north into Adams County two miles east of Wisconsin Dells. The highway turns east, passing near Big Spring on the way into Marquette County after a six-mile journey through Adams County. WIS 23 stairsteps northeast to Endeavor where it joins I-39/US 51 for six miles before turning east off the interstate five miles east of Oxford. WIS 23 passes through Montello and has a brief cosign with WIS 22 before turning northeast and entering Green Lake County six miles northeast of Montello. WIS 23 joins WIS 73 on the west side of Princeton.

They head east along Main Street south along Fulton Street before leaving the city. They continue to be cosigned heading east for another 3 miles before WIS 73 turns south to head to Randolph and Columbus. WIS 23 is joined by WIS 49 northeast of the city. There is a Business 23; the highway concurrency of 23 and 49 enters Fond du Lac County two miles east of Green Lake. 23 and 49 continue heading southeast to Ripon. On the southeast side of Ripon, WIS 49 South, along with WIS 44 South, cuts south toward Brandon and Waupun. WIS 44 has a short cosign with WIS 23 on the eastside of Ripon before it cuts north to Pickett and Oshkosh. WIS 23 continues east; as the highway enters Fond du Lac, it junctions with I-41 and becomes Johnson St. the main east–west thoroughfare through the city. WIS 23 crosses US 151 on the east side. After a twelve-mile rural stretch from Fond du Lac, WIS 23 enters Sheboygan County The route passes near Greenbush about four miles into the county becomes a freeway about two miles northwest of Plymouth.

Around Plymouth, access is provided to CTH C, WIS 67, CTH E, WIS 57. In Sheboygan Falls, an interchange is present at WIS 32. WIS 23 junctions with I-43 at a cloverleaf interchange just west of Sheboygan; the freeway segment ends a mile east of Interstate 43 at North 25th Street, with an exit at Taylor Drive. WIS 23 follows Kohler Memorial Drive and the straight-line portion of Erie Ave into the city, continuing as a divided highway until three blocks before its termination at WIS 28 south and WIS 42 north. Erie Avenue continues undesignated for about.9 of a mile east, until coming to an end at a cul-de-sac a block west of Lake Michigan, overlooking Broughton Drive. The original 1918 routing of WIS 23 ended the route on the western terminus at Packwaukee at its junction with WIS 10; the route to the east of that point still exists. The route was extended in the early 1920s to the southwest, following its present routing from Packwaukee through Kilbourn and Dodgeville along present day US 151 from Dodgeville to Dubuque, Iowa via Mineral Point and Platteville.

In that decade, the route was truncated back to Dodgeville when US 118 was signed, but extended again – this