Cupuaçu spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao. Common throughout the Amazon basin, it is cultivated in the jungles of Colombia and Peru and in the north of Brazil, with the largest production in Pará; the pulp of the cupuaçu fruit is consumed throughout Central and South America, is the national fruit of Brazil, is used to make ice creams, snack bars, other products. Cupuaçu trees range from 5–15 m in height, though some can reach 20 m, they have brown bark, the leaves range from 25–35 cm long and 6–10 cm across, with 9 or 10 pairs of veins. As they mature, the leaves change from pink-tinted to green, they begin bearing fruit. Flowers of cupuaçu are structurally complex, require pollination from biotic vectors; the majority of cupuaçu trees are self-incompatible, which can result in decreased pollination levels, a decrease in fruit yields. Pollination can be negatively affected by environmental conditions. Pollinators, which include chrysomelid weevils and stingless bees, are unable to fly between flowers in heavy rains.
The white pulp of the cupuaçu has an odour described as a mix of chocolate and pineapple and is used in desserts and sweets. The juice tastes like pear, passion fruit, melon. Cupuaçu is harvested from the ground once they have fallen from the tree, it can be difficult to determine peak ripeness because there is no noticeable external color change in the fruit. However studies have shown that in Western Colombian Amazon conditions, fruits reach full maturity within 117 days after fruit set. Brazilians either use it in making sweets. Commercial food products include powder. Cupuaçu is most propagated from seed, but grafting and rooted cuttings are used. Cupuaçu trees are incorporated in agroforestry systems throughout the Amazon due to their high tolerance of infertile soils, which are predominate in the Amazon region. Witches broom is the most prominent disease, it impacts the entire tree and can result in significant loss of yields, as well as tree death if left untreated. Regular pruning is recommended to reduce the severity of this disease in cupuaçu plantings.
Cupuaçu supports the butterfly herbivore, "lagarta verde", Macrosoma tipulata, which can be a defoliator. Cupuaçu flavors derive from its phytochemicals, such as tannins, theograndins, quercetin and isoscutellarein, it contains caffeine and theophylline as found in cacao, although with a much lower amount of caffeine. Cupuaçu butter is a triglyceride composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, giving the butter a low melting point and texture of a soft solid, lending its use as a confectionery resembling white chocolate. Main fatty acid components of cupuaçu butter are stearic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and arachidic acid. Theobroma bicolor Amazonian cuisine Caju bacuri Weird Fruit Explorer. "Cupuacu Review - Ep. 210" – via YouTube. Scalabrini, Osvaldo. "Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, cupuaçueiro, Flora amazônica, Endêmica do amazonas" – via YouTube
Dry cocoa solids are the components of cocoa beans remaining after cocoa butter, the fat component, is extracted from chocolate liquor, roasted cocoa beans that have been ground into a liquid state. Cocoa butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa powder is the powdered form of the solids sold as an end product. Cocoa powder contains flavanol antioxidants, amounts of which are reduced if the cocoa is subjected to acid-reducing alkalization. Health benefits have been attributed to cocoa flavonoids. Natural cocoa powder has a light brown color and an extractable pH of 5.3 to 5.8. The processed cocoa powder is darker in color, ranging from brownish red to nearly black, with a pH from 6.8 to 8.1. The alkalization process reduces bitterness and improves solubility, important for beverage product applications. All of these pH values are considered safe for food use. Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium, magnesium, potassium and zinc.
All of these minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either cocoa butter or chocolate liquor. Cocoa powder contains 230 mg of caffeine and 2057 mg of theobromine per 100g, which are absent from the other components of the cocoa bean. Cocoa powder contains clovamide. Cocoa powder is rich in a subset of polyphenols; the amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes. Alkalization known as Dutch processing, causes its content of flavonoids to be reduced. Cocoa powders may contain a toxic heavy metal and probable carcinogen; the European Union has imposed a limit for cadmium in cocoa powder of 0.6 µg per gram of cocoa powder, 0.8 µg per gram for chocolate with ≥ 50% total dry cocoa solids. In Canada, a daily serving of a natural health product must contain no more than 6 µg of cadmium for an individual weighing 150 pounds and 3 µg for a 75 lb individual. While the U. S. government has not set a limit for cadmium in foods or health products, the state of California has established a maximum allowable daily level of oral cadmium exposure of 4.1 µg, requires products containing more than this amount per daily serving to bear a warning on the label.
One investigation by an independent consumer testing laboratory found that seven of nine commercially available cocoa powders and nibs selected for testing contained more than 0.3 µg of cadmium per serving gram. Chocolate Baking chocolate Hamel, PJ. "The A-B-C's of cocoa". Flourish. King Arthur Flour. Retrieved 30 May 2015
Compound chocolate is a product made from a combination of cocoa, vegetable fat and sweeteners. It is used as a lower-cost alternative to true chocolate, as it uses less-expensive hard vegetable fats such as coconut oil or palm kernel oil in place of the more expensive cocoa butter, it may be known as "compound coating" or "chocolatey coating" when used as a coating for candy. It is used in less expensive candy bars to replace enrobed chocolate on a product. Cocoa butter must be tempered to maintain coating. A chocolatier tempers chocolate by cooling the chocolate mass below its setting point rewarming the chocolate to between 31 and 32 °C for milk chocolate, or between 32 and 33 °C for semi-sweet chocolate. Compound coatings, however, do not need to be tempered. Instead, they are warmed to between 3 and 5 °C above the coating's melting point. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate an emulsifier made from castor beans used in compound chocolate Types of chocolate
Outline of chocolate
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chocolate: Chocolate – raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, must be fermented to improve the flavor. Chocolate is a popular ingredient in confectionery candies. Chocolate is a type of: Food – substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body, ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, and/or stimulate growth. Confectionery – the set of food items that are rich in sugar, any one or type of, called a confection. Modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well. Candy – confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water, to which flavorings and colorants are added. Candies have a long history in popular culture. Ingredient – substance that forms part of a mixture. For example, in cooking, recipes specify. Chocolate is used as an ingredient in dessert items, such as cakes and cookies.
Cacao bean – Fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, the basis of chocolate Chocolate liquor known as chocolate mass – Pure cocoa mass in solid or semi-solid form Cocoa butter – Pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean Cocoa solids – A mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa butter is extracted from cacao beans Antioxidants – A compound that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules Flavonols – A class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Catechin – A type of natural phenol and antioxidant. A plant secondary metabolite Caffeine – A central nervous system stimulant Phenethylamine – psychoactive drug, inactive when orally ingested because most of it is metabolized into phenylacetic acid by monoamine oxidase, preventing significant concentrations from reaching the brain Theobromine – known as xantheose, it contains no bromine and has a similar, but lesser, effect to caffeine Theophylline – methylxanthine drug found in tea leaves Theobroma cacao known as Cacao tree – A species of tree grown for its cocoa beans Forastero – 80% made with this tree group Criollo cacao tree variety – A high quality but less productive variety of cacao tree Cacao bean – Fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, the basis of chocolate Côte d'Ivoire – State in West Africa Cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire – Côte d'Ivoire leads the world in production and export of the cocoa beans Child labour in cocoa production – The controversial use of children in the production of cacao beans Lecithin – A generic term for amphiphilic substances of plant and animal origin Vanilla – A flavoring extracted from orchids of the genus Vanilla Sugar – generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates Milk – white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals Caramel – confectionery product made by heating sugars Peanuts – A legume cultivated for its seeds White chocolate – Confection made with cocoa butter that does not contain cocoa solids Types of chocolate – A range of foods derived from cocoa Unsweetened chocolate – pure chocolate liquor mixed with fat to produce a solid substance.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
A chocolate bar is a chocolate confection in an oblong or rectangular form, which distinguishes it from bulk dark chocolate produced for commercial use or individually portioned chocolates such as pastilles and truffles. In most of the English-speaking world, chocolate bar refers to a snack-sized bar coated with or consisting of chocolate but containing other ingredients; the first solid chocolate bar was produced by Fry's of Bristol, England in 1847, mass-produced as Fry's Chocolate Cream in 1866. A chocolate bar made from chocolate contains some or all of the following components: cocoa solids, cocoa butter and milk; the relative presence or absence of these define the subclasses of chocolate bar made of dark chocolate, milk chocolate, white chocolate. In addition to these main ingredients a chocolate bar may contain flavorings such as vanilla and emulsifiers such as soy lecithin to alter its consistency. While vanilla is the most common flavouring, many other flavours are available, including mint and coffee.
Chocolate bars containing other ingredients feature a wide variety of layerings or mixtures that include nuts, caramel and fondant. A popular example is a Snickers bar. Chocolate bars are loosely called candy bars in American English, a term that encompasses similar treats produced without chocolate, such as the Zagnut and Bit-o-Honey bars. A wide selection of similar chocolate treats are produced with added sources of protein and vitamins; these include energy bars, protein bars and granola bars sold as nutritional supplements. Up to and including the 19th century, confectionery of all sorts was sold in small pieces to be bagged and bought by weight; the introduction of chocolate as something that could be eaten as is, rather than used to make beverages or desserts, resulted in the earliest bar forms, or tablets. At some point, chocolates came to mean any chocolate-covered sweets, whether nuts, caramel candies, or others; the chocolate bar evolved from all of these in the late-19th century as a way of packaging and selling candy more conveniently for both buyer and seller.
It was cheaper to buy candy loose, or in bulk. The production of chocolate meant to be eaten in bars may predate the French Revolution; the Marquis de Sade wrote to his wife in a letter dated May 16, 1779, complaining about the quality of a care package he had received while in prison. Among the requests that he made for future deliveries were for cookies that "must smell of chocolate, as if one were biting into a chocolate bar." This phrasing is suggestive of chocolate bars being eaten by themselves and not just grated into chocolate-based drinks, as was a far more common use at this time. Such a product would predate the invention of the cocoa press by Coenraad Johannes van Houten and other innovations which made chocolate suitable for mass-production. In 1847, Joseph Fry discovered a way to mix the ingredients of cocoa powder and cocoa to manufacture a paste that could be molded into a chocolate bar proper for consumption. Subsequently, his chocolate factory, Fry's of Bristol, began mass-producing chocolate bars and they became popular.
The firm began producing the Fry's Chocolate Cream bar in 1866. Inspired by Fry, John Cadbury, founder of Cadbury, introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849; that same year and Cadbury chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham. Over 220 Fry's products were introduced in the following decades, including production of the first chocolate Easter egg in the UK in 1873 and Fry's Turkish Delight in 1914. Although chocolate bars had their beginnings in the mid 19th century, their sales grew most in the early-20th century. Milk chocolate was invented in Switzerland by Daniel Peter and Henri Nestlé in 1875. In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars, with Cadbury Dairy Milk, produced in 1905, becoming the company's best selling bar. In North America, Ganong Bros. Ltd. of St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada developed and began selling their version of the modern chocolate bar in 1910; the Hershey Chocolate Company took the lead in the U.
S. The world's largest "chocolate bar" was produced as a stunt by Thorntons plc on 7 October 2011, it weighed 5,792.50 kg and measured 4m by 4m by 0.35m. Some of the oldest preserved chocolate bars are two pieces of white and dark chocolate made between 1764 and 1795 for the king of Poland, Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, as a gift for his courtiers; each bar made by the royal confectioner in Warsaw, bears the King's monogram, SAR, is on display in his summer residence, Palace on the Water, in Warsaw. Energy bar Granola bar List of chocolate bar brands List of chocolate-covered foods United States military chocolate "History of Candy Bar Wrappers", Dave
Praline is a form of confection containing at a minimum culinary nuts and sugar. There are three main types: Belgian pralines, which consist of a chocolate shell with a softer, sometimes liquid, traditionally made of different combinations of hazelnut, sugar and milk-based pastes; these high-fat, low-melting point chocolates are at the luxury end of Belgian chocolate and represent an important product of many Belgian chocolatiers. French pralines, a firm combination of almonds and caramelized sugar. American pralines, a softer, creamier combination of syrup and pecans, hazelnuts or almonds with milk or cream, resembling fudge. A praline cookie is a chocolate biscuit containing ground nuts. Praline is used as a filling in chocolates or other sweets. Praline may have been inspired in France by the cook of Marshal du Plessis-Praslin, with the word praline deriving from the name Praslin. Early pralines were whole almonds individually coated in caramelized sugar, as opposed to dark nougat, where a sheet of caramelized sugar covers many nuts.
Although the New World had been discovered and settled by this time, chocolate-producing cocoa from there was not associated with the term. The European chefs used local nuts such as hazelnuts; the powder made by grinding up such caramel-coated nuts is called pralin, is an ingredient in many cakes and ice creams. After this powder has been mixed with chocolate, it becomes praliné in French, which gave birth to what is known in French as chocolat praliné; the word praliné is used colloquially in France and Switzerland to refer to these various centres coated with chocolate, known as "chocolates" in English. In mainland Europe, the word praline is used to mean either this nut powder or the chocolate paste made from it, used to fill chocolates, hence its use in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom to refer to filled chocolates in general. In the United Kingdom, the term can refer either to praline or, less to the original whole-nut pralines. Pralines from Belgium are known as " Belgian chocolates", "Belgian chocolate fondants" and "chocolate bonbons" in English-speaking countries — cases of chocolate filled with a soft centre.
They were first introduced by Jean Neuhaus II, a Belgian chocolatier, in 1912. There have always been many types and shapes: nearly always containing a chocolate shell with a softer filling. Confusion can arise over the use of the word praline in Belgium as it may refer to filled chocolates in general known as pralines and it may refer to a traditional praline filling common in Europe described as praliné. Belgian chocolates are not limited to the traditional praliné filling and include nuts, salted caramel, coffee, a spirit, cream liqueur, cherry or a chocolate blend that contrasts with the outer shell, they are sold in stylised boxes in the form of a gift box. The largest manufacturers are Neuhaus, Godiva and Guylian. French settlers brought the recipe to Louisiana, where both sugar cane and pecan trees were plentiful. During the 19th century, New Orleans chefs substituted pecans for almonds, added cream to thicken the confection, thus created what became known throughout the American South as the praline.
Pralines have a creamy consistency, similar to fudge. They are made by combining sugar, cream or buttermilk, pecans in a pot over medium-high heat, stirring until most of the water has evaporated and it has reached a thick texture with a brown color; this is usually dropped by spoonfuls onto wax paper or a sheet of aluminum foil greased with butter, left to cool.'Pralines and Cream' is a common ice cream flavor in the United States and Canada. In New Orleans and Baton Rouge, pralines are sometimes called "pecan candy". Bonbon Brittle Chikki Gianduja Penuche Scots tablet Baklava Qottab