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Optical filter

An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings. The optical properties of filters are described by their frequency response, which specifies how the magnitude and phase of each frequency component of an incoming signal is modified by the filter. Filters belong to one of two categories; the simplest, physically, is the absorptive filter. Optical filters selectively transmit light in a particular range of wavelengths, that is, while absorbing the remainder, they can pass long wavelengths only, short wavelengths only, or a band of wavelengths, blocking both longer and shorter wavelengths. The passband may be wider. There are filters with more complex transmission characteristic, for example with two peaks rather than a single band. Optical filters are used in photography, in many optical instruments, to colour stage lighting. In astronomy optical filters are used to restrict light passed to the spectral band of interest, e.g. to study infrared radiation without visible light which would affect film or sensors and overwhelm the desired infrared.

Optical filters are essential in fluorescence applications such as fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Photographic filters are a particular case of optical filters, much of the material here applies. Photographic filters do not need the controlled optical properties and defined transmission curves of filters designed for scientific work, sell in larger quantities at correspondingly lower prices than many laboratory filters; some photographic effect filters, such as star effect filters, are not relevant to scientific work. Absorptive filters are made from glass to which various inorganic or organic compounds have been added; these compounds absorb some wavelengths of light while transmitting others. The compounds can be added to plastic to produce gel filters, which are lighter and cheaper than glass-based filters. Alternately, dichroic filters can be made by coating a glass substrate with a series of optical coatings. Dichroic filters reflect the unwanted portion of the light and transmit the remainder.

Dichroic filters use the principle of interference. Their layers form a sequential series of reflective cavities that resonate with the desired wavelengths. Other wavelengths destructively reflect as the peaks and troughs of the waves overlap. Dichroic filters are suited for precise scientific work, since their exact colour range can be controlled by the thickness and sequence of the coatings, they are much more expensive and delicate than absorption filters. They can be used in devices such as the dichroic prism of a camera to separate a beam of light into different coloured components; the basic scientific instrument of this type is a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. It uses two mirrors to establish a resonating cavity, it passes wavelengths. Etalons are another variation: transparent cubes or fibers whose polished ends form mirrors tuned to resonate with specific wavelengths; these are used to separate channels in telecommunications networks that use wavelength division multiplexing on long-haul optic fibers.

Monochromatic filters only allow a narrow range of wavelengths to pass. The term "infrared filter" can be ambiguous, as it may be applied to filters to pass infrared or to block infrared. Infrared-passing filters pass infrared. Infrared cut-off filters are designed to block or reflect infrared wavelengths but pass visible light. Mid-infrared filters are used as heat-absorbing filters in devices with bright incandescent light bulbs to prevent unwanted heating due to infrared radiation. There are filters which are used in solid state video cameras to block IR due to the high sensitivity of many camera sensors to unwanted near-infrared light. Ultraviolet filters let visible light through; because photographic film and digital sensors are sensitive to ultraviolet but the human eye is not, such light would, if not filtered out, make photographs look different from the scene visible to people, for example making images of distant mountains appear unnaturally hazy. An ultraviolet-blocking filter renders images closer to the visual appearance of the scene.

As with infrared filters there is a potential ambiguity between UV-passing filters. Neutral density filters have a constant attenuation across the range of visible wavelengths, are used to reduce the intensity of light by reflecting or absorbing a portion of it, they are specified by the optical density of the filter, the negative of the common logarithm of the transmission coefficient. They are useful for making photographic exposures longer. A practical example is making

Kim Yarbrough

Kim Yarbrough is an American singer and actress. Kim started acting at the age of 8, her first short was "2081" as an Orchestra Member. She appeared on major TV series such as "Bones" and "Sonny with a Chance" as a larger woman and a gospel singer. Yarbrough appeared in the TV Movie "Dad's Home" as Doris. In 2010 she guest starred on "The Defenders" in the pilot episode as the Clerk, she played a recurring character part of the Requisitions Officer in the TV series "Dexter". She appeared in another TV movie, "Grace", a short, "Mushroom Pizza", she joined the recurring cast of "Conan" playing numerous characters from 2010 to 2011. She is working on another movie called "Somewhere Slow", she has co-starred in episodes of "Vegas", "Hollywood Heights", "2 Broke Girls". Kim will be playing a recurring role as Madame Labuef on the new Nickelodeon television series, "The Haunted Hathaways". Kim competed in the second season of The Voice. After having 2 judges turn around in the blind audition, she chose Adam Levine as her coach.

In the battle rounds she sang "No More Drama" with fellow team-mate Whitney Meyer. After the battle, Kim was crowned the winner. In the live performances she sang "Rolling in the Deep" by Adele. In the eliminations, she was one of the bottom three on her team. For her song she chose "Spotlight" by Jennifer Hudson. In the end, she along with Karla Davis were eliminated in favor of Katrina Parker, she came in 18th place out of 48 contestants. She returned in the finale and sang "Superstition" alongside former contestants Naia Kete, Sera Hill and Cheesa. Kim Yarbrough on IMDb Official Website

Norman Manley Law School

The Norman Manley Law School is a law school in Jamaica. The Norman Manley Law School is located on the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, yet it is a distinct and separate institution, its building, designed by architect firm Rutkowski, Bradford & Partners, is noted as an example of Caribbean modernist architecture. It is a 700 square metres, two-storey reinforced concrete block masonry building, it was badly damaged by Hurricane Gilbert in September 1988. Named for Jamaican statesman Norman Manley, NMLS is one of three law schools empowered by the Council of Legal Education to award Legal Education Certificates, along with the Eugene Dupuch Law School in the Bahamas and the Hugh Wooding Law School in Trinidad and Tobago, it opened its doors to students in September 1973. In July 2008, former Deputy Solicitor General Stephen Vasciannie was appointed principal of NMLS, succeeding Keith Sobion who had died some months before. In November 2012, Carol Aina was appointed principal following Vasciannie's departure to take up the post of Jamaica's ambassador to the United States.

NMLS students are required to perform several hours of field work to graduate. One way they obtain these hours is by participating in legal clinics, through which the needy can obtain legal consultations at a price of J$1,000, far less than the usual tens of thousands of dollars required to meet with a private lawyer. In November 2008, NMLS signed a memorandum of understanding with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights to form a partnership and hold seminars on human rights issues, including capital punishment. Kirk Anderson, Justice of the Supreme Court of Jamaica Dean Barrow, fourth Prime Minister of Belize George Brown, Chief Justice of Belize from 1990 to 1998 Zaila McCalla, Chief Justice of Jamaica Michel Chebat, former Chairman of the Social Security Board of Belize and President of the Bar Association of Belize Troadio Gonzalez, justice of the Supreme Court of Belize Lindsay Grant, former Leader of the People's Action Movement of Saint Kitts and Nevis Burton P. C. Hall, Bahamian judge who sits on the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Cheryl Krusen, Solicitor-General of Belize Jody-Anne Maxwell, first non-U.

S. Winner of the Scripps National Spelling Bee Ann-Marie Smith, Chief Magistrate of Belize Lisa Shoman, Belizean lawyer and politician George Singh, Chief Justice of Belize in 1998 Manuel Sosa, President of the Belize Court of Appeal, former Chief Justice Rodwell Williams, Dean Barrow's partner at Barrow and Williams in Belize Dame Janice Pereira, Chief Justice of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court University of the West Indies Legal education Law degree List of law schools Caribbean Law Institute

Louisville Free Public Library, Western Branch

The Louisville Free Public Library's Western Branch or Western Library is a public library in Louisville, Kentucky. It is a Carnegie library and is the first public library built for African Americans staffed by African Americans. Known as Louisville Free Public Library, Western Colored Branch, registered as a historic site in that name, it is a branch of the Louisville Free Public Library system, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Western Colored Branch library first opened in September 1905 and was located at 1125 West Chestnut Street. At the time it was common for black libraries to be housed in rented or converted private facilities. Albert Ernest Meyzeek, principal of Central High School at the time, was concerned about the lack of adequate reading and reference materials at the school, he challenged the 1902 legislation that created the Louisville Free Public Library system, on the basis that it did not adequately serve African Americans, persuaded the city council to open a branch to fill this need.

Meyzeek pushed for a second black library, the Eastern Colored Branch. In 1908, industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated funds to build a new library building; as a result, the Western Colored Branch became the first public library for African Americans in the American South, housed in a Carnegie-funded facility. The new library building was designed by Dodd; the building is 75 by 45 feet in plan, is built of brick with stone trim. The library was well received by the community, it marked a new level of civic engagement by "the emerging, turn-of-the-century, southern black middle class", determined to "build positive community infrastuctures for purposes of racial uplift." Several prominent African-American librarians worked in the Western Branch and assisted in education and outreach programs for the local black community. Of particular note are Reverend Thomas Fountain Blue, who served as the administrative head of the Western and Eastern Colored Branches as well as Rachel Davis Harris, who served as the children's library specialist and chief assistant.

Blue and Harris were influential in providing services to Louisville's African American community during the Jim Crow era. In 1917, about 12,000 people attended 498 meetings at both branches. Blue created a community outreach strategy, he said the library was much more than a place to store books. “With its reading and study rooms, its lecture and classrooms, it forms a center from which radiate many influences for general betterment. The people feel that the library belongs to them, that it may be used for anything that makes for their welfare.” The two branches became regional models for other libraries like it. The library included a Children's Department, which developed story time and special events; the library held an annual spelling bee with Cup winners and cash rewards sponsored by Joseph S. Cotter, a local black educator; the prominent Douglass Debate Club for high school boys, which argued civil rights topics and cooperated with this branch. The library helped set up forty classroom collections at eleven African American city and county schools.

By 1935 this had expanded to eighty classroom collections as well as library services administered at two junior high schools and the development of 15 deposit stations. From 1912 to 1931, Blue organized and held an apprenticeship librarian class, the "only opportunity for formal training for prospective black librarians" until the Hampton Library School was opened in 1925 in Virginia; the library was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. In 2001 Prince anonymously donated $12,000 to keep the library from closure. Carnegie Branch Library, asserted to be the only Carnegie library built for African Americans in the country. Although the assertion is contradicted by the Louisville Free Public Library, Western Colored Branch, there are not many known examples. Western Library, official site A Separate Flame

1967–68 Pittsburgh Penguins season

The 1967–68 Pittsburgh Penguins season was their first in the NHL. Pittsburgh was one of six cities awarded an expansion team during the 1967 NHL expansion. After deciding on the "Penguin" nickname, a logo was chosen, that had a penguin in front of a triangle, thought to be in tribute to the "Golden Triangle". On February 8, 1966, the NHL awarded a franchise to the Hockey Club of Pittsburgh, Incorporated: a partnership of several investors headed by Pennsylvania State Senator Jack McGregor and his friend and business associate Peter Block. McGregor became the public face of the ownership, as President and Chief Executive Officer, representing the club at Board of Governors meetings; that year McGregor and Block began assembling their new hockey team. American Hockey League executive Jack Riley was named the club's general manager, began acquiring the services of players, he signed minor-leaguers Les Binkley, Ted Lanyon, Dick Mattiussi and Bill Speer to contracts before the club had taken to the ice.

The name of the new team was chosen by a contest in a local newspaper: on February 10, 1967, the new team became known as the Penguins. In the 1967 NHL Expansion Draft Riley chose experienced players former New York Rangers players. Coincidentally Penguins head coach Red Sullivan was a former Ranger head coach. Earl Ingarfield, Ken Schinkel, Val Fonteyne, Mel Pearson, Al MacNeil, Noel Price, Billy Dea and Art Stratton had each spent time in their careers with the Rangers, but the Penguins' most prized acquisition was former Rangers star Andy Bathgate. Bathgate 34 years old, was near the end of his career and deemed expendable by the Red Wings, who had acquired his rights; the rest of the roster was filled with minor-leaguers members of the Pittsburgh Hornets, the American Hockey League club which had served the Pittsburgh market since the late 1930s. The Pittsburgh Penguins made 20 selections in the 1967 NHL Expansion Draft held in Montreal from June 5–7; the Penguins' first general manager was Jack Riley.

His team was hampered by restrictive rules that kept most major talent with the "Original Six." Beyond aging sniper Andy Bathgate and tough defenceman Leo Boivin, the first Penguins team was manned by a cast of former minor-leaguers. The club missed the playoffs, but were a mere six points out of 1st place in the close-fought West Division. October 11, 1967 – Andy Bathgate of the Pittsburgh Penguins scores a goal in a 2–1 loss to the Montreal Canadiens, it was the first goal scored by a player for an expansion team