Devanagari called Nagari, is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE, was in regular use by the 7th century CE; the Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is one of the most adopted writing systems in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters; the orthography of this script reflects the pronunciation of the language. Unlike the Latin alphabet, the script has no concept of letter case, it is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali, Odia, or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are similar except for angles and structural emphasis.
Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Hindi, Pali, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha, Haryanvi, Nagpuri, Bhili, Marathi, Maithili, Konkani, Bodo, Nepalbhasa and Santali. The Devanagari script is related to the Nandinagari script found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts. Devanagari is a compound of "deva" देव and "nāgarī" नागरी. Deva meaning "heavenly or divine", is one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism, Nagri comes from नगर, which means abode or city. Hence, Devanagari denotes from the abode of divinity or deities. Devanagari is part of the Brahmic family of scripts of India, Nepal and South-East Asia; some of the earliest epigraphical evidence attesting to the developing Sanskrit Nagari script in ancient India, in a form similar to Devanagari, is from the 1st to 4th century CE inscriptions discovered in Gujarat. It is a descendant of the 3rd century BCE Brahmi script through the Gupta script, along with Siddham and Sharada.
Variants of script called Nāgarī, recognisably close to Devanagari, are first attested from the 1st century CE Rudradaman inscriptions in Sanskrit, while the modern standardised form of Devanagari was in use by about 1000 CE. Medieval inscriptions suggest widespread diffusion of the Nagari-related scripts, with biscripts presenting local script along with the adoption of Nagari scripts. For example, the mid 8th-century Pattadakal pillar in Karnataka has text in both Siddha Matrika script, an early Telugu-Kannada script; the Nagari script was in regular use by the 7th century CE and it was developed by about the end of first millennium. The use of Sanskrit in Nagari script in medieval India is attested by numerous pillar and cave temple inscriptions, including the 11th-century Udayagiri inscriptions in Madhya Pradesh, an inscribed brick found in Uttar Pradesh, dated to be from 1217 CE, now held at the British Museum; the script's proto- and related versions have been discovered in ancient relics outside of India, such as in Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
Nagari has been the primus inter pares of the Indic scripts. It has long been used traditionally by religiously educated people in South Asia to record and transmit information, existing throughout the land in parallel with a wide variety of local scripts used for administration and other daily uses.. Other related scripts such as Siddham Matrka were in use in Indonesia, Vietnam and other parts of East Asia by between 7th- to 10th-century. Sharada remained in parallel use in Kashmir. An early version of Devanagari is visible in the Kutila inscription of Bareilly dated to Vikram Samvat 1049, which demonstrates the emergence of the horizontal bar to group letters belonging to a word. One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit texts from the early post-Maurya period consists of 1,413 Nagari pages of a commentary by Patanjali, with a composition date of about 150 BCE, the surviving copy transcribed about 14th century CE. Nāgarī is the Sanskrit feminine of Nāgara "relating or belonging to a town or city, urban".
It is a phrasing with lipi as nāgarī lipi "script relating to a city", or "spoken in city". The use of the name devanāgarī emerged from the older term nāgarī. According to Fischer, Nagari emerged in the northwest Indian subcontinent around 633 CE, was developed by the 11th-century, was one of the major scripts used for the Sanskrit literature. Most of the southeast Asian scripts have roots in the Dravidian scripts, except for a few found in south-central regions of Java and isolated parts of southeast Asia that resemble Devanagari or its prototype; the Kawi script in particular is similar to the Devanagari in many respects though the morphology of the script has local changes. The earliest inscriptions in the Devanagari-like scripts are from around the 10th-century, with many more between 11th- and 14th-century; some of the old-Devanagari inscriptions are found in Hindu temples of Java, such as the Prambanan temple. The Ligor and the Kalasan inscriptions of central Java, dated to the 8th-century, are in the Nagari script of North India.
According to the epigraphist and Asian Studies scholar Lawrence Briggs, these may be related to the 9th-century copp
Bareilly is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the geographical region of Rohilkhand; the city is 252 kilometres north of the state capital, 250 kilometres east of the national capital, New Delhi. It is the 50th-largest city in India. Bareilly figured amongst the PM Narendra Modi's ambitious 100 Smart City list in India, it is located on the Ramganga River and is the site of the Ramganga Barrage built for canal irrigation. The city is known by the name Nath Nagri and as Sanjashya; the city is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion in the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region, a list including Hissar, Patiala and Gwalior; the city is known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market. According to the epic Mahābhārata, the Bareilly region is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, referred to as'Panchali' by Kṛṣṇā.
When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahichchhatra in Bareilly; the Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichchhatra. In a Historic book written by Pt. Jhabarmall Sharma It is believed that the descendants of Lord Shriram's son Kusha went from Ayodhya to Rohtas, Narwar and Bareilly their capital. In the 21st generation, Maharaja Nala, Soddevji made Gopachal the capital; the time of going to Gwalior to Bareilly looks like Vikrama 933. In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs; the region became part of the Muslim Turkic Delhi Sultanate for 325 years before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mughal governor Mukrand Rai in 1657 during the rule of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb; the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and to East India Company and becoming an integral part of India.
The region has acted as a mint for a major part of its history. From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is rich; the extensive remains of Ahichchhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichchhatra that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in the Ganges–Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichchhatra, it has been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichchhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichchhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganges Valley.
On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th century AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera, Rahtuia and Sainthal. Bareilly was founded in 1537 by a Katehriya Rajput; the city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596; the foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mughal governor Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun; the Mughals encouraged the settlements of loyal Afghans in the Bareilly region to control the rebellious Katehriya Rajputs. After the death of Emperor Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans began to settle in the villages and assimilated with the local Muslims.
These descendents of the these assimilated Afghans are known as Pathans. After the fall of the Mughal Empire, created anarchy and many Pathans migrated from the Rohilkhand region. Bareilly experienced economic stagnation and poverty due to the breakdown of trade and security, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana as indentured labour. Under Barech at the 1761 Third Battle of Panipat, Rohilkhand blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into northern India. In 1772 it was invaded by the Marathas. After the war, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for the nawabs' help from Barech; when his demand was refused, the nawab joined the British to invade Rohilkhand. The
Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport
Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport is an international airport serving Lucknow, the capital of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated in the Amausi area of the city, was earlier known as Amausi Airport before being renamed after Chaudhary Charan Singh, the fifth prime minister of India; the airport was constructed in 1986 to facilitate corporate and government officials. With an increasing number of passengers, AAI decided to upgrade the airport. On 17 July 2008, the Government of India renamed it Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport, it was granted international status in May 2012. The airport was constructed with the purpose of facilitating VVIPs, it was only in 2005 when the AAI took decision to upgrade the airport owing to an increased number of passengers, because of the introduction of private operators in the sector. A new terminal, equipped with the latest technology, at Lucknow's Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport, has been operative since 2 June 2012, it is used both for departures of domestic and international flights.
The new terminal is a three-tier building. The airport consists of two terminals: international. AAI has approved 1383 crore rupees for a new integrated terminal. RunwayThe airport has a single runway, 3,750 metres long. AAI has planned for runway expansion at Lucknow Airport. Landing amenitiesCCS International Airport has ILS CAT-III-B compliant for landing in bad weather and foggy conditions. Delhi, Jaipur and Kolkata are the only airports in India with ILS CAT-III-B which helps flights land safely with a visibility as low as 50 metres; the airport has two operational terminals and one in the planning stage: Terminal 1The original terminal, built to complement Charbagh Railway Station's architecture, is now used for international flights after the opening of Terminal 2. It has three departing gates as well as two immigration counters. Terminal 2The terminal was inaugurated by civil aviation minister Ajit Singh on 19 May 2012 before opening on 2 June 2012. With five boarding gates, Terminal 2 is used for domestic flights.
Terminal 2 of Lucknow airport deals with huge passenger traffic every year. Air traffic growth has put some pressure on aerodromes as of 2017. Minister of State for Civil Aviation said, "project management consultant has been awarded for expansion of existing terminal building for an estimated cost of Rs 880 crore". Terminal 3On 2nd May 2018, Suresh Prabhu, Minister of Civil Aviation announced that a new terminal building will have a capacity to handle 24.6 million passengers annually and will be built at of INR 1383 crores. On 25th Feb 2019, Adani Group was awarded with the operations and expansion of the existing as well as new terminal; the airport is connected to Lucknow by Lucknow Metro. The Red Line metro station of Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport metro station acts as a terminus for Lucknow Metro's Red Line with the ending terminus being Munshipulia; the airport was awarded AAI's "Best Airport" award in July 2013 along with Jodhpur Airport. Lucknow airport was rated second-best in the category of small airports catering to 5-10 million passengers per annum by Airports Council International, a global non-profit organisation of airport operators.
In 2018, Lucknow Airport was awarded the best airport in the category "Best Airport by Size and Region" by the Airports Council International. Airports in India List of busiest airports in India by passenger traffic Amausi Airport at Airports Authority of India website Accident history for LKO at Aviation Safety Network
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Mihira Bhoja or Bhoja I was a ruler of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of India. He succeeded his father Ramabhadra. Bhoja was a devotee of Vishnu and adopted the title of Adivaraha, inscribed on some of his coins. One of the outstanding political figures of India in ninth century, he ranks with Dhruva Dharavarsha and Dharmapala as a great general and empire builder. At its height, Bhoja's empire extended to Narmada River in the South, Sutlej River in the northwest, up to Bengal in the east, it extended over a large area from the foot of the Himalayas up to the river Narmada and included the present district of Etawah in Uttar Pradesh. During his reign, the capital was during his period Kannauj was referred as Panchala, he was a bitter enemy of the Arab invaders who, according to an Arab chronicler, maintained a large army and had a fine cavalry. The territories under his rule were safe from robbers, his state was rich in natural resources gold and silver mines. Many temples made by him still survive.
Teli Mandir, near Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, marks the presence of Vishnu on earth. The temple's architecture and layout features an outstanding fusion of architectural styles: the roof resembles a Dravidian style while the decoration highlights the art of North India, he was succeeded by his son Mahendrapala I. When Mihira Bhoja started his career reverses and defeats suffered by his father Ramabhadra had lowered the prestige of the Royal Gurjara Pratihara family, he was defeated by Devapala. He launched a campaign to conquer the territories to the south of his empire and was successful. After Devapala's death, Bhoja defeated the Pala King Narayanapala and the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II, he rebuilt the empire by conquest of territories in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The Chandelas of Bundelkhand acknowledged his suzerainty. Besides being a conqueror, Bhoja was a great diplomat. According to the sources Mihira Bhoja defeated Dharmapala the ruler of Pala Empire, but defeated by his son Devapala. There are other sources which claims that Mihira Bhoja defeated some of the Arab rulers of the northwest.
Mihira Bhoja's epithet was Srimad-Adivaraha and therefore there is a broad agreement amongst the scholars on the attribution of adivaraha dramma billon coins to him. These coins have a depiction of Adivaraha on the obverse. Deyell, John S. Living without Silver, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, ISBN 0-19-564983-4
Aligarh is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, famous for its lock industries. It is the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district, it lies 307 kilometres northwest of Kanpur and is 145 kilometres southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is the 8th largest city in Uttar Pradesh and 55th largest city in India. Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol; the history of the district up until the 12th century is obscure. Some time before the Muslim conquest, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple. In 1194, Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched from Delhi to Kol, "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din Aibak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Kol.
Kol is mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, emperor of the Mongol Chinese Yuan dynasty, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay in 1341. According to Battuta, it would appear that the district was in a disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name Sabzabad or "the green country". In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad. Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves. During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, son of'Umar, was the governor of Kol, he built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25.
Sabit Khan, the governor of this region, of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town after himself: Sabitgarh. The Jat ruler, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured it, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort, as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the command of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron; the Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, under the control of the French officer Perron, established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district. Aligarh district is divided into five tehsils, namely Kol Tehsil, Khair Tehsil, Atrauli and Iglas.
These tehsils are further divided into 12 blocks. The city is administered by Nagar Nigam Aligarh, responsible for performing civic administrative functions administered by Mayor and Municipal Commissioner. Infrastructure development of the city is looked after by the Aligarh Development Authority administered by Divisional Commissioner and Vice-Chairman. Aligarh is the headquarters of Aligarh Police Aligarh Division. A DIG looks after Aligarh for legal law. Aligarh is located at the coordinates 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88. It has an elevation of 178 metres; the city is in the middle portion of the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The G. T. Road passes through, it is 134 km from capital of India via NH-91. Aligarh has typical of north-central India. Summers are hot with temperatures peaking in May; the average temperature range is 28–38 °C. The monsoon season starts in late June, bringing high humidity. Aligarh gets most of its annual rainfall of 800 millimetres during these months. Temperatures decrease, winter sets in December, continues till February.
Temperatures range between 5–11 °C. Winters in Aligarh are mild, but 2011–12 experienced the lowest temperature of 1 °C; the fog and cold snaps are extreme. The city is an agricultural trade centre. Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important. Aligarh is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here. Aligarh is famous for brass sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze and aluminium industries. Aligarh is a big centre of zinc dye- casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber, but many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed automatic, computerised hot chamber machines. Indian Dye-casting Industries at Sasni Gate Area is the most renowned manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms
The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and at Kannauj; the Gurjara-Pratiharas were instrumental in containing Arab armies moving east of the Indus River. Nagabhata I defeated the Arab army under Tamin during the Caliphate campaigns in India. Under Nagabhata II, the Gurjara-Pratiharas became the most powerful dynasty in northern India, he was succeeded by his son Ramabhadra, who ruled before being succeeded by his son, Mihira Bhoja. Under Bhoja and his successor Mahendrapala I, the Pratihara Empire reached its peak of prosperity and power. By the time of Mahendrapala, the extent of its territory rivalled that of the Gupta Empire stretching from the border of Sindh in the west to Bengal in the east and from the Himalayas in the north to areas past the Narmada in the south; the expansion triggered a tripartite power struggle with the Rashtrakuta and Pala empires for control of the Indian Subcontinent.
During this period, Imperial Pratihara took the title of Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta. Gurjara-Pratihara are known for carved panels and open pavilion style temples; the greatest development of their style of temple building was at Khajuraho, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The power of the Pratiharas was weakened by dynastic strife, it was further diminished as a result of a great raid led by the Rashtrakuta ruler Indra III who, in about 916, sacked Kannauj. Under a succession of rather obscure rulers, the Pratiharas never regained their former influence, their feudatories became more and more powerful, one by one throwing off their allegiance until, by the end of the 10th century, the Pratiharas controlled little more than the Gangetic Doab. Their last important king, was driven from Kannauj by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018; the origin of the dynasty and the meaning of the term "Gurjara" in its name is a topic of debate among historians. The rulers of this dynasty used the self-designation "Pratihara" for their clan, never referred to themselves as Gurjaras.
The Imperial Pratiharas could have emphasized their Kshatriya, instead of Gurjara, identity for political reasons. However, at local levels Pratiharas were not wary of projecting their tribal identity, they claimed descent from the legendary hero Lakshmana, said to have acted as a pratihara for his brother Rama. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri theorized that the ancestors of the Pratiharas served the Rashtrakutas, the term "Pratihara" derives from the title of their office in the Rashtrakuta court. Multiple inscriptions of their neighbouring dynasties describe the Pratiharas as "Gurjara"; the term "Gurjara-Pratihara" occurs only in the Rajor inscription of a feudatory ruler named Mathanadeva, who describes himself as a "Gurjara-Pratihara". Another Pratihara king named Hariraja is mentioned as a "ferocious Gurjara" in the Kadwaha inscription. According to one school of thought, Gurjara was the name of the territory ruled by the Pratiharas. An opposing theory is that Gurjara was the name of the tribe to which the dynasty belonged, Pratihara was a clan of this tribe.
Several historians consider Gurjaras to be the ancestors of the modern Gujjar tribe. The proponents of the tribal designation theory argue that the Rajor inscription mentions the phrase: "all the fields cultivated by the Gurjaras". Here, the term "Gurjara" refers to a group of people rather than a region; the Pampa Bharata refers the Gurjara-Pratihara king Mahipala as a Gurjara king. Rama Shankar Tripathi argues that here Gurjara can only refer to the king's ethnicity, not territory, since the Pratiharas ruled a much larger area of which Gurjara-desha was only a small part. Critics of this theory, such as D. C. Ganguly, argue that the term "Gurjara" is used as a demonym in the phrase "cultivated by the Gurjaras". Several ancient sources including inscriptions mention "Gurjara" as the name of a country. Shanta Rani Sharma notes that an inscription of Gallaka in 795 CE states that Nagabhata I, the founder of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty, conquered the "invincible Gurjaras," which makes it unlikely that the Pratiharas were themselves Gurjaras.
However, she does concede that Imperial Pratiharas were indeed known as Gurjaras, on account of their nationality. She mentions two groups of people who were known as Gurjaras, draws a line between them. According to her, Gujjars are the descendants of ethnic Gurjaras, have nothing to do with imperial Pratiharas and Chalukyas who were known as Gurjaras. Among those who believe that the term Gurjara was a tribal designation, there are disagreements over whether they were native Indians or foreigners; the proponents of the foreign origin theory point out that the Gurjara-Pratiharas emerged as a political power in north India around 6th century CE, shortly after the Huna invasion of that region. Critics of the foreign origin theory argue that there is no conclusive evidence of their foreign origin: they were well-assimilated in the Indian culture. Moreover, if they invaded Indian through the north-west, it is inexplicable why would they choose to settle in the semi-arid area of present-day Rajasthan, rather than the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain.
According to the Agnivansha legend given in the manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso, the Pratiharas and three other Rajput dynasties originated from