A sanatorium is a medical facility for long-term illness, most associated with treatment of tuberculosis in the late-nineteenth and twentieth century before the discovery of antibiotics. A distinction is sometimes made between "sanitarium" and "sanatorium"; the first suggestion of sanatoria in the modern sense was made by George Bodington, who opened a sanatorium in Sutton Coldfield in 1836 and published his essay "On the Treatment and Cure of Pulmonary Consumption" in 1840. His novel approach was dismissed as "very crude ideas and unsupported assertions" by reviewers in the Lancet, his sanatorium was converted to an asylum soon after; the rationale for sanatoria in the pre-antibiotic era was that a regimen of rest and good nutrition offered the best chance that the sufferer's immune system would "wall off" pockets of pulmonary TB infection. In 1863, Hermann Brehmer opened the Brehmersche Heilanstalt für Lungenkranke in Görbersdorf, for the treatment of tuberculosis. Patients were exposed to plentiful amounts of high altitude, fresh air, good nutrition.
Tuberculosis sanatoria became common throughout Europe from the late-19th century onward. The Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, established in Saranac Lake, New York, in 1885, was the first such establishment in North America. According to the Saskatchewan Lung Association, when the National Anti-Tuberculosis Association was founded in 1904, its members, including renowned pioneer in the fight against tuberculosis Dr. R. G. Ferguson, believed that a distinction should be made between the health resorts with which people were familiar and the new tuberculosis treatment hospitals: "So they decided to use a new word which instead of being derived from the Latin noun sanitas, meaning health, would emphasize the need for scientific healing or treatment. Accordingly, they took the Latin verb root sano, meaning to heal, adopted the new word sanatorium."Switzerland used to have many sanatoria, as health professionals believed that clean, cold mountain air was the best treatment for lung diseases. In Finland, a series of tuberculosis sanatoria were built throughout the country in isolated forest areas during the early 1900s.
The most famous was the Paimio Sanatorium, completed in 1933, designed by world-renowned architect Alvar Aalto. It had both sun-balconies and a rooftop terrace where the patients would lie all day either in beds or on specially designed chairs, the Paimio Chair. In Portugal, the Heliantia Sanatorium in Valadares was used for the treatment of bone tuberculosis between the 1930s and 1960s. In the early 20th century, tuberculosis sanatoria became common in the United States; the first of several in Asheville, North Carolina was established by Dr. Horatio Page Gatchell in 1871, before the cause of tuberculosis was known. Fifty years earlier, Dr. J. F. E. Hardy had been cured in the "healing climate". Medical experts reported that at 2200 feet above sea level, air pressure was equal to that in blood vessels, activities and lack of stress helped. In the early 1900s, Arizona's sunshine and dry desert air attracted many people suffering from tuberculosis, rheumatism and numerous other diseases. Wealthier people chose to recuperate in exclusive TB resorts, while others used their savings to make the journey to Arizona and arrived penniless.
TB camps in the desert were formed by pitching tents and building cabins. During the tuberculosis epidemic, cities in Arizona advertised the state as an ideal place for treatment of TB. Many sanatoria in the state of Arizona were modeled after European away-from-city resorts of the time, boasting courtyards and individual rooms; each sanatorium was equipped to take care of about 120 people. The first sanatorium in the Pacific Northwest opened in Milwaukie Heights, Oregon in 1905, followed by the first state-owned TB hospital in Salem, Oregon, in 1910. Oregon was the first state on the West Coast to enact legislation stating that the government was to supply proper housing for people with TB who are unable to receive proper care at home; the West Coast became a popular spot for sanatoriums. The greatest area for sanatoria was in Tucson with over 12 hotel-style facilities in the city. By 1920, Tucson had 7,000 people. So many people came to the West. In 1910, tent cities began to pop up in different areas.
Many of the infected slept in the open desert. The area adjacent to what was central Phoenix, called Sunnyslope, was home to another large TB encampment, with the residents living in tents pitched along the hillsides of the mountains that rise to the north of the city. Several sanatoria opened in southern California in the early party of the 20th century due to the dry, warm climate; the first tuberculosis sanatorium for blacks in the segregated South was the Piedmont Sanatorium in Burkeville, Virginia. Waverly Hills Sanatorium, a Louisville, tuberculosis sanatorium, was founded in 1911, it has become a mecca for curiosity seekers. Because of its dry climate, Colorado Springs was home to several sanatoria. A. G. Holley Hospital in Lantana, was the last remaining freestanding tuberculosis sanatorium in the United States until it closed on July 2, 2012. In 1907, Stannington Sanatorium was open in the North East of England to treat tuberculosis in children; the sanatorium was opened using funds raised by a local charity, the Poor Children's Holiday Association
Pace University is a private university with campuses in New York City and Westchester County, New York. It was established in 1906 by the brothers Homer St. Clair Pace and Charles A. Pace as a business school. Pace enrolls about 13,000 students in master's and doctoral programs, it offers about 100 majors at its six schools. The university offers an MFA in Acting through The Actors Studio Drama School and is home to the Inside the Actors Studio television show, its main schools are the College of Health Professions. The school runs a women's justice center in Yonkers, a business incubator and is affiliated with the public school Pace High School. Pace operated out of the New York Tribune Building in New York City, spread as the Pace Institute, operating in several major U. S. cities. In the 1920s, the school divested facilities outside New York, maintaining its Lower Manhattan location, it purchased its first permanent home in Manhattan in 1951, opened its first Westchester campus in 1963. Pace opened its largest building, 1 Pace Plaza, in 1969.
Four years it became a university. In 1906, brothers Homer St. Clair Pace and Charles Ashford Pace founded the firm of Pace & Pace to operate their schools of accountancy and business. Taking a loan of $600, the Pace brothers rented a classroom on one of the floors of the New York Tribune Building, today the site of the One Pace Plaza complex; the Paces taught the first class of women. The school grew and moved several times around Lower Manhattan; the Pace brothers' school was soon incorporated as Pace Institute, expanded nationwide, offering courses in accountancy and business law in several U. S. cities. Some 4,000 students were taking the Pace brothers' courses in YMCAs in the New York-New Jersey area; the Pace Standardized Course in Accounting was offered in Boston, Washington, D. C. Buffalo, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Kansas City, St. Louis, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle. In the 1920s, concerned about quality control at distant locations, the Pace brothers divested their private schools outside New York and subsequently devoted their attention to the original school in lower Manhattan to become one of the campuses of Pace University.
Pace Institute in Washington, D. C. became Benjamin Franklin University. In 1927 the school moved to the newly completed Transportation Building at 225 Broadway, remained there until the 1950s. After Charles died in 1940 and Homer in 1942, Homer's son Robert S. Pace became the new president of Pace. In 1947, Pace Institute was approved for college status by the New York State Board of Regents. In 1951, the college purchased its first campus building: 41 Park Row in Lower Manhattan; this building, designated a landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in March 1999, was the 19th-century headquarters of The New York Times. In 1963, the Pleasantville Campus was established using land and buildings donated by the then-president of General Foods and Pace alumnus and trustee Wayne Marks and his wife Helen; the school is now celebrating their 50th anniversary. In 1966, U. S. Vice President Hubert Humphrey and New York City Mayor John Lindsay broke ground for the One Pace Plaza Civic Center complex, with Pace president Edward J. Mortola.
The former New York Tribune Building at 154 Nassau Street, across from 41 Park Row, was demolished to make way for the new building complex. The New York State Board of Regents approved Pace College's petition for university status in 1973. Shortly thereafter, in 1975, the College of White Plains consolidated with Pace and became the White Plains campus which at the time was used to house both undergraduate courses and Pace's new law school created in that same year. In September 1976, Pace began offering courses in Midtown Manhattan in the Equitable Life Assurance Company building on Avenue of the Americas, moved once before moving to its current location in 1997. Briarcliff College became the Briarcliff campus. A graduate center was opened in 1982 in White Plains, New York, in 1987 the Graduate Center moved to the newly built Westchester Financial Center complex in downtown business district of White Plains. In 1994, all undergraduate programs in White Plains were consolidated to the Pleasantville-Briarcliff campus, the White Plains campus on North Broadway was given to the law school.
In 1997, Pace purchased the World Trade Institute at 1 World Trade Center from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. On March 5, 2006, Pace students, alumni and staff from all campuses convened on the Pleasantville Campus in a University-wide Centennial Kick-Off Celebration. Former President Bill Clinton received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Pace during the ceremony, held at the Goldstein Health and Recreation Center. Following reception of the honorary degree, he addressed the students, faculty and staff of Pace, of
Taconic State Parkway
The Taconic State Parkway is a 104.12-mile divided highway between Kensico Dam and Chatham, the longest parkway in the U. S. state of New York. It follows a northward route midway between the Hudson River and the Connecticut and Massachusetts state lines, along the Taconic Mountains, its southernmost three miles are a surface road. It has grade-separated interchanges from that point to its northern terminus, it is open only to passenger vehicles, as with other parkways in New York, maintained by the state Department of Transportation, the fourth agency to have that responsibility. Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had long envisioned a scenic road through the eastern Hudson Valley, was instrumental in making it a reality as a way to provide access to existing and planned state parks in the region, its winding, hilly route was designed by landscape architect Gilmore Clarke to offer scenic vistas of the Hudson Highlands and Taconic regions. The bridges and now-closed service areas were designed to be aesthetically pleasing.
It has been praised for the beauty of not only the surrounding landscape and views it offers, but the way the road itself integrates with and presents them. It was completed in its present form in the early 1960s. In 2005 the entire highway, including its supporting structures, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in recognition of its historic importance in the development of parkways in the 20th century, Roosevelt's role in creating it, it is the second-longest continuous road listed on the Register after Virginia's Skyline Drive, the longest limited-access highway. The parkway continues to provide access including one named for Roosevelt, it has become an important regional artery, one of the primary routes to northern New England and upstate New York from New York City and Long Island. The southern sections in Westchester County, have become a commuter route into the city for residents who moved into towns that became suburbanized as a result of the parkway; the state and regional transportation planners have worked to adapt to this change since the 1940s.
The Taconic's character changes with its surroundings. In the busy suburbs of its first few miles, it is an arterial surface road, paralleling a commuter rail line through a small downtown. Soon after that, it becomes a wide divided highway, with median strips and gentle turn radii similar to an Interstate Highway carrying much commuter traffic. In the Hudson Highlands, it narrows again as it curves back and forth and climbs up and down to its highest point; when the terrain levels out again, it widens and begins to assume its scenic character in a growing, exurban area with at-grade intersections. Its northernmost section, located on the ridges between the Hudson Valley and the mountains along the state borders to the east, offers mountain and hilltop vistas as the road itself continues to curve through bucolic surroundings; this winding route contributes to its 104.12-mile length, which makes the parkway the state's longest. The Taconic begins at Kensico Circle, just south of Kensico Dam, in the town of Mount Pleasant the northern terminus of the Bronx River Parkway, at that point a surface road.
The roadway here is narrow, with two lanes in either direction divided by a metal box beam median barrier. It curves northwest to a traffic light at Cleveland Street in the hamlet of Valhalla; the Valhalla station on Metro-North Railroad's Harlem Line is on the west side, with the downtown area on the east. It is the only densely developed community. After crossing under the stone arch bridge carrying Legion Drive over the parkway, the first of many such rustic overpasses, the Taconic begins a long section going past Gate of Heaven Cemetery and paralleling the railroad tracks past the small Mount Pleasant train station, built to allow access to the surrounding cemetery of that name; the road crosses over the train line into a wooded area where the two roadways split wide apart, becoming onramps to the Sprain Brook Parkway. At the merge, the Sprain Brook, a wider road with three lanes in each direction, a cleared median strip and shoulders on either side, becomes the Taconic. For the remainder of Westchester County, the Taconic has been rebuilt and modernized to meet the needs of commuter growth, bearing little resemblance to its original design.
A thousand feet to the north, after a small interchange with NY 141, a three-level stack interchange allows access to the Saw Mill River Parkway northbound. North of the interchange power lines and Saw Mill River Road on the west parallel the parkway past undeveloped Graham Hills County Park; the next exit, at Bedford Road, serves Pleasantville to the east. Just north of it, a short fork allows traffic to divert to NY 9A and 100, which split away toward Briarcliff Manor; the Taconic continues north through a minimally developed area of low hills, past another exit serving Pleasantville, across another town line into New Castle. Route 100 returns to parallel the highway on the west again joins NY 133 at the next exit, serving Ossining and Millwood. About a half mile north of that exit, northbound traffic can exit, southbound traffic enters, at Pines Bridge Road; the roadways grow far apart over the next mile be
Choate House (Massachusetts)
There is a Choate House located in New York owned by the same Choate family. Choate House is a historic house on Choate Island in the Crane Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts and administered by the nonprofit Trustees of Reservations. Choate House was built around 1730, was the birthplace of lawyer and public citizen Rufus Choate, has remained unchanged for over two centuries, it stands on Hog Island called Choate Island, is accessible only by boat
Horace Greeley was an American author and statesman, the founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. Long active in politics, he served as a congressman from New York, was the unsuccessful candidate of the new Liberal Republican party in the 1872 presidential election against incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant. Greeley was born to a poor family in New Hampshire, he went to New York City in 1831 to seek his fortune. He wrote for or edited several publications and involved himself in Whig Party politics, taking a significant part in William Henry Harrison's successful 1840 presidential campaign; the following year, he founded the Tribune, which became the highest-circulating newspaper in the country through weekly editions sent by mail. Among many other issues, he urged the settlement of the American West, which he saw as a land of opportunity for the young and the unemployed, he popularized the slogan "Go West, young man, grow up with the country." He endlessly promoted utopian reforms such as socialism, agrarianism and temperance, while hiring the best talent he could find.
Greeley's alliance with William H. Seward and Thurlow Weed led to him serving three months in the House of Representatives, where he angered many by investigating Congress in his newspaper. In 1854, he helped may have named the Republican Party. Republican newspapers across the nation reprinted his editorials. During the Civil War, he supported Lincoln, though he urged the president to commit to the end of slavery before he was willing to do so. After Lincoln's assassination, he supported the Radical Republicans in opposition to President Andrew Johnson, he broke with Republican President Ulysses Grant because of corruption and Greeley's sense that Reconstruction policies were no longer needed. Greeley was the new Liberal Republican Party's presidential nominee in 1872, he lost in a landslide despite having the additional support of the Democratic Party. He was devastated by the death of his wife, who died five days before the election, died himself three weeks before the Electoral College had met.
Horace Greeley was born on February 1811, on a farm about five miles from Amherst, New Hampshire. He could not breathe for the first twenty minutes of his life, it is suggested that this deprivation may have caused him to develop Asperger's syndrome—some of his biographers, such as Mitchell Snay, maintain that this condition would account for his eccentric behaviors in life. He was of English descent, his forebears included early settlers of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Greeley was the son of poor farmers Mary Greeley. Zaccheus was not successful, moved his family several times, as far west as Pennsylvania. Horace attended the local schools, was a brilliant student. Seeing the boy's intelligence, some neighbors offered to pay Horace's way at Phillips Exeter Academy, but the Greeleys were too proud to accept charity. In 1820, Zaccheus's financial reverses caused him to flee New Hampshire with his family lest he be imprisoned for debt, settle in Vermont; as his father struggled to make a living as a hired hand, Horace Greeley read everything he could—the Greeleys had a neighbor who let Horace use his library.
In 1822, Horace was told he was too young. In 1826, at age 15, he was made a printer's apprentice to Amos Bliss, editor of the Northern Spectator, a newspaper in East Poultney, Vermont. There, he learned the mechanics of a printer's job, acquired a reputation as the town encyclopedia, reading his way through the local library; when the paper closed in 1830, the young man went west to join his family, living near Erie, Pennsylvania. He remained there only going from town to town seeking newspaper employment, was hired by the Erie Gazette. Although ambitious for greater things, he remained until 1831 to help support his father. While there, he became a Universalist. In late 1831, Greeley went to New York City to seek his fortune. There were many young printers in New York who had come to the metropolis, he could only find short-term work. In 1832, Greeley worked as an employee of the publication Spirit of the Times, he set up a print shop in that year. In 1833, he tried his hand with Horatio D. Sheppard at editing a daily newspaper, the New York Morning Post, not a success.
Despite this failure and its attendant financial loss, Greeley published the thrice-weekly Constitutionalist, which printed lottery results. On March 22, 1834, he published the first issue of The New-Yorker in partnership with Jonas Winchester, it was less expensive than other literary magazines of the time and published both contemporary ditties and political commentary. Circulation reached 9,000 a sizable number, yet it was ill-managed and fell victim to the economic Panic of 1837, he published the campaign news sheet of the new Whig Party in New York for the 1834 campaign, came to believe in its positions, including free markets with government assistance in developing the nation. Soon after his move to New York City, Greeley met Mary Young Cheney. Both were living at a boarding house run on the diet principles of Sylvester Graham, eschewing meat, coffee and spices, as well as abstaining from the use of tobacco. Greeley was subscribing to Graham's principles at the time, to the end of his life ate meat.
Mary Cheney, a schoolteacher, moved to North Carolina to take a teaching job in 1835. They were married in Warrenton, North Carolina on July 5, 1836, an
Westchester County, New York
Westchester County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles, consisting of six cities, 19 towns, 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of England; the county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016. The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011; the 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households.
Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013. Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area; the county is positioned with Nassau and Suffolk counties, to its south. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth; because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself. At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Native American inhabitants of present-day Westchester County were part of the Algonquian peoples, whose name for themselves was Lenape, meaning the people, they called the region Lenapehoking, which consisted of the area around and between the Delaware and Hudson Rivers.
Several different tribes occupied the area, including The Manhattans, the Weckquaesgeek and Siwanoy bands of the Wappinger in the south, Tankiteke and Kitchawank Wappinger in the north. The first European explorers to visit the Westchester area were Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Dutch settlers began arriving in the 1620s, followed by settlers from England in the 1640s. Westchester County was one of the original twelve counties of the Province of New York, created by an act of the New York General Assembly in 1683. At the time it included present-day Bronx County, abutted then-Dutchess County to the north. By 1775, Westchester was the richest and most populous county in the colony of New York. Although the Revolutionary War devastated the county, recovery after the war was rapid. In 1788, five years after the end of the war, the county was divided into 20 towns. In 1798, the first federal census recorded a population of 24,000 for the county. Two developments in the first half of the 19th century – the construction of the first Croton Dam and Aqueduct, the coming of the railroad – had enormous impacts on the growth of Westchester.
The Croton Dam and Aqueduct was begun in 1837 and completed in 1842. In the 1840s, the first railroads were built in Westchester, included the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Hudson River Railroad, the New York and New Haven Railroad; the railroads determined the growth of a town, the population shifted from Northern to Southern Westchester. By 1860, the total county population was 99,000, with the largest city being Yonkers; the period following the American Civil War enabled entrepreneurs in the New York area to create fortunes, many built large estates, such as Lyndhurst, in Westchester. During the latter half of the 19th century, Westchester's transportation system and labor force attracted a manufacturing base along the Hudson River and Nepperhan Creek. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County; these would split from Manhattan to form a county. During the 20th century, the rural character of Westchester would transform into the suburban county known today.
The Bronx River Parkway, completed in 1925, was the first modern, multi-lane limited-access roadway in North America. The development of Westchester's parks and parkway systems supported existing communities and encouraged the establishment of new ones, transforming the development pattern for Westchester. With the need for homes expanding after World War II, multistory apartment houses appeared in the urbanized areas of the county, while the market for single-family houses continued to expand. By 1950, the total County population was 625,816. Major interstate highways were constructed in Westchester during the 1960s; the establishment of these roadways, along with the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, led to further growth in the county. Westchester County is located in southern New York known as Downstate, it shares its southern boundary with its northern border with Putnam County. It is bordered on the west