2012 Quebec general election
The Quebec general election of 2012 took place in the Canadian province of Quebec on September 4, 2012. Lieutenant Governor Pierre Duchesne dissolved the National Assembly on August 1, 2012, following Premier Jean Charest's request; the Parti Québécois were elected to a minority government, with Pauline Marois becoming the first woman to be Premier of Quebec. The Quebec Liberal Party took second place, with Premier Jean Charest losing his seat; the newly formed party Coalition Avenir Québec led by François Legault took third place, while Québec solidaire took 2 seats out of the 125. It was the first time since 2007 that a minority government would be formed, as no party won an absolute majority of the seats. Both the PQ and Liberal vote declined which boosted support for the Quebec Solidaire. During Marois' victory speech, an attack including gunshots and a fire occurred at the Métropolis concert hall housing the event and a forty-year-old man died as a result of gunshot wounds. December 8 – 39th Quebec general election December 15 – Pauline Marois becomes the leader of the Official Opposition.
December 18 – Swearing in of the Cabinet members January 13 – Yvon Vallières is elected President of the National Assembly. January 14 – An economic statement is pronounced by Monique Jérôme-Forget. March 6 – Resignation of Mario Dumont as MNA of Rivière-du-Loup March 10 – The opening speech of the 39th Quebec Legislature is pronounced by Premier Jean Charest. March 25 — The Conservative Party of Quebec is registered. April 8 – Resignation of Monique Jérôme-Forget as MNA of Marguerite-Bourgeoys April 9 — The Parti nul is registered. June 22 – In two by-elections, Jean D'Amour and Clément Gignac are elected MNAs of Rivière-du-Loup and Marguerite-Bourgeoys respectively. June 25 – Resignation of François Legault as MNA of Rousseau September 21 – In a by-election, Nicolas Marceau is elected MNA of Rousseau with 57% of the vote. October 18 – Gilles Taillon is elected as leader of the Action démocratique du Québec. November 6 – Éric Caire and Marc Picard leave the ADQ to sit as independents. November 10 – Gilles Taillon resigns his post as ADQ leader amid Caire and Picard's defections.
Taillon called for a police investigation into the “troubling” funding practices in the party." November 19 – Gérard Deltell replaces Taillon as leader of ADQ. January 6 – Resignation of Camil Bouchard as MNA of Vachon May 6 – Tony Tomassi is kicked out of the Liberal cabinet and caucus after it is revealed he was given a gasoline credit card by a private security firm. July 5 – In a by-election, Martine Ouellet is elected MNA of Vachon with 59% of the vote. August 9 – Resignation of Jacques Dupuis as MNA of Saint-Laurent September 7 – Resignation of Claude Béchard as MNA of Kamouraska-Témiscouata, he dies from cancer that day September 13 – In a by-election, Jean-Marc Fournier is elected MNA of Saint-Laurent with 64% of the vote. November 29 – In a by-election, André Simard is elected MNA of Kamouraska-Témiscouata with 37% of the vote. March 7 — A party named "Québec - Révolution démocratique" is registered. June 6 – Louise Beaudoin, Pierre Curzi, Lisette Lapointe leave the Parti Québécois to sit as independents.
June 7 – Jean-Martin Aussant leaves the Parti Québécois to sit as an independent. June 21 – Benoit Charette leaves the Parti Québécois to sit as an independent and René Gauvreau is asked to leave the Parti Québécois pending an investigation of his former aide. September 6 – Resignation of Nathalie Normandeau as MNA of Bonaventure September 19 – Jean-Martin Aussant announces his intention to register a new sovereigntist political party, Option nationale. November 4 – Coalition Avenir Québec, a new party led by François Legault, is registered. November 17 – Lisette Lapointe buys an Option nationale membership, but remains sitting as an independent. November 24 – Daniel Ratthé is expelled from the PQ caucus. December 5 – In a by-election, Damien Arsenault is elected MNA of Bonaventure with 49.5% of the vote. December 14 – The Coalition Avenir Québec and the ADQ announced an agreement in principle to merge, pending final approval from the ADQ membership. December 16 – Resignation of David Whissell as MNA of Argenteuil December 19 – Éric Caire, Benoit Charette, Marc Picard, Daniel Ratthé join the Coalition Avenir Québec.
January 9 – François Rebello joins the Coalition Avenir Québec. January 22 – The ADQ membership approves a merger with the Coalition Avenir Québec, resulting in ADQ MNA's Sylvie Roy, Janvier Grondin, François Bonnardel and leader Gérard Deltell becoming CAQ members. February 14 — The Coalition Avenir Québec is registered. February 25 – Founding convention of Option nationale. March 4 – Independent Lisette Lapointe announces that she will not run in the next election. March 21 — The Équipe autonomiste is registered. April 3 - Louise Beaudoin rejoins the Parti Québécois. April 5 - René Gauvreau is re-admitted into the Parti Québécois. May 3 - Resignation of Tony Tomassi as MNA of LaFontaine May 8 — The Middle Class Party of Quebec is registered. May 14 - Resignation of Line Beauchamp as MNA of Bourassa-Sauvé June 11 - In by-elections, Marc Tanguay is elected MNA of LaFontaine with 53% of the vote, Roland Richer is elected MNA of Argenteuil with 36% of the vote. June 13 — The Coalition pour la constituante is registered.
June 29 — The Parti démocratie chrétienne du Québec is renamed to Parti unité nationale. July 11 — Documents from the Quebec Liberal Party and the Government suggest that a general election will be called on August 1 and take place on Tuesday, September 4. July 13 — The Quebec Citizens' Union is registered. A
Québec solidaire is a democratic socialist, social-democratic and sovereigntist political party in Quebec, Canada. The party and media outlets in Canada use the name "Québec solidaire" in both French and English, but the party's name is sometimes translated as "Solidarity Quebec" or "Quebec Solidarity" in foreign English-language media. Québec solidaire was founded on February 4, 2006 in Montreal by the merger of the left-wing party Union des forces progressistes and the alter-globalization political movement Option Citoyenne, led by Françoise David, it was formed around a number of activists and politicians who had written Pour un Québec solidaire, a left-wing response to Pour un Québec lucide. Pour un Québec lucide presented a distinctly neoliberal analysis of and set of solutions to Quebec's problems criticizing the sovereignty movement as distracting from Quebec's real issues and the Quebec social model as inefficient and out-of-date. Pour un Québec solidaire presented an alternate analysis, its writers formed the party Quebec solidaire, taking its name from the manifesto.
On December 2, 2017, party members approved a merger with the centre-left sovereignist Option nationale party. ON members approved the merger, which gave them "collective" status within Québec solidaire, on December 10. Jean-François Lisée charged Manon Massé with reneging in unsuccessful deliberations for a putative electoral alliance between the Parti Québécois and Québec Solidaire in 2017. Québec solidaire's first political venture was to field a candidate, Manon Massé, in an April 10, 2006, by-election in Sainte-Marie–Saint-Jacques, she received 22% of the vote. On August 14, 2006, there were two by-elections. Québec solidaire contested the 2007 Quebec election, it received 144,418 votes, 0.21 % behind the Green Party of Quebec. They were endorsed by the Montreal Central Council of the Confédération des syndicats nationaux which represents 125,000 members in Quebec. According to an analysis on Canadian Dimension, this is the first time a trade union in Quebec has endorsed a party more left-wing than the Parti Québécois.
On December 8, 2008, the first Quebec Solidaire candidate was elected in the provincial election. Amir Khadir was elected in the Montreal riding of Mercier, he won his seat for the second term on 2012 election along with another QS candidate Françoise David in Montreal riding of Gouin. Manon Massé was elected in Sainte-Marie–Saint-Jacques in the 2014 election to become the party's third MNA, joining David and Khadir who were both re-elected. In the 2018 election the party gained 7 more seats from former Liberal and Parti Québécois ridings after Coalition Avenir Québec, an Autonomous party won the majority of seats. On November 22, 2018, Québec soildaire along with Parti Québécois has approved of gain official party status on November 27, 2018; the aim of QS's foundation was to unify the sovereigntist left of the political spectrum in Quebec by merging the Union des forces progressistes party with the Option citoyenne social movement. In addition to advocating the independence of Quebec from Canada, the party's platform identifies with the concepts of environmentalism, social justice, proportional representation and participatory democracy, aboriginal rights, alter-globalism.
The party favours aboriginal rights and human dignity, opposes discrimination including racism and homophobia. QS describes itself as a sovereigntist, alter-globalizationist, feminist party, it is the left-most of the four parties presently represented in the National Assembly. At the party's founding, the congress unanimously adopted a document called the Déclaration de principes which laid out the principles and values that led the two organizations to merge; the declaration of principles does not endorse social democracy, socialism or communism, although it includes certain activists and tendencies that do. The document declared: "Nous sommes écologistes" "Nous sommes de gauche" "Nous sommes démocrates" "Nous sommes féministes" "Nous sommes altermondialistes" "Nous sommes d'un Québec pluriel" "Nous sommes d'un Québec souverain et solidaire" "Un autre parti, pour un autre Québec!" As with its predecessors, Québec solidaire has no "party leader". Instead, the party practices collective leadership.
The party's statutes call for it to be represented by a male and female co-spokesperson, one of whom serves in the dual role of party president. If one of the spokespeople is a member of the National Assembly, the other spokesperson remains outside of the legislature and holds the party presidency, they are sometimes referred to in the media as the de facto co-leaders of the party. The duties entrusted to the leader in most other Canadian federal and provincial parties are instead divided among the president, secretary general and male and female spokespeople; the party leadership is assumed by the National Coordinating Committee, composed of 16 persons elected by the founding congress. A person from the team of volunteers will always have a seat. However, as Quebec's election laws requires the appointment of a leader, the party's secretary general Gaétan Châteauneuf, is the de jure party leader recognized by the Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec. Françoise David and Amir Khadir were the two spokespersons at the party's foundin
2014 Quebec general election
The 41st Quebec general election was held on April 7, 2014 to elect members to the National Assembly of Quebec. The Quebec Liberal Party under Philippe Couillard won a majority government of 70 seats, while the incumbent Parti Québécois finished second with 30 seats, becoming the first single-term government since Jean-Jacques Bertrand's Union Nationale government was defeated in 1970, it marked the lowest seat total for the Parti Québécois since 1989 and its smallest share of the popular vote since its inaugural run in 1970, as Premier Pauline Marois lost her own riding. The Coalition Avenir Québec under François Legault made minor gains in terms of seats despite receiving a smaller share of the popular vote than in the previous election. Québec solidaire won an additional seat, though co-spokesperson Andrés Fontecilla failed to win his riding. At the outset of the campaign, the Parti Québécois had a modest lead in the polls and appeared to have a realistic prospect of winning a majority government.
However, the party's support collapsed after the party announced Pierre Karl Péladeau, the president and CEO of media conglomerate Quebecor, as a star candidate. Péladeau's conservative and anti-union business background was criticized as being at odds with the party's social democratic history. Pairing off the top three parties, swings were calculated to be: PQ to Liberal: 8.45% CAQ to Liberal: 7.16% PQ to CAQ: 1.29% Notes: † The party designates David and Fontecilla as co-spokespeople. The party's power is held by a board of 16 directors. † † Party contested the 2012 election under the name. * Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. 1 Results among "likely voters" Parti Québécois Le DevoirQuebec Liberal Party La Presse Montreal Gazette 40th Quebec Legislature Politics of Quebec List of premiers of Quebec List of leaders of the Official Opposition National Assembly of Quebec Timeline of Quebec history Political parties in Quebec Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec
Laval is a Canadian city in southwestern Quebec, north of Montreal. It forms its own administrative region of Quebec, it is the largest suburb of Montreal, the third largest municipality in the province of Quebec, the thirteenth largest city in Canada with a population of 422,993 in 2016. Laval is geographically separated from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles, from the Island of Montreal to the south by the Rivière des Prairies. Laval occupies all of Île Jésus as well as the Îles Laval. Laval constitutes the 13th region of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec as well as a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division with geographical code 65, it constitutes the judicial district of Laval. The first European Settlers in Laval were Jesuits in 1636. Agriculture first appeared in Laval in 1670. In 1675, François de Montmorency-Laval gained control of the seigneury. In 1702 a parish municipality was founded, dedicated to Saint-François de Sales.
Beginning in 1845, after nearly 200 years of a rural nature, additional municipalities were created. The only built-up area on the island, Sainte-Rose, was incorporated as a village in 1850, remained as the main community for the remainder of the century. With the dawn of the 20th century came urbanization. Laval-des-Rapides became Laval's first city in 1912, followed by L'Abord-à-Plouffe being granted village status three years later. Laval-sur-le-Lac was founded in the same year on its tourist-based economy from Montrealers. Laval began to grow throughout the following years, due to its proximity to Montreal that made it an ideal suburb. To deal with problems caused by urbanization, amalgamations occurred; the amalgamation turned out to be so successful for the municipalities involved that the Quebec government decided to amalgamate the whole island into a single city of Laval in 1965. Laval was named after the first owner of Île Jésus, François de Montmorency-Laval, the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec.
At the time, Laval had a population of 170,000. Laval became a Regional County Municipality in 1980. Prior to that, it was the County of Laval; the 14 municipalities, which existed prior to the incorporation of the amalgamated City of Laval on 6 August 1965, were: The island has developed over time, with most of the urban area in the central region and along the south and west river banks. Laval is bordered on the south by Montreal across the Rivière des Prairies, on the north by Les Moulins Regional County Municipality and by Thérèse-De Blainville Regional County Municipality and on the west by Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality across the Rivière des Mille Îles. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the population of Laval was an estimated 401,553, an 8.9 percent increase from the earlier census in 2006. Women constitute 51.5% of the total population. Children under 14 years of age total 17.3%, while those of retirement age number 15.6% resulting in a median age of 40.9 years. Laval is linguistically diverse.
The 2011 census found that French was the only mother tongue of 60.8% of the population, was spoken most at home by 65.2% of residents. The next most common mother tongues were English, Italian, Spanish, Creoles and Portuguese; the city's longtime mayor, Gilles Vaillancourt, resigned on 9 November 2012, following allegations of corruption made against him in hearings of the provincial Charbonneau Commission. City councillor Basile Angelopoulos served as acting mayor until Alexandre Duplessis was selected in a council vote on 23 November. Duplessis, in turn, stepped down after just seven months in office after facing allegations of being implicated in a prostitution investigation. Past mayors have been: Jean-Noël Lavoie, 1965 Jacques Tétreault, 1965–1973 Lucien Paiement, 1973–1981 Claude Lefebvre, 1981–1989 Gilles Vaillancourt, 1989–2012 Alexandre Duplessis, 2012–2013 Martine Beaugrand, 2013 Marc Demers, 2013–presentOn 3 June 2013, the provincial government of Pauline Marois placed the city under trusteeship due to the ongoing corruption scandal affecting the city.
Florent Gagné, a former head of the Sûreté du Québec, will serve as the city's head trustee, with responsibility for reviewing and approving or rejecting all decisions made by city council. Municipal Affairs Minister Sylvain Gaudreault said that Laval's Mayor Alexandre Duplessis and his council will continue to serve, but council decisions must be approved by the trustees. Duplessis, in turn, resigned as mayor on 28 June 2013, after being implicated in a separate prostitution allegation. On a white-yellow background, the emblem of Laval illustrates the modernism of a city in full expansion; the sign of the city symbolizes the "L" of Laval. The colours have a significant meaning: Dark red represents the affluence and represents here the great economic potential of Laval. Blue symbolizes the installation of a human city; the "L" of Laval is made of cubes. The letters of the Laval signature are related one to the other to point out the merger of the 14 municipalities of Jesus island in 1965; the logo has existed since the flag since the 1990s.
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is