The peanut known as the groundnut, goober, or monkey nut, taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown for its edible seeds. It is grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers, it is classified as both a grain legume and, due to its high oil content, an oil crop. World annual production of shelled peanuts was 44 million tonnes in 2016, led by China with 38% of the world total. Atypically among legume crop plants, peanut pods develop underground rather than aboveground. With this characteristic in mind, the botanist Linnaeus named the species hypogaea, which means "under the earth." As a legume, the peanut belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules; this capacity to fix nitrogen means peanuts require less nitrogen-containing fertilizer and improve soil fertility, making them valuable in crop rotations. Peanuts are similar in taste and nutritional profile to tree nuts, such as walnuts and almonds, as a culinary nut are served in similar ways in Western cuisines.
The botanical definition of a "nut" is a fruit. Using this criterion, the peanut is not a typical nut. However, for culinary purposes and in common English language usage, peanuts are referred to as nuts. Cultivated peanuts arose from a hybrid between two wild species of peanut, thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. The initial hybrid would have been sterile, but spontaneous chromosome doubling restored its fertility, forming what is termed an amphidiploid or allotetraploid. Genetic analysis suggests the hybridization event occurred only once and gave rise to A. monticola, a wild form of peanut that occurs in a few restricted locations in northwestern Argentina, by artificial selection to A. hypogaea. The process of domestication through artificial selection made A. hypogaea different from its wild relatives. The domesticated plants are bushier and more compact, have a different pod structure and larger seeds; the initial domestication may have taken place in northwestern Argentina, or in southeastern Bolivia, where the peanut landraces with the most wild-like features are grown today.
From this primary center of origin, cultivation spread and formed secondary and tertiary centers of diversity in Peru, Brazil and Uruguay. Over time, thousands of peanut landraces evolved. Subspecies A. h. fastigiata types are more upright in their growth habit and have shorter crop cycles. Subspecies A. h. hypogaea types have longer crop cycles. The oldest known archeological remains of pods have been dated at about 7,600 years old; these may be pods from a wild species, in cultivation, or A. hypogaea in the early phase of domestication. They were found in Peru, where dry climatic conditions are favorable to the preservation of organic material. Peanut cultivation antedated this at the center of origin where the climate is moister. Many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art. Cultivation was well established in Mesoamerica. There, the conquistadors found the tlālcacahuatl being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan; the peanut was spread worldwide by European traders, cultivation is now widespread in tropical and subtropical regions.
In West Africa, it replaced a crop plant from the same family, the Bambara groundnut, whose seed pods develop underground. In Asia, it became an agricultural mainstay and this region is now the largest producer in the world. In the English-speaking world, peanut growing is most important in the United States. Although it was a garden crop for much of the colonial period, it was used as animal feed stock until the 1930s; the United States Department of Agriculture initiated a program to encourage agricultural production and human consumption of peanuts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. George Washington Carver developed hundreds of recipes for peanuts during his tenure in the program. Peanut is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm tall; as a legume, it belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules; the leaves are pinnate with four leaflets. Like many other legumes, the leaves are nyctinastic, that is, they have "sleep" movements, closing at night.
The flowers are 1.0 to 1.5 cm across, yellowish orange with reddish veining. They are borne in axillary clusters on the stems above ground and last for just one day; the ovary is located at the base of what appears to be the flower stem but is a elongated floral cup. Peanut pods develop an unusual feature known as geocarpy. After fertilization, a short stalk at the base of the ovary elongates to form a thread-like structure known as a "peg"; this peg grows down into the soil, the tip, which contains the ovary, develops into a mature peanut pod. Pods are 3 to 7 cm long containing one to four seeds. Parts of the peanut include
Poland Spring is a brand of bottled water, is produced in Poland, named after the original natural spring in the town of Alfred, Maine it was drawn from. Today it sold in the United States; the spring was first exploited commercially in 1845 by owner of a nearby inn. Contemporary demand is so great the brand’s water is derived from multiple sources in the state of Maine including Poland Spring and Garden Spring in Poland, Clear Spring in Hollis, Evergreen Spring in Fryeburg, Spruce Spring in Pierce Pond Township, White Cedar Spring in Dallas Plantation, Bradbury Spring in Kingfield. Poland Spring was the top-selling spring water brand in America in 2006. In 2007, the Poland Spring brand adopted a bottle using 30% less plastic, as did the other Nestlé Waters North America brands; the spring has its origins in the late 18th century. In 1797, The Wentworth Ricker Inn opened at the homestead of Jabez Ricker. In 1844, Jabez's grandson, Hiram Ricker claimed that spring water from the property cured him of chronic dyspepsia.
In 1861, the inn was renamed The Mansion House. The inn had grown to a resort, his discussions with guests led them to praise the drinking water. In this period, it was quite fashionable to "take the waters" for all illnesses, causing an uptick in business; the Rickers soon began bottling the water. Expanded again into an extravagant resort that locals dubbed "Ricker's Folly", the inn was renamed the Poland Spring House and opened On July 4, 1876; the inn remained a significant resort into the early 20th century, but the Ricker family lost control of the company during the 1930s. A resort still operates on the site. Poland Springs operated independently since its inception until it was purchased by the Perrier Water Company in 1980. In 1992 Nestle acquired Poland Springs. In 1891 Maine's Bureau of Industrial and Labor Statistics listed 81 existing mineral springs. Twenty-three were used for commercial bottling, with total sales of $400,000. Today Poland Spring sells the majority of its water in portable 8, 12, 20 oz bottles.
Smaller 3 L, 1 gallon and 2.5 gallon bottles are available for sale in most supermarkets, for home delivery in the Northeastern United States. Other varieties of Poland Spring include sparkling, lemon and distilled, they are the producers of the Aquapod line of products. All Poland Spring products are sold for both safety and economic reasons. Today, no portable Poland Spring bottles are made from the number "7" polycarbonate plastic that contains Bisphenol-A; the large 5-gallon bottles are made of number "1" plastic and are BPA-free, while the 3-gallon bottles are made of number "7" plastic and may contain trace levels of BPA. Bottles made of PETE, which do not contain BPA, started to appear in 2013, they can be recognized by the different handle design. In the summer of 2005, Poland Spring changed the color of its 1-gallon bottle cap from dark green to clear; the reason for the color change was to remove the dye from the cap, more suitable for the recycling stream. Poland Spring changed to a lighter bottle called the Eco-Shape which uses 30 percent less plastic.
The new style made its debút in November 2007. Several towns in Maine have objected to the business practices of Poland Spring and its parent company Nestlé. In some towns, such as Fryeburg, Poland Spring buys the water from another company, the Fryeburg Water Co. and ships it to the Poland Spring bottling plant in Poland Spring. However, Fryeburg Water Co. sells water to the town of Fryeburg. The town of Fryeburg began to question the amount of water. In 2004, the town's water stopped temporarily because of a pump failure, but Poland Spring's operations were able to continue; the group H2O for ME wants to create a tax on water drawn for commercial purposes. However, Poland Spring said. State legislator Jim Wilfong proposed a 20 cent per gallon tax be allowed to be voted on in a referendum, but the measure was defeated, he believed that laws should be rearranged to place limits on the amount of groundwater landowners can pump out of their land. The town of Sterling, Massachusetts, is attempting to prevent Poland Spring from pumping spring water from conservation restricted town land.
Nestlé Waters North America has responded to an RFP issued by the Town of Clinton to purchase the Town of Clinton's Wekepeke aquifer water rights located in Sterling. In June 2003, Poland Spring was sued for false advertising in a class action lawsuit charging that their water that comes from springs, is in fact treated common ground water; the suit states, hydro-geologists hired by Nestlé found that another current source for Poland Spring water near the original site stands over a former trash and refuse dump, below an illegal disposal site where human sewage was sprayed as fertilizer for many years. The suit was settled in September 2003, with the company not admitting to the allegations, but agreeing to pay $10 million in charity donations and discounts over the next 5 years. Nestlé continues to sell the same Maine water under the Poland Spring name. In August 2017, a class-action lawsuit was filed in Connecticut alleging that “Not one drop of Poland Spring Water emanates from a water sourc
Types of chocolate
Chocolate is a range of foods derived from cocoa, mixed with fat and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. There are several types of chocolate, classified according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation; the use of particular name designations is sometimes subject to international governmental regulation. Some governments assign chocolate ranges of chocolate differently; the cocoa bean products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world. In the American chocolate industry: chocolate liquor is the ground or melted state of the nib of the cacao bean, containing equal parts cocoa butter and solids. Cocoa butter is the fatty component of the bean. Cocoa solids are the remaining nonfat part of the cocoa bean. Different forms and flavours of chocolate are produced by varying the quantities of the different ingredients. Other flavours can be obtained by varying the temperature when roasting the beans. Milk chocolate is solid chocolate made with milk added in the form of powdered milk, liquid milk, or condensed milk.
In 1875, a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk, invented by Henri Nestlé, Peter's neighbour in Vevey. The US Government requires a 10% concentration of chocolate liquor. EU regulations specify a minimum of 25% cocoa solids. However, an agreement was reached in 2000 that allowed an exception from these regulations in the UK, Malta, where "milk chocolate" can contain only 20% cocoa solids; such chocolate is labelled as "family milk chocolate" elsewhere in the European Union. Cadbury is the leading brand of milk chocolate in the United Kingdom; the Hershey Company is the largest producer in the US. The actual Hershey process is a trade secret, but experts speculate that the milk is lipolyzed, producing butyric acid, the milk is pasteurized, stabilizing it for use; this process gives the product a particular taste, to which the US public has shown to have an affinity, to the extent that some rival manufacturers now add butyric acid to their milk chocolates.
Dark chocolate known as "plain chocolate", is produced using a higher percentage of cocoa with all fat content coming from cocoa butter instead of milk, but there are "dark milk" chocolates and many degrees of hybrids. Dark chocolate can be eaten as is, or used in cooking, for which thicker baking bars with high cocoa percentages ranging from 70% to 100%, are sold. Baking chocolate containing no added sugar may be labeled "unsweetened chocolate". Semisweet and bittersweet are terms for dark chocolate traditionally used in the United States to indicate the amount of added sugar. Bittersweet chocolate has less sugar than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable when baking. Both must contain a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Couverture chocolate is a high-quality class of dark chocolate, containing a high percentage of cocoa solids and cocoa butter, tempered. Couverture chocolate is used by professionals for dipping, coating and garnishing. Popular brands of couverture chocolate used by pastry chefs include: Valrhona, Lindt & Sprüngli, Scharffen Berger and Guittard.
White chocolate is made of sugar and cocoa butter, without the cocoa solids. It is pale ivory colour, lacks many of the compounds found in milk and dark chocolates, it remains solid at room temperature as, below the melting point of cocoa butter. Cocoa powder is the pulverized cocoa solids left after extracting all the cocoa butter, it is used to add chocolate flavour in baking, for making chocolate drinks. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural cocoa produced by the Broma process, with no additives, Dutch process cocoa, additionally processed with alkali to neutralize its natural acidity. Natural cocoa is light in colour and somewhat, is used in recipes that use baking soda. Dutch cocoa is milder in taste, with a darker colour, it is used for chocolate drinks such as hot chocolate due to its ease in blending with liquids. However, Dutch processing destroys most of the flavonoids present in cocoa. Raw chocolate is chocolate that has not been heated, or mixed with other ingredients.
It is sold in chocolate-growing countries, to a much lesser extent in other countries promoted as healthy. Compound chocolate is the name for a confection combining cocoa with other vegetable fat tropical fats or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter, it is used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not be called "chocolate". Modeling chocolate is a chocolate paste made by melting chocolate and combining it with corn syrup, glucose syrup, or golden syrup, it is used by cakemakers and pâtisseries to add decoration to cakes and pastries. Ruby chocolate is a type of chocolate created by Barry Callebaut; the variety was in development from 2004, was released to the public in 2017. The chocolate type is made from the Ruby cocoa bean, resulting in a distinct red colour and a different flavour, described as "sweet yet sour". Flavours such as mint, coffee, orange, or strawberry are sometimes added to chocolate in a creamy form or in small pieces. Chocolate bars contain added ingredients such as peanuts, fruit and crisped rice.
Pieces of chocolate, in various flavours, are
Chocolate chip cookie
A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie that originated in the United States and features chocolate chips or chocolate morsels as its distinguishing ingredient. Circa 1938, Ruth Graves Wakefield added chopped up bits from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar into a cookie; the traditional recipe starts with a dough composed of butter and both brown and white sugar, semi-sweet chocolate chips and vanilla. Variations on the recipe may add other types of chocolate, as well as additional ingredients such as nuts or oatmeal. There are vegan versions with the necessary ingredient substitutions, such as vegan chocolate chips, vegan margarine, egg substitute, so forth. A chocolate chocolate chip cookie uses a dough flavored with chocolate, before chocolate chips are mixed in; the chocolate chip cookie was invented by the American chef Ruth Graves Wakefield and chef Sue Brides in 1938. She invented the recipe during the period when she owned the Toll House Inn, in Whitman, Massachusetts. In this era, the Toll House Inn was a popular restaurant.
Thus began the nationwide craze for the chocolate chip cookie. The recipe for chocolate chip cookies was brought to the UK in 1956, with Maryland Cookies one of the UK's best selling chocolate chip cookies; every bag of Nestlé chocolate chips sold in North America has a variation of her original recipe printed on the back. The original recipe was passed down to Peg. In a 2017 interview, she shared the original recipe: 1 1/2 cups shortening 1 1/8 cups sugar 1 1/8 cups brown sugar 3 eggs 1 1/2 teaspoon salt 3 1/8 cups of flour 1 1/2 teaspoon hot water 1 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1 1/2 teaspoon vanilla chocolate chips Although the Nestlé's Toll House recipe is known, every brand of chocolate chips, or "semi-sweet chocolate morsels" in Nestlé parlance, sold in the U. S. and Canada bears a variant of the chocolate chip cookie recipe on its packaging. All baking-oriented cookbooks will contain at least one type of recipe. All commercial bakeries offer their own version of the cookie in packaged baked or ready-to-bake forms.
There are at least three national chains that sell freshly baked chocolate chip cookies in shopping malls and standalone retail locations. Several businesses—including Doubletree hotels—offer freshly baked cookies to their patrons to differentiate themselves from their competition. To honor the cookie's creation in the state, on July 9, 1997, Massachusetts designated the chocolate chip cookie as the Official State Cookie, after it was proposed by a third-grade class from Somerset, Massachusetts. Chocolate chip cookies are made with white sugar; some recipes include milk or nuts in the dough. Depending on the ratio of ingredients and mixing and cooking times, some recipes are optimized to produce a softer, chewy style cookie while others will produce a crunchy/crispy style. Regardless of ingredients, the procedure for making the cookie is consistent in all recipes: First, the sugars and fat are creamed with a wooden spoon or electric mixer. Next, the eggs and vanilla extract are added followed by leavening agent.
Depending on the additional flavoring, its addition to the mix will be determined by the type used: peanut butter will be added with the wet ingredients while cocoa powder would be added with the dry ingredients. The titular ingredient, chocolate chips, as well as nuts are mixed in towards the end of the process to minimize breakage, just before the cookies are scooped and positioned on a cookie sheet. Most cookie dough is baked, although some eat the dough as is, or use it as an addition to vanilla ice cream to make chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream; the texture of a chocolate chip cookie is dependent on its fat composition and the type of fat used. A study done by Kansas State University showed that carbohydrate based fat-replacers were more to bind more water, leaving less water available to aid in the spread of the cookie while baking; this resulted in more cake-like cookies with less spread. The M&M cookie, or party cookie, replaces the
Buxton is a spa town in Derbyshire, in the East Midlands region of England. It has the highest elevation – about 1,000 feet above sea level – of any market town in England. Close to the county boundary with Cheshire to the west and Staffordshire to the south, Buxton is described as "the gateway to the Peak District National Park". A municipal borough until 1974, Buxton was merged with other localities lying to the north, including Glossop, to form the local government district and borough of High Peak within the county of Derbyshire. Despite being in the East Midlands, economically Buxton is within the sphere of influence of Greater Manchester; the population of the town was 22,115 at the 2011 Census. Buxton landmarks include Poole's Cavern, an extensive limestone cavern open to the public, St Ann's Well, fed by the geothermal spring bottled and sold internationally by Buxton Mineral Water Company. In the town is the Buxton Opera House, which hosts several music and theatre festivals each year.
The Devonshire Campus of the University of Derby is housed in one of the town's historic buildings. Buxton is twinned with Bad Nauheim in Germany; the Romans developed a settlement known as Aquae Arnemetiae. The discovery of coins indicates; the origins of the town's name are uncertain. It may be derived for Rocking Stone; the town grew in importance in the late 18th century when it was developed by the Dukes of Devonshire, with a resurgence a century as the Victorians were drawn to the reputed healing properties of the waters. Built on the River Wye, overlooked by Axe Edge Moor, Buxton has a history as a spa town due to its geothermal spring which rises at a constant temperature of 28 °C; the spring waters are piped to St Ann's Well opposite the Crescent near the town centre. The Dukes of Devonshire have been involved with Buxton since 1780, when the 5th Duke used the profits from his copper mines to develop the town as a spa in the style of Bath, their ancestor Bess of Hardwick had taken one of her four husbands, the Earl of Shrewsbury, to "take the waters" at Buxton shortly after he became the gaoler of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1569, they took Mary there in 1573.
She called Buxton "La Fontagne de Bogsby", stayed at the site of the Old Hall Hotel. The area features in the poetry of W. H. Auden and the novels of Jane Austen and Emily Brontë. Instrumental in the popularity of Buxton was the recommendation by Erasmus Darwin of the waters at Buxton and Matlock to Josiah Wedgwood I; the Wedgwood family went to Buxton on holiday and recommended the area to their friends. Two of Charles Darwin's half-cousins, Edward Levett Darwin and Reginald Darwin, settled there; the arrival of the railway in 1863 stimulated the town's growth: the population of 1,800 in 1861 had grown to over 6,000 by 1881. Although outside the National Park boundary, Buxton is geologically in the Peak District and built between the Lower Carboniferous limestone of the White Peak and the Upper Carboniferous shale and gritstone of the Dark Peak; the early settlement was of limestone construction while the present buildings, of locally quarried sandstone date from the late 18th century. At the southern edge of the town the River Wye has carved an extensive limestone cavern, known as Poole's Cavern.
More than 330 yards of its chambers are open to the public. The cavern contains Derbyshire's largest stalactite and there are unique'poached egg' stalagmites. A notorious local highwayman called. At about 1,000 feet above sea level, Buxton is the highest market town in England. Due to this high elevation, Buxton tends to be cooler and much wetter than surrounding towns, with daytime temperature around 2 °C lower than Manchester. A Met Office weather station has collected climate data for the town since 1867, with digitised data from 1959 available online. In June 1975, the town was hit by a freak snowstorm. In the 2011 census, Buxton was 0.6 % Asian, 0.2 % Black, 0.8 % Mixed/multiple. With the increasing popularity of Buxton's thermal waters in the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of buildings were commissioned to provide for the hospitality of tourists retreating to the town; the Old Hall Hotel is one of the oldest buildings in Buxton. It was owned by 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, he and his wife, Bess of Hardwick, were the "gaolers" of Queen of Scots.
She came to Buxton several times to take the waters, the last time in 1584. The present building has a five-bay front with a Tuscan doorway; the Crescent was built between 1780 and 1784, modelled on Bath's Royal Crescent by John Carr along with the neighbouring irregular octagon and colonnade of the Great Stables. The Crescent features a grand assembly room with a fine painted ceiling. Nearby stands the elegant and imposing monument to Samuel Turner, treasurer of the Devonshire Hospital and Buxton Bath Charity, built in 1879 and accidentally lost for the latter part of the 20th century during construction work before being found and restored in 1994; the Crescent has been unoccupied for many years, but plans were in place in 2012 for it to be converted into a hotel. The neighbouring Great Stables were completed in 1789, but in 1859 were converted to a charity hospital for the'sick poor' by Henry Currey, architect to William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire and of St Thomas' Hospital in London.
It became known as the Devonshire Roya
Perrier is a French brand of natural bottled mineral water captured at the source in Vergèze, located in the Gard département. Perrier is best known for its occurring carbonation, distinctive green bottle, higher levels of carbonation than its peers. Perrier was part of the Perrier Vittel Group SA, which became Nestlé Waters France after the acquisition of the company by Nestlé in 1992. Nestlé Waters France includes Vittel, S. Pellegrino and Contrex; the spring from which Perrier water is sourced is carbonated. Both the water and natural carbon dioxide gas are captured independently; the water is purified, during bottling, the carbon dioxide gas is re-added so that the level of carbonation in bottled Perrier matches that of the Vergèze spring. Perrier is available in 750 mL, 330 mL, 200 mL glass bottles in Europe, as well as in 330 mL cans. In other markets, the 250 mL can is available. Perrier bottles all are a signature green color. In August 2001, the company introduced a new bottling format using polyethylene terephthalate to offer Perrier in plastic, a change, researched for 11 years to determine which material would best help retain both the water's flavor and its purported "50 million bubbles."
Perrier comes in several flavors: Natural and Lime have been in market for many years, in 2007, Citron Lemon-Lime and Pamplemousse Rose flavors debuted in the United States. In 2015, a Green Apple flavor was launched in France as well as the US. In 2016, a Mint flavor was introduced in France. Since 2002, new varieties of Perrier have been introduced in France, for example, Eau de Perrier is less carbonated than the original, comes in a blue bottle. Perrier Fluo comes in flavors such as ginger-cherry, orange-lychee and ginger-lemon; the spring in Southern France from which Perrier is drawn was known as Les Bouillens. It had been used as a spa since Roman times. Local doctor Louis Perrier operated a commercial spa there, he sold the spring to St John Harmsworth, a wealthy British visitor. Harmsworth was the younger brother of the newspaper magnates Lord Lord Rothermere, he had come to France to learn the language. Dr. Perrier showed him the spring, he decided to buy it, he sold his share of the family newspapers to raise the money.
Harmsworth closed the spa. He renamed the spring Source started bottling the water in distinctive green bottles; the shape was that of the Indian clubs. Harmsworth marketed the product in Britain at a time when Frenchness was seen as chic and aspirational to the middle classes, it was advertised as the Champagne of mineral water. Advertising in newspapers like the Daily Mail established the brand. For a time, 95% of sales were in Britain and the U. S. Perrier's reputation for purity suffered a blow in 1990 when a laboratory in North Carolina in the United States found benzene, a carcinogen, in several bottles. Perrier stated that it was an isolated incident of a worker having made a mistake in filtering and that the spring itself was unpolluted; the incident led to the worldwide withdrawal of the product, some 160 million bottles of Perrier. From 1981 to 2005, the company sponsored an annual comedy award in the United Kingdom, the Perrier Comedy Award known as "The Perriers". In 2006 it was announced that Perrier would no longer sponsor the award, renamed the "if.comedy awards", after its new sponsor, Intelligent Finance.
In 1992, Perrier was bought by one of the world's leading food and drink companies. Nestlé had to contend with competition from the Agnelli family for ownership of the business. In 2004, a crisis erupted; the following year, Perrier was ordered to halt restructuring due to a failure to consult adequately with staff. In 2013, Perrier celebrated its 150th anniversary by launching a limited edition series of bottles inspired by Andy Warhol; as of January 2013, Perrier was available in 140 countries, 1 billion bottles are sold every year. Mineral water Apollinaris Badoit Evian Topo Chico Farris Gerolsteiner Brunnen Panna Ramlösa Spa Fox, Barry, "Secrets of the Source", New Scientist, 120: 45–48, retrieved July 15, 2010 Official website
Nestlé Nespresso S. A. trading as Nespresso, is an operating unit of the Nestlé Group, based in Switzerland. Nespresso machines brew espresso and coffee from coffee capsules, or pods in machines for home or professional use, a type of pre-apportioned single-use container of ground coffee beans, sometimes with added flavorings. Once inserted into a machine, the capsules are pierced and processed, water is forced against a heating element at high pressure meaning that only the quantity for a single cup is warmed. Nespresso is a premium price coffee, by 2011 had annual sales in excess of 3 billion Swiss francs; the word Nespresso is a portmanteau of Nestlé and Espresso, a common mechanic used across other Nestlé brands. All Nespresso coffee is roasted and encapsulated in one of 3 factories in Switzerland, but the company sells its system of machines and capsules worldwide, as well as the VertuoLine system in North America and certain other countries. In 1976, Eric Favre, an employee of Nestlé, invented and introduced the Nespresso system to the business market in Switzerland without significant success.
Nespresso first tested its new concept in Japan in 1986, rolled it out to consumers in Switzerland, France and Japan the same year. A decade in part due to the efforts of Jean-Paul Gaillard who introduced the «Le Club» community, the product became more successful. In 1990, Nestlé signed a contract with Turmix, which started to sell Nespresso machines in Switzerland. Thereafter, other contracts were signed with Krups, Alessi, Siemens and De'Longhi. Starting out as an e-commerce business, Nespresso only opened their first boutique in Paris in 2000 as a concept store. Today, Nespresso has a global network of more than 700 boutiques in 67 countries; the first patent application for Nespresso's process of brewing espresso from capsules containing ground coffee was filed in 1996. Nespresso sells or licenses a number of different machines made in Europe; the machines carry well-known kitchen-equipment manufacturers' names such as Krups, DeLonghi, but are manufactured by Eugster/Frismag, a Swiss company, one of the world's largest coffee-machine producers.
DeLonghi manufactures the Lattissima models in Italy exclusively. Eugster/Frismag is an original equipment manufacturer and does not sell under its own brand. In 2000 Nespresso began distributing machines bearing the "Nespresso" brand. There are numerous models that range in complexity and price, from the entry level Inissia, U and Pixie ranges. Nespresso capsules were sold by Nespresso while the machines were under patent, are more expensive than an equivalent quantity of "loose" ground coffee; because of the hermetically sealed capsule, the coffee aroma does not degrade with time like coffee in a pack, opened. Nespresso sells 28 different Original Line arabica and robusta capsules. Limited Edition are released seasonally; as the system is no longer under patent and more third party capsules are becoming available on the market, can now be purchased in some grocery stores and shops. Each capsule makes one serving of coffee. Depending on the length of the pour, the capsule can produce a 40 ml Espresso shot, or a 110 ml Lungo pour.
Nespresso-supplied capsule bodies and perforated tops are both made of aluminum, while third-party capsules are made from a variety of materials, including plastic and aluminum. To assuage concerns on potential aluminum health effects, most of the capsule interior of Nespresso capsules is lined with food-grade lacquer. For the business market, a different system of Nespresso pods exists; these pad-shaped capsules are not interchangeable with the consumer capsules. Nespresso's hermetically sealed capsules are made of aluminum. Depending on the Nespresso system being used, the flat top or the pointy end of the capsule is pierced when inserted into the machine and the compartment lever is lowered; some machines make a single large hole, others make 3 smaller holes. When the machine is activated it pumps hot water under high pressure into injector holes poked into the narrow end of the capsule upon insertion; this causes the flat bottom of the capsule to rupture, as this is made of thinner foil than the rest of the capsule.
The base of the capsule holder has a number of raised squares which cause the foil to rupture at these points. The brewed coffee exits the capsule through these rupture holes and flows through a funnel nozzle into the coffee cup; as in pressure cookers, a safety pressure release valve inside the brewing chamber prevents an explosion from occurring if the normal coffee exhaust path becomes blocked. To appeal to the demand by North Americans for larger servings of coffee than the original Nespresso machine produces, in February 2014 Nespresso launched a new Vertuoline system of machines and capsules in the United States and Canada; the system produces Espresso, Double Espresso, Gran Lungo, Mug/Coffee and Alto/Alto XL cup sizes that characterizes espresso coffees and the original line of Nespresso coffees. Nespresso uses over 25 blends in specially-designed VertuoLine capsules; the VertuoLine capsules cannot be used in the original line of Nespresso machines. Nespresso continues to sell both OriginalLine and VertuoLine machines and capsules in the United States and Canada, targeting different market segments with the two systems.
The VertuoLine system uses two technologies not found in the OriginalLine. First, the system uses "centrifusion" (a term creat