National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Ryu Mi-yong was the chairwoman of the North Korean Chondoist Chongu Party. She was a standing committee member of the 10th Supreme People's Assembly, she was known as a defector from South Korea to the North. She and her husband Choe Deok-sin defected to the North in 1986. In 2000, she led a delegation of defectors to the South on an sanctioned reunion with family they left behind. Ryu had received the Order of Order of Kim Jong-il and National Reunification Prize. On her funeral committee were: Yang Hyong-sop Kim Yong-chol Kim Yong-dae Jon Yong-nam Ju Yong-gil Ri Myong-gil Kim Jong-sung Ri Song-won Pak Myong-chol Ri Kil-song Yun Jong-ho
Pyongyang, P'yŏngyang or Pyeongyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about 109 kilometres upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288; the city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly-administered city with equal status to provinces, the same as special cities in South Korea, including Seoul; the city's other historic names include Kisong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Hogyong and Heijō. There are several variants. During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism during the Pyongyang revival of 1907. After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City", but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", in the end neither proposal was implemented.
The Russian transliteration Пхёнья́н was adapted in Romanian as Phenian. In Poland the hyperforeignist pronunciation /ˈfɛɲ.jan/ is commoner than the original /ˈpxɛɲ.jan/. In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods. North Koreans associate Pyongyang with the mythological city of "Asadal", or Wanggeom-seong, the first second millennium BC capital of Gojoseon according to Korean historiographies beginning with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa. Historians deny this claim because earlier Chinese historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, Records of the Three Kingdoms, mention a much "Joseon"; the connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda. Pyongyang became a major city in old Joseon. Korean mythology asserts that Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the capital of the legendary king Dangun.
Wanggeom-seong, in the location of Pyongyang, became the capital of Gojoseon from 194 to 108 BC. It fell in the Han conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of Han ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 樂浪. Several archaeological findings from the Eastern Han period in the Pyeongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces launched brief incursions around these parts; the area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang, Pyeongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313. Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land". In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was left on the border between Silla and Balhae.
Pyongyang was left abandoned during the Later Silla period, until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital of Goryeo. During the Joseon period, it became the provincial capital of Pyeongan Province. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese until they were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang. In the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during the Qing invasion of Joseon until peace arrangements were made between Korea and Qing China. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city. In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants, it was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city.
It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province beginning in 1896. Under Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō in Japanese. Pyongyang in the 1920s In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports about it which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers. By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000. On 25 August 1945, the Soviet 25th Army entered Pyongyang and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik. Pyongyang became the de facto capital of North Korea upon its establishment in 1948. At the time, the Pyongyang government aimed to recapture Seoul. Pyongyang was again damaged in the Korean War, during which it was occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.
After the war, the city was quickly
Korean martial arts
Korean martial arts are military practices and methods which have their place in the history of Korea but have been adapted for use by both military and non-military personnel as a method of personal growth or recreation. The history of Korean martial arts can be traced as far back as the prehistoric era; the ancestors of modern Korean people migrated and settled in the Korean Peninsula as early as the 28th century BC, a geopolitical region besieged by thousands of known documented instances of foreign invasions. The Korean people developed unique martial arts and military strategies in order to defend themselves and their territory. Traditional Korean martial arts fell into three main groups or branches: Sado Musul Bulgyo Musul Gungjung Musul In 1958, these branches of traditional Korean martial arts were organized to form a single modern hybrid-system known as Kuk Sool Won. Today, Korean martial arts are being practiced worldwide. Among the best recognized Korean practices using weapons are traditional Korean archery and Kumdo, the Korean adaptation of the Japanese Kendo.
The best known unarmed Korean Martial Arts are Taekwondo and Hapkido, though such traditional practices such as ssireum - Korean Wrestling - and taekkyeon - Korean Foot Fighting - are gaining in popularity both inside and outside the country. In November 2011, Taekkyeon was recognized by UNESCO and placed on its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity List. There has been a revival of traditional Korean swordsmanship arts as well as knife fighting and archery. Wrestling, called ssireum, is the oldest form of ground fighting in Korea, while subak/taekkyeon was the upright martial art of foot soldiers. Weapons were an extension of those unarmed skills. Besides being used to train soldiers, both of these traditional martial arts were popular among villagers during festivals for dance, mask and sport fighting; these martial arts were considered basic physical education. However, Koreans relied more on bows and arrows in warfare than they did on close-range weapons, it appears that during the Goguryeo dynasty, subak/taekkeyon or ssireum, spear-fighting and horse riding were practiced.
In 1935, paintings that showed martial arts were found on the walls of royal tombs believed to have been built for Goguryeo kings sometime between the years 3 and 427 AD. Which techniques were practiced during that period is, something that cannot be determined from these paintings. References to Subak can be found in government records from the Goguryeo dynasty through the Joseon dynasty, it is believed that the warriors from the Silla Dynasty known as the Hwarang learned subak from the neighboring Goguryeo armies when they appealed for their help against invading Japanese pirates. But this remains a conjecture. There remains no known documentation of specific military training by the Hwarangˌ groups of Sillaˌ 74 護身術ˌ hosinsool The Buddhist influence on the Hwarang is most notably seen around 600 AD, when the moral code Sae Sok O-Gye, written by Won Gwang, was documented; this code consisted of five rules: 사군이충 / 事君以忠 – Loyalty to one's king. 사친이효 / 事親以孝 – Respect to one's parents. 교우이신 / 交友以信 – Faithfulness to one's friends.
임전무퇴 / 臨戰無退 – Courage in battle. 살생유택 / 殺生有擇 – Justice in killing. The development of Subak continued during the Goryeo Dynasty. Goryeo records that mention the martial arts always include passages about Subak; the Joseon government, outlawed the practice of Subak as a public spectacle in response to problems arising from the betting practices of large numbers of Korean farmers and landowners. As a concession to public pressure, the government allowed a lesser practice - Taekkyeon games - to be used as a form of civilian recreation. Joseon Dynasty records and books mention taekkyeon, taekkyeon players are portrayed in several paintings from that era; the most famous painting is the Daegwaedo, painted in 1846 by Hyesan Yu Suk, which shows men competing in both ssireum and taekgyeon. With the Mongol conquest, the Korean military was reorganized around the mounted archer. Armor and weaponry became similar to Mongol armor and weaponry. Acrobatic horsemanship and polo were imported; the Korean Composite bow was adopted at this time.
The unique construction of the Korean Gakgung bow shows the original form of the Mongol bow, before the Manchus improved it with stronger and bigger ears. As the military class in late Goryeo was entirely populated by ethnic Mongols in practice, the Joseon Army carried on the mounted archer tradition; until the publication of Muyedobotongji in 1795, archery remained a singular Korean martial art, testable during the military portion of the Gwageo As the continuation of Goryo military, the Joseon military maintained the primacy of the bow as its main stay weapon. Gungdo remained the most prestigious of all m
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea. In the Korean language, ireum or seongmyeong refers to the family name and given name together. Traditional Korean family names consist of only one syllable. There is no middle name in the English language sense. Many Koreans have their given names made of a generational name syllable and an individually distinct syllable, though this practice is declining in the younger generations; the generational name syllable is shared by siblings in North Korea, by all members of the same generation of an extended family in South Korea. Married men and women keep their full personal names, children inherit the father's family name unless otherwise settled when registering the marriage; the family names are subdivided into bon-gwan, i.e. extended families which originate in the lineage system used in previous historical periods. Each clan is identified by a specific place, traces its origin to a common patrilineal ancestor.
Early names based on the Korean language were recorded in the Three Kingdoms period, but with the growing adoption of the Chinese writing system, these were replaced by names based on Chinese characters. During periods of Mongol influence, the ruling class supplemented their Korean names with Mongolian names; because of the many changes in Korean romanization practices over the years, modern Koreans, when using languages written in Latin script, romanize their names in various ways, most approximating the pronunciation in English orthography. Some keep the original order of names, while others reverse the names to match the usual Western pattern. According to the population and housing census of 2000 conducted by the South Korean government, there are a total of 286 surnames and 4,179 clans. Fewer than 300 Korean family names were in use in 2000, the three most common account for nearly half of the population. For various reasons, there is a growth in the number of Korean surnames; each family name is divided into one or more clans.
For example, the most populous clan is Gimhae Kim. Clans are further subdivided into various pa, or branches stemming from a more recent common ancestor, so that a full identification of a person's family name would be clan-surname-branch. For example, "Gyeongju Yissi" romanized as "Gyeongju Leessi" and "Yeonan-Yissi" are, technically speaking different surnames though both are, in most places referred to as "Yi" or "Lee"; this means people from the same clan are considered to be of same blood, such that marriage of a man and a woman of same surname and bon-gwan is considered a strong taboo, regardless of how distant the actual lineages may be to the present day. Traditionally, Korean women keep their family names after their marriage, but their children take the father's surname. In the premodern, patriarchal Korean society, people were conscious of familial values and their own family identities. Korean women keep their surnames after marriage based on traditional reasoning that it is inherited from their parents and ancestors, cannot be changed.
According to traditions, each clan publishes a comprehensive genealogy every 30 years. Around a dozen two-syllable surnames are used; the five most common family names, which together make up over half of the Korean population, are used by over 20 million people in South Korea. After the 2015 census, it was revealed that foreign-origin family names were becoming more common in South Korea, due to naturalised citizens transcribing their surnames in hangul. Between 2000 and 2015, more than 4,800 new surnames were registered. During the census, a total of 5,582 distinct surnames were collected, 73% of which do not have corresponding hanja characters, it was revealed that despite the surge in the number of surnames, the ratio of top 10 surnames had not changed. 44.6% of South Koreans are still named Kim, Lee or Park, while the rest of the top 10 are made up of Choi, Kang, Jo, Yoon and Lim. Traditionally, given names are determined by generation names, a custom originating in China. One of the two characters in a given name is unique to the individual, while the other is shared by all people in a family generation.
In both North and South Korea, generational names are no longer shared by cousins, but are still shared by brothers and sisters. Given names are composed of hanja, or Chinese characters. In North Korea, the hanja are no longer used to write the names, but the meanings are still understood. In South Korea, section 37 of the Family Registry Law requires that the hanja in personal names be taken from a restricted list. Unapproved hanja must be represented by hangul in the family registry. In March 1991, the Supreme Court of South Korea published the Table of Hanja for Personal Name Use, which allowed a total of 2,854 hanja in new South Korean given names; the list was expanded in 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015. Thus, 8,142 hanja are now permitted in South Korean names, in addition to a small number of alternative forms; the use of an official list is similar to Japan's use of the jinmeiyō kanji. While the traditional practice is still followed, since the lat
The dan ranking system is used by many Japanese organizations and Korean martial arts to indicate the level of one's ability within a certain subject matter. As a ranking system, it was used at a go school during the Edo period, it is now used in modern fine arts and martial arts. The system was applied to martial arts in Japan by Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo, in 1883, introduced to other East Asian countries. In the modern Japanese martial arts, holders of dan ranks wear a black belt. Dan ranks are given for strategic board games such as go, Japanese chess, renju, as well as for cultural arts such as flower arrangement, Japanese calligraphy and tea ceremony. The Chinese character for the word dan means step or stage in Japanese, but is used to refer to one's rank or grade, i.e. one's degree or level of expertise and knowledge. In Chinese pinyin, the same character is spelled duàn, was used to mean phase. Dan is used together with the word kyū in certain ranking systems, with dan being used for the higher ranks and kyū being used for lower ranks.
The dan ranking system in go was devised by Hon'inbō Dōsaku, a professional go player in the Edo period. Prior to the invention, top-to-bottom ranking was evaluated by comparison of handicap and tended to be vague. Dosaku valued the highest title holder, Meijin at 9 Dan, he was inspired by an ancient Chinese go ranking system and an earlier court ranking system, although lower numbers are more senior in those systems. Dan ranks were transferred to martial arts by the founder of judo. Kanō started the modern rank system in 1883. Prior to this, martial arts schools awarded progress with less frequent menkyo licenses or secret scrolls. There was still no external differentiation between mudansha. Different athletic departments within the Japanese school system were using markers of rank, most notably in swimming, where advanced swimmers wore a black ribbon around their waists. Kano adopted the custom of having his yūdansha wear black obi in 1886. At that time, these obi were not the belts that jūdōka wear today.
They wore the wide obi still worn with formal kimono. In 1907, Kanō invented the modern keikogi, belts in white for mudansha and black for yūdansha. Traditionally, the level of go players has been defined using dan ranks. Kyu ranks are considered student ranks, whilst dan ranks are considered master ranks. In amateur play, these ranks facilitate the handicapping system, with a difference of one rank corresponding to one free move at the beginning of the game. With the ready availability of calculators and computers, "rating" systems have been introduced. In such systems, a rating is rigorously calculated on the basis of game results. Dan ranks are for advanced players. Although many organizations let players choose their own kyū rank to a certain extent, dan ranks are regulated; this means that players will have to show good results in tournaments or pass exams to be awarded a dan rank. Serious students of the game will strive to attain a dan rank. Dan ranks are available up to about 7th dan. Like in go, shogi has traditionally used "dan" and "kyū" ranks to define the playing strength of a shogi player.
Amateur players can, through over-the-board play, achieve ranks from 15-kyū to 8-dan. In addition to dan and kyū, an Elo-type rating system is used by the Japan Amateur Shogi Association for the tournaments it organizes; the ranking system used by the Japan Shogi Association for professionals uses similar terminology, but is quite different in terms of ability. Professional player ranks go up to 9 dan. There used to be 10 dan ranking, but this is no longer used. Amateur players train to become professionals at one of the JSA's apprentice schools and are ranked from 6-kyū to 3-dan. Since only exceptionally strong amateur players are able to qualify for the shōreikai, it is believed that the typical shōreikai 6-kyū is at least the equivalent of an amateur 3 or 4 dan player. Shōreikai 3-dan players who either win or finish runner-up in one of the two 3-dan league tournaments held each year are awarded the rank of 4-dan and granted professional status. Although there is no difference in the systems used for men and women amateurs, the JSA and the Ladies Professional Shogi-players' Association of Japan, or LPSA, do use a different system for ranking women professionals.
Women professionals are ranked from 3-kyū to 6-dan and it is believed that the strongest women professionals are only equivalent in playing strength to shōreikai 1- or 2-dan ranked players. In fact, no woman professional has successfully completed the shōreikai system and been awarded the rank of 4-dan. Three women have made it as far as 1 dan in the shōreikai, two have made it as far as 3 dan. While the use of the kyū/dan system, colored belts is common to both gendai budō or arts of other east Asian origin, to arts that are derived from these, or from other areas, it is not universal. In modern times, a dan-ranked practitioner of a style is recognized as a martial artist who has surpassed the kyū, or basic, ranks, they may become a licensed instructor in their a