Kumya Bay Important Bird Area
The Kumya Bay Important Bird Area lies on the eastern coast of North Korea on the Sea of Japan. It comprises 4500 ha of estuarine waters and saltpans, encompassing a 2000 ha protected area, it has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports significant populations of various birds, including swan geese, bean geese, greater white-fronted geese, mute swans, whooper swans, Steller's sea-eagles, white-naped cranes, red-crowned cranes
Important Bird Area
An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations. IBA was developed and sites are identified by BirdLife International. There are over 12,000 IBAs worldwide; these sites are small enough to be conserved and differ in their character, habitat or ornithological importance from the surrounding habitat. In the United States the Program is administered by the National Audubon Society. IBAs form part of a country's existing protected area network, so are protected under national legislation. Legal recognition and protection of IBAs that are not within existing protected areas varies within different countries; some countries have a National IBA Conservation Strategy, whereas in others protection is lacking. IBAs are determined by an internationally agreed set of criteria. Specific IBA thresholds are set by national governing organizations. To be listed as an IBA, a site must satisfy at least one of the following rating criteria: A1.
Globally threatened speciesThe site qualifies if it is known, estimated or thought to hold a population of a species categorized by the IUCN Red List as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. In general, the regular presence of a Critical or Endangered species, irrespective of population size, at a site may be sufficient for a site to qualify as an IBA. For Vulnerable species, the presence of more than threshold numbers at a site is necessary to trigger selection. A2. Restricted-range speciesThe site forms one of a set selected to ensure that all restricted-range species of an Endemic Bird Area or a Secondary Area are present in significant numbers in at least one site and preferably more. A3. Biome-restricted speciesThe site forms one of a set selected to ensure adequate representation of all species restricted to a given biome, both across the biome as a whole and for all of its species in each range state. A4. Congregations i; this applies to'waterbird' species as defined by Delaney and Scott and is modelled on criterion 6 of the Ramsar Convention for identifying wetlands of international importance.
Depending upon how species are distributed, the 1% thresholds for the biogeographic populations may be taken directly from Delaney & Scott, they may be generated by combining flyway populations within a biogeographic region or, for those for which no quantitative thresholds are given, they are determined regionally or inter-regionally, as appropriate, using the best available information. Ii; this includes those seabird species not covered by Scott. Quantitative data are taken from a variety of unpublished sources. Iii; this is modelled on citerion 5 of the Ramsar Convention for identifying wetlands of international importance. The use of this criterion is discouraged where quantitative data are good enough to permit the application of A4i and A4ii. Iv; the site is thought to exceed thresholds set for migratory species at bottleneck sites. The assessment by expert individuals is however not reliable and a study in South America found that the coverage needed for at-risk bird conservation as chosen by computational algorithms overlapped with IBAs and suggested that such methods should be used to complement expert driven IBA site choices.
Biodiversity Biodiversity hotspot Ecology Ecoregions Important Plant Areas International Union for the Conservation of Nature Key Biodiversity Areas Protected Areas Wilderness
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Far Eastern curlew
The Far Eastern curlew is a large shorebird most similar in appearance to the long-billed curlew, but larger. It is brown in color, differentiated from other curlews by its plain, unpatterned brown underwing, it is not only the largest curlew but the world's largest sandpiper, at 60–66 cm in length and 110 cm across the wings. The body is 565–1,150 g, which may be equaled by the Eurasian curlew; the long bill, at 12.8–20.1 cm in length, rivals the bill size of the related long-billed curlew as the longest bill for a sandpiper. The Far Eastern curlew spends its breeding season in northeastern Asia, including Siberia to Kamchatka, Mongolia, its breeding habitat is composed of marshy and swampy lakeshores. Most individuals winter in coastal Australia, with a few heading to South Korea, Thailand and New Zealand, where they stay at estuaries and salt marshes. During its migration the Far Eastern curlew passes the Yellow Sea, it uses its decurved bill to probe for invertebrates in the mud. It may feed in solitary but it congregates in large flocks to migrate or roost.
Its call is a sharp, clear whistle, cuuue-reee repeated. As of 2006, there are an estimated 38,000 individuals in the world. Classified as least concern by IUCN, it was found to have been rarer than believed and thus its status was updated to Vulnerable in the 2010 IUCN red list of threatened species. In Australia its status under the EPBC Act is Critically Endangered. In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the Far Eastern curlew in his Ornithologie based on a specimen, he used the French name the Latin Numenius madagascariensis. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature; when in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species, described by Brisson. One of these was the far eastern curlew, for which he coined the binomial name Scolopax madagascariensis. O'Brien, Michael et al..
The Shorebird Guide. New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-43294-9 A Yellow Sea species account
The red-crowned crane called the Manchurian crane or Japanese crane, is a large East Asian crane among the rarest cranes in the world. In some parts of its range, it is known as a symbol of luck and fidelity. Adult red-crowned cranes are named for a patch of red bare skin on the crown, which becomes brighter during mating season. Overall, they are snow white in color with black on the wing secondaries, which can appear like a black tail when the birds are standing, but the real tail feathers are white. Males are black on the cheeks and neck, while females are pearly gray in these spots; the bill is olive green to greenish horn, the legs are slate to grayish black, the iris is dark brown. This species is among the largest cranes measuring about 150 to 158 cm tall and 101.2–150 cm in length. Across the large wingspan, the red-crowned crane measures 220–250 cm. Typical body weight can range from 4.8 to 10.5 kg, with males being larger and heavier than females and weight ranging higher just prior to migration.
On average, it is the heaviest crane species, although both the sarus and wattled crane can grow taller and exceed this species in linear measurements. On average, adult males from Hokkaidō weighed around 8.2 kg and adult females there averaged around 7.3 kg, while a Russian study found males averaged 10 kg and females averaged 8.6 kg. Another study found the average weight of the species to be 8.9 kg. The maximum known weight of the red-crowned crane is 15 kg. Among standard measurements, the wing chord measures 50.2–74 cm, the exposed culmen measures 13.5–17.7 cm, tail length is 21.5–30 cm, the tarsus measures 23.7–31.9 cm. In the spring and summer, the migratory populations of the red-crowned crane breed in Siberia, northeastern China and in northeastern Mongolia; the breeding range centers on the border of China and Russia. The crane lays two eggs, with only one surviving. In the fall, they migrate in flocks to Korea and east-central China to spend the winter. Vagrants have been recorded in Taiwan.
In addition to the migratory populations, a resident population is found in eastern Hokkaidō in Japan. This species nests in rivers. In the wintering range, their habitat is comprised by paddy fields, grassy tidal flats, mudflats. In the flats, the birds feed on aquatic invertebrates and, in cold, snowy conditions, the birds switch to living on rice gleanings from the paddy fields.. Red-crowned cranes have a omnivorous diet, though the dietary preferences have not been studied, they eat rice, water plants, redbuds, buckwheat and a variety of water plants. The animal matter in their diet consists of fish, including carp and goldfish, amphibians salamanders, crabs, small reptiles and other birds waterfowl, they seem to prefer a carnivorous diet, although rice is now essential to survival for wintering birds in Japan and grass seeds are another important food source. While all cranes are omnivorous, per Johnsgard, the two most common crane species today are among the most herbivorous species while the two rarest species are the most carnivorous species.
When feeding on plants, red-crowned cranes exhibit a preference for plants with a high content of crude protein and low content of crude fiber. They forage by keeping their heads close to the ground, jabbing their beaks into mud when they encounter something edible; when capturing fish or other slippery prey, they strike by extending their necks outward, a feeding style similar to that of the heron. Although animal prey can be swallowed whole, red-crowned cranes more tear up prey by grasping with their beaks and shaking it vigorously, eating pieces as they fall apart. Most foraging occurs in wet grasslands, cultivated fields, shallow rivers, or on the shores of lakes; the population of red-crowned cranes in Japan is non-migratory, with the race in Hokkaidō moving only 150 km to its wintering grounds. Only the mainland population experiences a long-distance migration, they leave their wintering grounds in spring by February and are established on territories by April. In fall, they leave their breeding territories in October and November, with the migration over by mid-December.
Flock sizes are affected by the small numbers of the red-crowned crane, given their carnivorous diet, some feeding dispersal is needed in natural conditions. Wintering cranes have been observed foraging, variously, in family groups and singly, although all roosting is in larger groups with unrelated cranes. By the early spring, pairs begin to spend more time together, with nonbreeding birds and juveniles dispersing separately. While not nesting, red-crowned cranes tend to be aggressive towards conspecifics and maintain a minimum distance of 2 to 3 m to keep out of pecking range of other cranes while roosting nocturnally during winter. In circumstances where a crane violates these boundaries, it may be violently attacked. Bre
Lake Bujon National Park
Lake Bujon National Park lies in the Hamgyong Mountains of northern South Hamgyong Province of North Korea at an altitude of 900–1190 m above sea level. It is a 2600 ha site comprising the freshwater Lake Bujon and adjacent coniferous forest, it has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports a significant population of vulnerable great bustards
Lake Samilpo is an 80 hectacre freshwater lake in south-eastern Kangwon Province in south-eastern North Korea. It lies about 2 kilometers from the coast of the Sea of Japan and 9 km north-west of the border with South Korea, it is one of North Korea’s designated Natural Monuments. With its surrounds of temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, Lake Samilpo has been identified by BirdLife International as a 160 ha Important Bird Area; the lake supports populations of wintering wetland birds. Species using the site include swan geese, greater white-fronted geese, mute swans, whooper swans and red-crowned cranes