Chocotto Sister is a manga series written by Gō Zappa and illustrated by Sakura Takeuchi. It is collected in 8 tankōbon volumes; the series has been adapted into a 24-episode anime television series by Nomad, airing in 2006 and released on 8 DVDs. It is known as Chokotto Sister and Chocosis; the story centers around a Christmas wish made by a young Haruma Kawagoe, eagerly anticipating having a baby sister, after his mother suffered a miscarriage followed by a hysterectomy. Several years when Haruma is a college student, a woman on a flying motorbike claiming to be Santa Claus delivers his wish, a younger sister; when he remarks that he made his wish a long time ago, "Santa" replies that making a little sister takes a lot more time than just making an android, takes his signature for delivery, departs. Haruma now has a little sister, who comes with her own instruction manual — a manual for how to be a little sister, that is; when she asks him to name her, he calls her Choko, which refers to the Japanese word for "manual".
Choko Voiced by: Momoko Saito The main character, the little sister that "Santa" delivers to Haruma. She is a sweet and innocent girl who appears to be about 10 years younger than Haruma, making her anywhere from 10–13; as the series begins all of her knowledge of the world is derived from an instruction manual that she was given before her delivery to Haruma's home. The manual does not cover all situations and was not written for someone of Choko's level of experience as some of the information is quite inappropriate for someone of her age. Choko is fond of her new "onii-chan", as she calls Haruma, she is always trying to be number one in his affections but, over time, learns that she can not be her brother's favorite in all situations. She is accepting of Chitose as her brother's girlfriend and his wife, after she comes to this realization. No mention is made of how Haruma explains or is going to explain the appearance of a younger sister to his parents. Haruma Kawagoe Voiced by: Daisuke Hirakawa A young man, going to university.
When he was a child his mother had to have a hysterectomy to save her life. He prayed to God that his mother would recover and made a wish to Santa that he would "stand in" for his mother and deliver him a little sister. Now, years his wish has been granted, leaving Haruma with a sudden addition to his meager household, he comes to care a great deal for his new sister and considers her to be cute. He, has a crush on Ayano Sonozaki, the owner of the local flower shop, but is heartbroken after she decides to return to her former love. In the manga he has a cousin named Konatsu who has a crush on him but gives up on him after learning that Chitose loves him. After Chitose goes to an omiai, a meeting between unmarried individuals, at her aunt's insistence, he realizes how much he cares for her and confesses his feelings for her; the anime never explicitly reveals whether they remain together but at the end of the manga Choko tells a new tenant that she is onii-chan and onee-chan's little sister, from which one can conclude that Haruma and Chitose are married.
Chitose Serikawa Voiced by: Kaori Mizuhashi The granddaughter of the original landlady. She is a somewhat shy and accident-prone young woman who has no sense of direction, she has feelings of insecurity due to having to wear glasses and is discontent with her appearance. Several characters remark upon the impressive size of her bust, she develops a crush on Haruma after he says that her glasses suit her well. In the end of manga, she is presumed to have married Haruma. Makoto Ashirai Voiced by: Rika Morinaga A young woman who lives in Tsubaki manor, the same building where Haruma and Yasuoka live, she sports orange hair, enjoys liquor, teases Haruma with her wardrobe and claims that he is interested in her body. Despite her penchant for inebriation, her laziness, her tendency to mooch any and all kinds of food off of her neighbors, her "adult" sense of humor and a somewhat scheming, manipulative nature, she seems to have a good character, she came to the original landlady's rescue after the latter took a spill down a staircase, spraining her ankle and waist.
She has displayed a rather intrusive interest in Chitose's bust. She is a gravure model and her professional name is Otokami Arisa, but she keeps this knowledge from her neighbors. Yasuoka Voiced by: Kenichi Mochizuki Haruma's neighbor in Tsubaki manor, a middle-aged man whose existence Haruma had forgotten about until they meet at a local shrine on the New Year's Day after Choko's appearance. Yasuoka is unemployed and appears to be struggling to find a new job after having lost his wife and daughter about a year before the present. In the manga, he finds a job and everybody in the manor celebrates his good fortune. Ayano Sonozaki Voiced by: Sayaka Ohara A woman who runs Ciel blue de fleur, a flower shop near Tsabuki manor. Ayano's dream has always been to open her own flower shop. Haruma has a crush on her, but has so far been unable to work up the nerve to do any
Chayote known as mirliton squash, is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae. Chayote was one of the several foods introduced to the Old World during the Columbian Exchange. During this period, the plant spread from Mesoamerica to other parts of the Americas causing it to be integrated into the cuisine of many other Latin American nations; the chayote fruit is used cooked. When cooked, chayote is handled like summer squash. Though rare and regarded as unpalatable and tough in texture, raw chayote may be added to salads or salsas, most marinated with lemon or lime juice. Whether raw or cooked, chayote is a good source of vitamin C. Although most people are familiar only with the fruit as being edible, the root, stem and leaves are edible as well; the tubers of the plant are eaten like potatoes and other root vegetables, while the shoots and leaves are consumed in salads and stir fries in Asia. The common English name is from the Spanish word chayote, a derivative of the Nahuatl word chayohtli.
Like other members of the gourd family, chayote has a sprawling habit, requires sufficient room. The roots are highly susceptible to rot in containers, the plant in general is finicky to grow. However, in Australia and New Zealand where it is known as choko, it is an grown yard or garden plant, set on a chicken wire support or strung against a fence; the plant was first recorded by modern botanists in P. Browne's 1756 work, the Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. Swartz included it in 1800 in its current genus Sechium. In the most common variety, the fruit is pear-shaped, somewhat flattened and with coarse wrinkles, ranging from 10 to 20 cm in length, it looks like a green pear, it has a thin, green skin fused with the green to white flesh, a single, flattened pit. Some varieties have spiny fruits; the flesh has a bland taste, a texture is described as a cross between a potato and a cucumber. The chayote vine can be grown on the ground, but as a climbing plant, it will grow onto anything, can rise as high as 12 meters when support is provided.
It has 10 -- 25 cm wide and tendrils on the stem. The plant bears male flowers in solitary female flowers; the plant’s fruit is light green and elongated with deep ridges lengthwise. The fruit does not need to be peeled to be fried in slices, it has a mild flavor. It is served with seasonings or in a dish with other vegetables and/or flavorings, it can be boiled, mashed, fried, or pickled in escabeche sauce. Both fruit and seed are rich in amino acids and vitamin C. Fresh green fruit are firm and without brown signs of sprouting. Chayote can be eaten using salad dressing dip; the seed is tasty to some when served cold when dipped in dressing. The tuberous part of the root is starchy and eaten like a yam, it can be used as cattle fodder. The leaves and fruit have diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties, a tea made from the leaves has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerosis and hypertension, to dissolve kidney stones. In Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine, the fruit, known as mirliton spelled mirletons or merletons is a popular seasonal dish for the holidays around Thanksgiving, in a variety of recipes.
Chayote is an important part of traditional diets across Mesoamerica, can be found in a variety of dishes. In Brazil and other Latin American countries, it is breaded and fried, or used cooked in salads and soufflés. In Eastern Caribbean English the fruit, used as a vegetable, is known as christophene. In Jamaica and other places in the western Caribbean it is known as chocho. In the Philippines, the plant is known as sayote and is grown in mountainous part of the country such as Benguet and parts of Cordillera Administrative Region. Chayote is used in many kinds of dishes such as stir-fried vegetables and chop suey, it was among the numerous vegetables and fruits introduced into the country via the Manila galleon trade. In Indonesia, chayotes are called labu siam and planted for their shoots and fruit. It's used in Sundanese food as lalap and one of ingredients for Sundanese cuisine called sayur asem. In Burma/Myanmar, the chayote is known as "Gurkha Thee or Gurkha fruit" ဂေါ်ရခါးသီး and is cheap and popular.
In China, the chayote is known as the "Buddha's hand melon" or alternatively in Cantonese choko 秋球, is stir-fried. The common Australian and New Zealand word, comes from the 19th century Cantonese market gardeners who introduced many vegetables into those countries. In Taiwan and southern mainland China, chayotes are planted for their shoots, known as lóngxūcài. Along with the young leaves, the shoot is a consumed vegetable in the region. In Thai cuisine, the plant is known as fak maeo, it grows in the mountains of northern Thailand. The young shoots and greens are eaten stir-fried or in certain soups. In India and Nepal, the plant and fruit is called ishkus derived from
The Embera–Wounaan are a semi-nomadic indigenous people in Panama living in Darién Province on the shores of the Chucunaque, Sambú, Tuira Rivers and its water ways. The Embera-Wounaan were and known by the name Chocó, they speak the Embera and Wounaan languages, part of the Choco language family; the name Embera means "people". Collectively they are known as the Chocó and belong to two major groups: the Embirá, of upper Atrato and San Juan rivers, the Wuanana of the lower San Juan River; the Embirá are known as the Atrato, Cholo, Darién, Eberá, Emberá, Emberak and Panama Emberá people. The Waunana are known as the Chanco, Noanama, Nonama, Wounaan, or Wound Meu people. A third group of Chocó are called the Catío, who are called the Embena, Eyabida, or Katio people; the Chocó, or Embera, people live in small villages of 5 to 20 houses along the banks of the rivers throughout the Chucunaque/Tuira/Balsas River watersheds in the Darien Province of Panama. There are three villages on each tributary that branches off from the main river system.
The villages are about a half day's walk apart. They are built on a small rise, set 100 feet in from the river; the houses of the village are set about 20–50 feet apart atop the rise on posts, with no walls, but only tall thatched roofs. Around each village, the jungle is cleared and replaced by banana and plantain plantations, a commercial crop for the Embera, who sell them to get cash for their outboard motors, mosquito nets, the like; the hills leading down to the river from the villages are hard packed reddish clay. There are sometimes large boulders being played on by naked children. Dugout canoes are seen pulled up on the riverbanks; the Embera houses are raised off the ground about eight feet. The houses stand on large posts set in the ground, have thatched roof made from palm fronds. All the joinery is with bejuco vines. There are no walls. Hanging from the supporting posts and beams are hammocks, pots and arrows, mosquito nets and other items; the floor is made of split black palm trunks or cana blanca, have a kitchen built on a clay platform about three feet square.
The houses are accessed from the ground via a sloped log with deep notches for a ladder. They sometimes turn the notches face down at night if some animal is trying to climb into the house while they sleep; the Chocó people practice polygamy and live in family units. The cacique, or chief, of the Chocó lived in the largest village and capitol of the Chocó Nation, named Unión Chocó; the city is on the banks of the Tuira River. The Chocó live by their own set of unwritten rules, they avoid relying on the Panamanian Police or any other branch of the Panamanian or Colombian governments. Not assimilated into Panamanian or Colombian society, the Embera people do not hold any civic positions and have no members who have become part of the Guardia Nacional in Panama. Health care is provided by trained shamans; the Chocó do not intermarry with Colombians. The land is community farmed. Everyone in the village pitches in to work at harvest time. If one hunter gets a larger animal, such as a peccary or a tapir, everybody in the village shares the meat.
The calabash tree is important to the Embera, who scoop out the tree's gourds for cups and bowls, as well as spoons. Apart from wild fish and game, still hunted with snares, blow guns and arrows, as well as firearms, an essential part of their diet is cassava, a poisonous root which must be pressed before cooking into a flatbread that stores well and can be used to absorb fluids during a meal; the men sport "bowl cut" hairstyles, when not in towns, still wear nothing but a minimal loin cloth. The women wear brightly colored cloth wrapped at the waist as a skirt. Except when in towns, the women do not cover their torsos, wear long, straight black hair; the children go naked until puberty, no one wears shoes. They paint their bodies with a dye made from the berry of a species of genip tree; the black dye is thought to repel insects and the designs are known as jagua tattoos. On special occasions, using this same dye, they print intricate geometric patterns all over their bodies, using wood blocks carved from balsa wood.
The women wear silver necklaces and silver earrings on these special occasions. They run a silver chain through it. Many of the coins on these necklaces date to the 19th century and are passed down from mother to daughter; the Wuanana tribe has appeared on screen in at least two Hollywood films. The first appearance was in Roland Joffé's The Mission, in which they portrayed the Guaraní living in the Iguazu Falls region of Argentina during the Guaraní War in the 18th century, they portrayed the Taíno and Carib in Ridley Scott's 1492: Conquest of Paradise, a film about Columbus' discovery of the Americas. The tribe performed alongside such notable actors as Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, Liam Neeson and Gérard Depardieu, as well as Sigourney Weaver, Armand Assante, Frank Langela, Ray McNally, others. Despite portraying other indigenous peoples, the Wounaan speak their own language in both films; the most notable members of the tribe to act were: Bercelio Moya, who portrayed the Indian Boy who always followed De Niro's character in The Mission, Columbus' translator Utapan in Conquest of Paradise.
Alejandrino Moya, who portrayed the Chief's Lieutenant in The Missi
The Chocobo is a fictional species from the Final Fantasy video game series made by Square and Square Enix. The creature is a flightless bird, though certain specialized breeds in some titles retain the ability to fly, it bears a resemblance to casuariiformes and ratites, capable of being ridden and otherwise used by player characters during gameplay. Chocobos first appeared in Final Fantasy II and have been featured in all subsequent Final Fantasy games, as well as making cameo appearances in numerous other games. A spin-off Chocobo series featuring chocobos has been created; the chocobo was created and designed by Koichi Ishii, a video game director who worked on various Final Fantasy titles. The chocobo appears remarkably similar to and was inspired by the prehistoric bird Gastornis. Hiromichi Tanaka has speculated that the chocobo concept may have come from Kyorochan, a character in television advertisements for Morinaga & Company's chocolate candy, a bird with the call of "kweh". Morinaga has released a tie-in product, Chocobo no Chocoball.
Another inspiration was Hayao Miyazaki's Horseclaws, which appear in the manga Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and the anime film of the same name, which Final Fantasy creator Hironobu Sakaguchi once cited as an influence on his series. In turn, Miyazaki's Horseclaws were inspired by the extinct Gastornis species; this mythical creature is a "cousin" of the ostrich and is designed to have yellow feathers, but there are rare Chocobo breeds that are capable of giving birth to different-colored chicks. The Chocobos are known for being intelligent and friendly, assisting heroes and other characters on their journeys by allowing themselves to be ridden like horses, it on occasion demonstrates an ability to communicate with other sentient creatures. They have on occasion been used for war as well, can be ferocious in combat. While most chocobos that appear in the games are yellow, certain rare breeds are of different colors and have special abilities, including being able to fly or use magic. Chocobos are occasionally used as armored war mounts, assisting their riders in battle with their beak and claws.
A variant is the Fat Chocobo character. The onomatopoeia for a chocobo's call is "kweh". Most chocobos dwell in forests. While timid in the wild and vicious if threatened, they tame rather and act as vehicles, as well as quick and effective cavalry. In this role they are noted for their high speeds. Most they can be caught in the wild and ridden without fear of random encounters, escaping after the player dismounts. A common food for chocobos used to help tame the bird, are Gysahl Greens, named after a town in Final Fantasy III. Final Fantasy II was the first installment to have chocobos play a role in the plot. Boko went on to become a recurring chocobo name in installments. In Final Fantasy IV, the party encounters a black species of chocobo, capable of flight. In Final Fantasy XIII, the character Sazh Katzroy has a baby chocobo for a pet. Within Final Fantasy XI, the raising and breeding of chocobos was a long-requested activity, was enabled in the Summer 2006 update. Chocobo racing began in March 2007.
Players were allowed to race player-raised chocobos against non-player characters. Winning racers earn "Chocobucks". Chocobos have appeared in all numbered installments except the first, in addition to the Final Fantasy Tactics series. Chocobos appear as a summon in Final Fantasy III, IV, V, VII, VIII. Fat Chocobo appears in Final Fantasy III, IV, V, VII, VIII, IX; the chocobo Boko appears in Final Fantasy V and VIII, Final Fantasy Tactics. Black Chocobos, which sometimes possess the ability to fly, are found in Final Fantasy IV, V, VII, XI, XII, Final Fantasy Tactics, Final Fantasy Tactics A2, Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon. Final Fantasy Mystic Quest features several chocobo-shaped weather vanes in the town of Windia. In Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles one can obtain the Chocobo Shield and the Chocobo Pocket items, are included in Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: The Crystal Bearers. In the animated sequel to Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals, one of the main characters can summon pink, featherless chocobos.
In addition, Final Fantasy Adventure featured a chocobo egg. Chocobos are common in the anime series Final Fantasy: Unlimited, one named Chobi joins the cast in their adventure. Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within and Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children both have chocobo-related easter eggs; the Chocobo series is a spin-off series of games first developed by Square Co. and by Square Enix, featuring a chibi version of the Final Fantasy series mascot, the Chocobo, as the protagonist. These games include Mystery Dungeon installments and a variety of minigame collections, over a wide variety of video game consoles. Chocobos appear in other Square and Square Enix games, notably in the Mana series. A chocobo serves as a mount in Seiken Densetsu, is changed into a'Chocobot', it was removed from the 2003 remake Sword of Mana in favor of the'Cannon Ball Travel' which originated in Secret of Mana.
A choco pie is a snack cake consisting of two small round layers of cake with marshmallow filling and a chocolate covering. The term originated in America but is now used in parts of Japan, South Korea and many other countries as either a brand name or a generic term. Names for similar confections in other places include chocolate marshmallow pie, Wagon Wheels, angel pie, Jos Louis, moon pie. Variations of the original go back to as far as 1917 in the southern United States. In 1929, Chattanooga Bakery created the Moon Pie with marshmallow filling and Graham crackers for local miners in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In Japan, the confectionery became popular after American soldiers introduced it after the Second World War. In 1958 the Morinaga confectionary company introduced the "Angel pie", a chocolate covered marshmallow and cake sandwich. In 1973, a member of the R&D team of the Korean firm Tongyang Confectionery visited a hotel in Georgia, US, was inspired by the chocolate-coated sweets available in the hotel's restaurant.
He returned to South Korea and began experimenting with a chocolate biscuit cake, creating the “choco pie” as it is known to Koreans. The name "Choco Pie" became popular when Tongyang first released the Orion Choco Pie, was well received by Korean children as well as the elderly because of its affordable price and white marshmallow filling. Tongyang Confectionery renamed the company Orion Confectionery thanks to the success of the Orion Choco Pie brand. In 1979 Lotte Confectionery began to sell a similar confection; when Lotte Confectionery put the Lotte Choco Pie on the market, it chose to spell the prefix'Cho' differently in Hangul from how Tongyang was spelling it. Haitai and Crown Confectionery began selling their own versions of choco pies. Lotte began selling as Choco Pie in Japan in 1983. In 1999, after many years of sales of different "Choco Pie" products, Tongyang filed a lawsuit against Lotte for their use of the term "Choco Pie", claiming the name was their intellectual property; the court ruled, that Tongyang was responsible for having allowed its brand name to become, over time, a generic trademark and that the term "choco pie" was to be considered a common noun due to its generic descriptive sense in reference to confections of similar composition.
In 2016, Orion released a banana-flavored Choco Pie to celebrate its 60th anniversary. It is the first variation of the original product in 42 years since the company launched the Choco Pie with marshmallow cream in 1974. In 2017, Orion launched its premium choco pie Brand, "Choco Pie House." Starting in the 2000s, Orion began using the Choco Pie to gain a foothold in foreign markets, now controls a two-thirds share of the Chinese snack market, with a third of Orion's revenue coming from outside Korea in 2006. Around 12.1 billion Choco Pies have been sold all over the world. Orion has a share in four major markets – South Korea, Russia and China. In 2016, Choco Pie, which sold 600 million packs in Russia, is called the'National Pie'; the snack has been successful in Pakistan, India and Taiwan. Exports of choco pies to North Korea have been popular, with North Korean workers at the Kaesong Industrial Complex in North Korea receiving choco pies in lieu of cash bonuses, which were seen as too capitalistic.
Prior to the closing of the complex during the 2013 Korean crisis, workers received choco pies, which had become a favorite snack at Kaesong and a symbol of capitalism, in addition to their wages. However, the workers at Kaesong would resell their pies on the black market. In 2010, The Chosun Ilbo reported that choco pies could fetch as much as US$9.50 on the North Korean black market. Between 2008 and 2014, the Lotte corporation estimated that it sent 1.2 million boxes of Choco Pie to North Korea. In the wake of tensions surrounding its nuclear tests, the North Korean government temporarily shut down the Kaesung complex in 2013; this cut the supply of choco pies and drove the price in North Korea higher. When the complex resumed operations after a five-month halt, employers were forbidden from paying choco pie bonuses, advised to instead give bonuses of "sausages, noodles and chocolate". North Korea responded to the choco pie speculation by producing its own variant of the snack. In 2014 South Korean activists used helium balloons to launch 10,000 choco pies over the border to North Korea.
Artist Jin Joo Chae made the controversy a subject of her prints and sculptures the same year, with chocolate and imagined Choco Pie slogans onto North Korean newspapers, simulating a black market for the snack in the gallery. In 2017 a injured North Korean defector who crossed the DMZ to South Korea was given a lifetime supply of choco pies by their manufacturer. Forbes article on the Choco Pie and Orion's growth
Chocolate is a sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods; the earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs, with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including Aztecs. Indeed, the word "chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl; the seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried and roasted; the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor; the liquor may be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar.
Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than it contains cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter and milk, but no cocoa solids. Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist desserts, including cakes, mousse, chocolate brownies, chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Valentine's Day, Hanukkah. Chocolate is used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.
Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, continued exploitation of child labor. Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating earlier, to 1900 BC; the residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.
An early Classic-period Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life; the Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink. By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture, they associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice and honey; the Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire.
Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute". Cocoa beans were used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans; the Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, chocolate drinks with sacrificial human blood. The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it turns red.... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself." Until the 16th century, no European had heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade.
Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of t
Choco District is one of fourteen districts of the province Castilla in Peru. The Chila mountain range traverses the district. One of the highest mountains of the district is Chila at 5,654 m above sea level. Other mountains are listed below: The people in the district are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Quechua is the language which the majority of the population learnt to speak in childhood, 32.23% of the residents started speaking using the Spanish language