The kudus are two species of antelope of the genus Tragelaphus: Lesser kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis, of eastern Africa Greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, of eastern and southern Africa The name of the animal was imported into English in the 18th century from isiXhosa iqhude, via Afrikaans koedoe part zebra part deer. Kudu, or koodoo, is the Khoikhoi name for this antelope. Tragos elaphos a deer. Strepho means "twist", strephis is "twisting". Keras refers to the horn of the animal. Lesser kudus come from the savanna near Commiphora shrubs, they have to rely on thickets for protection, so they are seen in the open. Their brown and striped pelts help to camouflage them in scrub environments. Like many other antelope, male kudus can be found in bachelor groups, but they are more to be solitary, their dominance displays tend not to last long and are fairly peaceful, consisting of one male making himself look big by making his hair stand on end. When males do have a face-off, they will lock their horns in a competition to determine the stronger puller.
Sometimes two competing males are unable to unlock their horns and, if unable to disengage, will die of starvation or dehydration. Males are seen with females only in the mating season, when they join in groups of 5–15 kudus, including offspring. Calves grow quickly and at six months are independent of their mothers. A pregnant female will leave the herd to give birth to a single offspring, she will leave the newborn lying hidden for 4–5 weeks while coming back only to nurse it, the longest amount of time for any antelope species. The calf will start meeting its mother for short periods. At 3 or 4 months, the calf will be with its mother and at about six months they will permanently join the group; when threatened, the kudu will run away rather than fight. Wounded bulls have been known to charge the attacker, hitting the attacker with their sturdy horn base rather than stabbing it. Wounded females can keep running for many miles without stopping to rest for more than a minute, they are capable of breaking a wild dog's or jackal's neck or back.
They are good can clear a 5-foot fence from a standing start. Kudus eat leaves and shoots. In dry seasons they eat wild watermelons and other fruit for their liquid content and the natural sugars that they provide; the lesser kudu is less dependent on water sources than the greater kudu. Predators, such as lions and leopards, African wild dogs and sometimes pythons, hunt kudu and their young. Kudu numbers are affected by humans hunting them for their meat and horns, or using their habitats for charcoal burning and farming. Kudus were susceptible to the rinderpest virus, many scientists think recurring epidemics of the disease reduced kudu populations in East Africa. Kudus are susceptible to rabies in times of extended drought, they have been known to enter other buildings when infected. Infected animals appear have a distinct frothing at the mouth, they are fearless and bulls may sometimes attack humans who get too close to them. Kudu meat is similar to venison, with liver-like flavor, it is a dry and lean meat, so it needs to be cooked to avoid drying it out and making it difficult to eat.
A kudu horn is a musical instrument made from the horn of the kudu. A form of it is sometimes used as a shofar in Jewish ceremonies, it is seen in the Western world in its use as a part of the Scouting movement's Wood Badge training program which, when blown, signals the start of a Wood Badge training course or activity. A horn of this shape, when used by soccer fans, is called kuduzela; the kudu, "tholo" in the languages of Sepedi and Venda, is a tribal totem of the Barolong and Batlhaping people of Botswana and South Africa. In the sport of kudu dung-spitting, contestants spit pellets of kudu dung, with the farthest distance reached being the winner; the sport is popular among the Afrikaner community in South Africa, a world championship is held each year. Media related to Tragelaphus strepsiceros at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Tragelaphus imberbis at Wikimedia Commons Kudu: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
Wildebeests called gnus, are antelopes in the genus Connochaetes. They belong to the family Bovidae, which includes antelopes, goats and other even-toed horned ungulates. Connochaetes includes two species, both native to Africa: the black wildebeest or white-tailed gnu, the blue wildebeest or brindled gnu. Fossil records suggest these two species diverged about one million years ago, resulting in a northern and a southern species; the blue wildebeest remained in its original range and changed little from the ancestral species, while the black wildebeest changed more as adaptation to its open grassland habitat in the south. The most obvious way of telling the two species apart are the differences in their colouring and in the way their horns are oriented. In East Africa, the blue wildebeest is the most abundant big-game species. Breeding in both takes place over a short period of time at the end of the rainy season and the calves are soon active and are able to move with the herd, a fact necessary for their survival.
Some fall prey to large carnivores the spotted hyena. Wildebeest graze in mixed herds with zebra, which gives heightened awareness of potential predators, they are alert to the warning signals emitted by other animals such as baboons. Wildebeest are a tourist attraction but compete with domesticated livestock for pasture and are sometimes blamed by farmers for transferring diseases and parasites to their cattle; some illegal hunting goes on but the population trend is stable and some populations are in national parks or on private land. The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists both as least-concern species; the wildebeest called the gnu is an antelope of the genus Connochaetes. Wildebeest is Dutch for "wild beast" or "wild cattle" in Afrikaans, while Connochaetes derives from the Greek words κόννος, kónnos, "beard", χαίτη, khaítē, "flowing hair", "mane"; some sources claim. Others contend the name and its pronunciation in English go back to the word!nu: used for the black wildebeest by the San people.
The wildebeest, genus Connochaetes, is placed under the family Bovidae and subfamily Alcelaphinae, where its closest relatives are the hartebeest, the hirola, species in the genus Damaliscus, such as the topi, the tsessebe, the blesbok and the bontebok. The name Connochaetes was given by German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein in 1812. Dutch settlers first "discovered" wildebeest in about 1700, on their way to the interior of South Africa. Due to their resemblance to wild cattle, these people called them "wild ox" or "wildebeest"; the blue wildebeest was first known to westerners in the northern part of South Africa a century in the 1800s. In the early 20th century, one species of the wildebeest, C. albojubatus, was identified in eastern Africa. In 1914, two separate races of the wildebeest were introduced, namely Gorgon a. albojubatus and G. a. mearnsi. However, in 1939, the two were once again merged into a single race, Connochaetes taurinus albojubatus. In the mid-20th century, two separate forms were recognised, Gorgon taurinus hecki and G. t. albojubatus.
Two distinct types of wildebeest – the blue and black wildebeest – were identified. The blue wildebeest was at first placed under a separate genus, while the black wildebeest belonged to the genus Connochaetes. Today, they are united in the single genus Connochaetes, with the black wildebeest being named and the blue wildebeest. According to a mitochondrial DNA analysis, the black wildebeest seem to have diverged from the main lineage during the Middle Pleistocene and became a distinct species around a million years ago. A divergence rate around 2% has been calculated; the split does not seem to have been driven by competition for resources, but instead because each species adopted a different ecological niche and occupied a different trophic level. Blue wildebeest fossils dating back some 2.5 million years ago are widespread. They have been found in the fossil-bearing caves at the Cradle of Humankind north of Johannesburg. Elsewhere in South Africa, they are plentiful at such sites as Elandsfontein and Florisbad.
The earliest fossils of the black wildebeest were found in sedimentary rock in Cornelia in the Orange Free State and dated back about 800,000 years. Today, five subspecies of the blue wildebeest are recognized, while the black wildebeest has no named subspecies; the diploid number of chromosomes in the wildebeest is 58. Chromosomes were studied in a female wildebeest. In the female, all except a pair of large submetacentric chromosomes were found to be acrocentric. Metaphases were studied in the male's chromosomes, large submetacentric chromosomes were found there, as well, similar to those in the female both in size and morphology. Other chromosomes were acrocentric; the X chromosome is the Y chromosome a minute one. The two species of the wildebeest are known to hybridise. Male black wildebeest have been reported to mate with female blue vice versa; the differences in social behaviour and habitats have prevented interspecific hybridisation between the species, but hybridisation may occur when they are both confined within the same area.
The resulting offspring are fertile. A study of these hybrid animals at Spioenkop Dam Nature Reserve i
A rhinoceros abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species. Two of the extant species are native to three to Southern Asia; the term "rhinoceros" is more broadly applied to now extinct relatives of the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea. Members of the rhinoceros family are some of the largest remaining megafauna, with all species able to reach or exceed one tonne in weight, they have a herbivorous diet, small brains for mammals of their size, one or two horns, a thick protective skin formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure. They eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter when necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their lips to pluck food. Rhinoceros are killed by some humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, used by some cultures for ornaments or traditional medicine.
East Asia Vietnam, is the largest market for rhino horns. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People consume them, believing the dust has therapeutic properties; the horns are made of the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails. Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan rhinoceros have a single horn; the IUCN Red List identifies the Black and Sumatran rhinoceros as critically endangered. The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Ancient Greek: ῥῑνόκερως, composed of ῥῑνο- and κέρας with a horn on the nose; the plural in English is rhinoceroses. The collective noun for a group of rhinoceroses is herd; the name has been in use since the 14th century. The family Rhinocerotidae consists of only four extant genera: Ceratotherium, Diceros and Rhinoceros; the living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the white rhinoceros and the black rhinoceros, belong to the tribe Dicerotini, which originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago.
The species diverged during the early Pliocene. The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths – white rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing, whereas black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian rhinoceros and the Javan rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago; the Sumatran rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene. A subspecific hybrid white rhino was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo in the Czech Republic in 1977. Interspecific hybridisation of black and white rhinoceros has been confirmed. While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes, all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes. However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern white rhinoceroses with 81 chromosomes. There are two subspecies of white rhinoceros: the southern white rhinoceros and the northern white rhinoceros.
As of 2013, the southern subspecies has a wild population of 20,405 – making them the most abundant rhino subspecies in the world. However, the northern subspecies is critically endangered, with all, known to remain being two captive females. There is no conclusive explanation of the name "white rhinoceros". A popular idea that "white" is a distortion of either the Afrikaans word wyd or the Dutch word wijd, meaning "wide" and referring to the rhino's square lips, is not supported by linguistic studies; the white rhino has a short neck and broad chest. Females weigh males 2,400 kg; the head-and-body length is 3.5–4.6 m and the shoulder height is 1.8–2 m. On its snout it has two horns; the front horn is larger than averages 90 cm in length and can reach 150 cm. The white rhinoceros has a prominent muscular hump that supports its large head; the colour of this animal can range from yellowish brown to slate grey. Most of its body hair is found on the ear fringes and tail bristles, with the rest distributed rather sparsely over the rest of the body.
White rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth, used for grazing. The name "black rhinoceros" was chosen to distinguish this species from the white rhinoceros; this can be confusing, as the two species are not distinguishable by color. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central, the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills. They belong to the family called Ciconiidae, make up the order Ciconiiformes. Ciconiiformes included a number of other families, such as herons and ibises, but those families have been moved to other orders. Storks dwell in many regions and tend to live in drier habitats than the related herons and ibises. Bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Many species are migratory. Most storks eat frogs, insects, small birds and small mammals. There are nineteen living species of storks in six genera. Various terms are used to refer to groups of storks, two used ones being a muster of storks and a phalanx of storks. Storks tend to use gliding flight, which conserves energy. Soaring requires thermal air currents. Ottomar Anschütz’s famous 1884 album of photographs of storks inspired the design of Otto Lilienthal's experimental gliders of the late nineteenth century. Storks are heavy, with wide wingspans: the marabou stork, with a wingspan of 3.2 m and weight up to 8 kg, joins the Andean condor in having the widest wingspan of all living land birds.
Their nests are very large and may be used for many years. Some nests have been known to grow to about three metres in depth. Storks were once thought to be monogamous, but this is only true, they may change mates after migrations, may migrate without a mate. Storks’ size, serial monogamy, faithfulness to an established nesting site contribute to their prominence in mythology and culture. Storks are large to large waterbirds, they range in size from the marabou, which stands 152 cm tall and can weigh 8.9 kg, to the Abdim's stork, only 75 cm high and only weighs 1.3 kg. Their shape is superficially similar to the herons, with long legs and necks, but they are heavier-set. There is some sexual dimorphism in size, with males being up to 15% bigger than females in some species, but no difference in appearance; the only difference is in the colour of the iris of the two species in the genus Ephippiorhynchus. The bills of the storks are large to large, vary between the genera; the shape of the bills is linked to the diet of the different species.
The large bills of the Ciconia storks are the least specialised. Larger are the massive and upturned bills of the Ephippiorhynchus and the jabiru; these have evolved to hunt for fish in shallow water. Larger still are the massive daggers of the two adjutants and marabou, which are used to feed on carrion and in defence against other scavengers, as well as for taking other prey; the long, ibis-like downcurved bills of the Mycteria storks have sensitive tips that allow them to detect prey by touch where cloudy conditions would not allow them to see it. The most specialised bills of any storks are those of the two openbills, which as their name suggested is open in the middle when their bill is closed; these bills have evolved to help openbills feed on aquatic snails. Although it is sometimes reported that storks lack syrinxes and are mute, they do have syrinxes, are capable of making some sounds, although they do not do so often; the syrinxes of the storks are "variably degenerate" however, the syringeal membranes of some species are found between tracheal rings or cartilage, an unusual arrangement shared with the ovenbirds.
The storks have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, being absent from the poles, most of North America and large parts of Australia, The centres of stork diversity are in tropical Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with eight and six breeding species respectively. Just three species are present in the New World: wood stork, maguari stork and jabiru, the tallest flying bird of the Americas. Two species and black stork, reach Europe and western temperate Asia, while one species, Oriental stork, reaches temperate areas of eastern Asia, one species, black-necked stork, is found in Australasia. Storks are more diverse and common in the tropics, the species that live in temperate climates for the most part migrate to avoid the worst of winter, they are diverse in their habitat requirements. Some species the Mycteria "wood storks" and Anastomus openbills, are dependent on water and aquatic prey, but many other species are far less dependent on this habitat type, although they will make use of it. Species like the marabou and Abdim's stork will be found foraging in open grasslands of savannah.
Preferred habitats include flooded grasslands, light woodland and paddyfields, wet meadows, river backwaters and ponds. Many species will select shallow pools when lakes or rivers are drying out, as they concentrate prey and make it harder for prey to escape. Less typical habitats include the dense temperate forests used by European black storks, or the rainforest habitat sought by Storm's stork in South East Asia, they avoid marine habitats, with the exception of the lesser adjutant, milky stork and wood stork, all of which forage in mangroves and estuarine mudflats. A number of species have adapted to modified human habitats, either for foraging or breeding. In the absence of persecution several species breed close to people, species such as the marabou and white stork will feed at landfill sites; the storks vary in their tendency towards migration. Temperate species like the white stork, black stork and Oriental stork
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Zebras are several species of African equids united by their distinctive black-and-white striped coats. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual, they are social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives and donkeys, zebras have never been domesticated. There are three species of zebras: the mountain zebra and the Grévy's zebra; the plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, while Grévy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which zebras are related, while the former two look more horse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus, along with other living equids; the unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals most familiar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, woodlands, thorny scrublands and coastal hills. Various anthropogenic factors have had a severe impact on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skins and habitat destruction.
Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies, the quagga, became extinct in the late 19th century – though there is a plan, called the Quagga Project, that aims to breed zebras that are phenotypically similar to the quagga in a process called breeding back; the name "zebra" in English dates back to c. 1600, from Italian zebra from Portuguese, which in turn is said to be Congolese. The Encarta Dictionary says its ultimate origin is uncertain, but it may come from Latin equiferus meaning "wild horse"; the word was traditionally pronounced with a long initial vowel, but over the course of the 20th century, the pronunciation with the short initial vowel became the usual one in the UK and Commonwealth. The pronunciation with a long initial vowel remains standard in the United States. A group of zebras are referred to dazzle, or zeal. Zebras evolved among the Old World horses within the last 4 million years, it has been suggested that striped equids evolved more than once.
Extensive stripes are posited to have been of little use to equids that live in low densities in deserts or ones that live in colder climates with shaggy coats and annual shading. However, molecular evidence supports zebras as a monophyletic lineage; the zebra has between 46 chromosomes, depending on the species. There are three extant species. Collectively, two of the species have eight subspecies. Zebra populations are diverse, the relationships between, the taxonomic status of, several of the subspecies are not well known. Genus: Equus Subgenus: Hippotigris Plains zebra, Equus quagga †Quagga, Equus quagga quagga Burchell's zebra, Equus quagga burchellii Grant's zebra, Equus quagga boehmi Selous' zebra, Equus quagga selousi Maneless zebra, Equus quagga borensis Chapman's zebra, Equus quagga chapmani Crawshay's zebra, Equus quagga crawshayi Mountain zebra, Equus zebra Cape mountain zebra, Equus zebra zebra Hartmann's mountain zebra, Equus zebra hartmannae Subgenus: Dolichohippus Grévy's zebra, Equus grevyi The plains zebra is the most common, has or had about six subspecies distributed across much of southern and eastern Africa.
It, or particular subspecies of it, have been known as the common zebra, the dauw, Burchell's zebra, Chapman's zebra, Wahlberg's zebra, Selous' zebra, Grant's zebra, Boehm's zebra and the quagga. The mountain zebra of southwest Africa tends to have a sleek coat with a white belly and narrower stripes than the plains zebra, it is classified as vulnerable. Grévy's zebra is the largest type, with a narrow head, making it appear rather mule-like, it is an inhabitant of the semi-arid grasslands of northern Kenya. Grévy's zebra is the rarest species, is classified as endangered. Although zebra species may have overlapping ranges, they do not interbreed. In captivity, plains zebras have been crossed with mountain zebras; the hybrid foals lacked a dewlap and resembled the plains zebra apart from their larger ears and their hindquarters pattern. Attempts to breed a Grévy's zebra stallion to mountain zebra mares resulted in a high rate of miscarriage. In captivity, crosses between zebras and other equines have produced several distinct hybrids, including the zebroid, zeedonk and zorse.
In certain regions of Kenya, plains zebras and Grévy's zebra coexist, fertile hybrids occur. The Hagerman horse is sometimes referred to as the American zebra due to perceived similarities to the plains zebra, sometimes depicted as striped. However, consensus appears to be that it wasn't closely related to either Hippotigiris nor Dolichohippus, nor is there unambiguous evidence that it had stripes; the common plains zebra is about 1.2–1.3 m at the shoulder with a body ranging from 2–2.6 m long with a 0.5 m tail. It can weigh up to 350 kg, males being bigger than females. Grévy's zebra is larger, while the mountain zebra is somewhat smaller, it was believed that zebras were white animals with black stripes, since some zebras have white underbellies. Embryological evidence, shows that the animal's background colour is black and the white stripes and bellies are additions, it is that the stripes ar
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati