A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Gryf coat of arms
Gryf is a Polish coat of arms, used by many noble families in medieval Poland and under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, branches of the original medieval Gryfita-Świebodzic family as well as families connected with the Clan by adoption at ennoblement or by error. Leszek III, legendary Prince of Poland, 805?, had 14 sons, of whom the oldest was Popiel I his successor to the throne. Leszek assured special parts of the realm to the remaining sons within his lifetime, obligating them by oath not to make the sovereignty of Popiel contentious; this ensured the liberty of the country with a united army. The other sons: Barnim and Bogdal kept the principality of Pomerania. Kazimierz and Władysław, the principality of Kashubia Vratislav, the island Rügen, with Przybysław. Cieszymierz and Otto, the Lusatia and Zemornyst, the land of Brandenburg. Jaxa with another brother, the Meissen county, in Lusatia All these sons united under one war flag given by Leszek; the Lechites had a young lion on its war flag around 550, the white eagle appeared as a realm flag.
The combination of both animal pictures into one figure has developed. Hence a lion's an eagle's head, which appears on and above the Gryf shield. Notable bearers of this coat of arms have included: Gryfici Jaksa Gryfita Andrzej Gryfita House of Branicki Jan Klemens Branicki Jan Klemens Branicki, Marshall of the Crown Tribunal Stefan Mikołaj Branicki, Voivode of Podlasie Grzegorz Branicki Anna Branicka House of Mielecki Mikołaj Mielecki Zofia Mielecka Kazimierz Małachowski Janisław I Ossowski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland Józef Leśniewski, general Abraham z Jaxów Chamiec, first known owner of Międzyrzec Podlaski Bogdan Jaksa-Ronikier and publicist Aleksander Krzysztof Chodkiewicz, Bishop of Kieś and Canon of Wilno Zygmunt Rożen, knight Mateusz Michał Bąkowski, Stolnik of Halicz Szymon Konarski, heraldist House of Otwinowski Erazm Otwinowski poet and Socinian activist Franciszek Jaxa Otwinowski, member of the Sejm August Otwinowski, Burgrave of Kraków Chodkiewicz Coat of Arms Coat of arms of Latvia Polish heraldry Heraldic family List of Polish nobility coats of arms House of Griffins House of Sobiesław Tadeusz Gajl: Herbarz polski od średniowiecza do XX wieku: ponad 4500 herbów szlacheckich 37 tysięcy nazwisk 55 tysięcy rodów.
L&L, 2007. ISBN 978-83-60597-10-1. Jan Długosz: Jana Długosza kanonika krakowskiego Dziejów polskich ksiąg dwanaście, ks. IX. Kraków: 1867-1870, s. 264
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, political activist, social critic. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science, he holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and laureate professor at the University of Arizona, is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with libertarian socialism. Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City, he began studying at the University of Pennsylvania at age 16, taking courses in linguistics and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955, he was appointed to Harvard University's Society of Fellows. While at Harvard, he developed the theory of transformational grammar. Chomsky began teaching at MIT in 1957 and emerged as a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his landmark work Syntactic Structures, which remodelled the scientific study of language.
From 1958 to 1959, he was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, he played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, being critical of the work of B. F. Skinner. Chomsky vocally opposed U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War, believing the war to be an act of American imperialism. In 1967, he attracted widespread public attention for his antiwar essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and was placed on Richard Nixon's Enemies List. While expanding his work in linguistics over late 1960s and 1970s, he became involved in the so-called linguistics wars with generative semantics. In the 1980s, Chomsky helped develop binding theory. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky co-wrote Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, which articulated the propaganda model of media criticism and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
Additionally, his defense of freedom of speech—including free speech for Holocaust deniers—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. In the 1990s, Chomsky started the minimalist program. Since retiring from active teaching, Chomsky has continued his vocal political activism by opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy Movement. One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields, he is recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U. S. foreign policy and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, mainstream news media. His ideas have proved significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements; some of his critics have accused him of anti-Americanism.
Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His mother Elsie emigrated from Belarus to the United States in 1906, while his father William Chomsky left Ukraine for the United States in 1913. William was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia in 1924. Elsie taught at Gratz. Much William Chomsky was appointed professor of Hebrew at Dropsie College from 1955–77. Noam was the Chomsky family's first child, his younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years in 1934. The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be competitive. Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and discussing the political theories of Zionism; as a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia. Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum, he was influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day.
Whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature. He described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident", because it allowed him to become critical of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism. Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere, it was there, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War. At age 12, Chomsky moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented teaching methods. During the same time period, Chomsky atten
Odrowąż coat of arms
Odrowąż is a Polish coat of arms of Moravian origin. It was used by many noble families known as szlachta in Polish in medieval Poland and under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, branches of the original medieval Odrowążowie family as well as families connected with the Clan by adoption. Okolski tells that the progenitor of this clan cut off both halves of the moustache of an adversary at a jousting match, the flesh with it, with the arrow. Bogdan Balbin in notes to Epitome "Rerum Bohemicarum", chapter 15, calls the arms of the Odrowaz family Sagitta circumflexa, adds that some of the earliest houses in Bohemia bore these arms, of whom Tobias was Bishop of Prague, during the times of Premysl Otakar II. In German the arms are known as a "Bartausreisser" Arms: Gules, an arrow in pale point to chief, the base double sarcelled and counter embowed, Argent. Out of a crest coronet a panache of peacock plumes proper, charged with the arms in fess; the shield is red, upon, a silver arrow pointing upward, the bottom is divided and curved on both ends.
Out of a helmeted crown is a display of peacock plumes, upon which can be seen lying on its side the device as pictured on the shield. The tinctures are: azure = blue. In heraldry all charges on a shield are assumed to be facing dexter. Notable bearers of this coat of arms include: House of Odrowąż Jacek Odrowąż Czesław Odrowąż Iwo Odrowąż Jan Odrowąż from Sprowa Zofia Odrowąż Stanisław Odrowąż Andrzej Odrowąż Joachim Chreptowicz Eugen Ritter von Sypniewski-Odrowaz Sypniewski Bonifacius Sypniewski Stanisław Sypniewski Feliks Sypniewski Felicjan Sypniewski Jan Chryzostom Pieniążek House of Szydłowiecki Jakub Szydłowiecki Elżbieta Szydłowiecka Krzysztof Szydłowiecki Zofia Szydłowiecka Maciej Szukiewicz Wojciech Szukiewicz Władysław Starewicz Zygmunt Pacanowski Polish heraldry Heraldic family List of Polish nobility coats of arms Tadeusz Gajl: Herbarz polski od średniowiecza do XX wieku: ponad 4500 herbów szlacheckich 37 tysięcy nazwisk 55 tysięcy rodów. L&L, 2007. ISBN 978-83-60597-10-1. J. Lyčkoŭski.
"Belarusian Nobility Coats of Arms". Odrowaz Coat of Arms and the bearers
In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence. Human-inspired AI has elements from emotional intelligence. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies, is able to be self-conscious and is self-aware in interactions with others. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics; the AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity. Some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence; the study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered "intelligent".
The first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research, they and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (and by 1959 were playing better than the average human
Carol Doris Chomsky was an American linguist and education specialist who studied language acquisition in children. Chomsky was born in Philadelphia as Carol Doris Schatz on July 1, 1930, she married Noam Chomsky in 1949, the two having known each other. Her mother had been a teacher at a Hebrew school, she was awarded a bachelor's degree in French from the University of Pennsylvania in 1951. The couple spent some time living in a kibbutz in Israel. Although enjoying themselves, Noam Chomsky was appalled by the Jewish nationalism and anti-Arab racism that he encountered in the country, as well as the pro-Stalinist trend that he thought pervaded the kibbutz's leftist community. "It was way before there were words about women's rights" according to Judith Chomsky, wife of Noam Chomsky's younger brother. Despite Carol's interest in becoming a mechanic or driving a tractor at the time of the young couple's stay in 1953, they returned to the United States, she earned a doctoral degree in linguistics from Harvard University in 1968, having attended the school in order to ensure that she would be able to make a living in the event that her husband would be sent to jail for his active opposition to the Vietnam War.
Chomsky's best-known work is the book The Acquisition of Syntax in Children From 5 to 10 which investigated how children develop an understanding of the underlying grammatical structure of their native language and how they use this skill to interpret sentences of increasing complexity as they get older. Despite earlier scientific beliefs that children complete their acquisition of syntax by the age of five, Chomsky's research showed that children continue to develop the skills needed to understand complex constructions beyond that age; as part of her research to understand how children develop the ability to read, she developed a method in the late 1970s called repeated reading, in which children would read a text silently while a recording of the text was played. The child would repeat the process. Research showed that four readings accompanied by a recording could be enough to provide added reading fluency for most children. More than 100 studies have been performed on the technique, with most finding statistically significant improvements in reading speed and word recognition.
She served on the faculty of the Harvard Graduate School of Education from 1972 until 1997. Chomsky died at age 78 on December 19, 2008 of cancer, in her home, in Lexington, Massachusetts