Longhouses of the indigenous peoples of North America
Longhouses were a style of residential dwelling built by Native American tribes and First Nation band governments in various parts of North America. Sometimes separate longhouses were built for community meetings; the Iroquois who resided in the Northeastern United States as well as Eastern Canada built and inhabited longhouses. These were sometimes more than 75 m in length but around 5 to 7 m wide. Scholars believe walls were made of sharpened and fire-hardened poles driven close together into the ground. Strips of bark were woven horizontally through the lines of poles to form more or less weatherproof walls. Poles were braced by horizontal poles along the walls; the roof is made by resulting in an arc-shaped roof. This was covered with grasses; the frame is covered by bark, sewn in place and layered as shingles, reinforced by light swag. Doors were constructed at both ends and were covered with an animal hide to preserve interior warmth. Long longhouses had doors in the sidewalls as well. Longhouses featured fireplaces in the center for warmth.
Holes were made above the hearth to let out smoke, but such smoke holes let in rain and snow. Ventilation openings singly dubbed as a smoke pipe, were positioned at intervals totalling five to six along the roofing of the longhouse. Missionaries who visited these longhouses wrote about their dark interiors. On average a typical longhouse was about 80 by 18 by 18 ft and was meant to house up to twenty or more families, most of whom were matrilineally related; the people had a matrilineal kinship system, with property and inheritance passed through the maternal line. Children were born into the mother's clan. Protective palisades were built around the dwellings. Tribes or ethnic groups in northeast North America and east of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, which had traditions of building longhouses include the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: Seneca, Onondaga and Mohawk; the Iroquoian-speaking Wyandot and Erie built longhouses, as did the Algonquian-speaking Lenni Lenape, who lived from western New England in Connecticut, along the lower Hudson River, along the Delaware River and both sides of the Delaware Bay.
The Pamunkey of the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia built longhouses. Although the Shawnee were not known to build longhouses, colonist Christopher Gist describes how, during his visit to Lower Shawneetown in January 1751, he and Andrew Montour addressed a meeting of village leaders in a "Kind of State-House of about 90 Feet long, with a light Cover of Bark in which they hold their Councils." The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest of North America built a form of longhouse. Theirs were built with logs or split-log frame, covered with split log planks, sometimes an additional bark cover. Cedar is the preferred lumber; the length of these longhouses is 60–100 ft. The wealthy built extraordinarily large longhouses; the Suquamish Old Man House, at what became the Port Madison Indian Reservation, was 500×40–60 ft, c. 1850. One doorway faces the shore; each longhouse contains a number of booths along both sides of the central hallway, separated by wooden containers. Each booth has fire.
An extended family occupied one longhouse, cooperated in obtaining food, building canoes, other daily tasks. The roof is a slanted pitched to various degrees depending upon the rainfall; the gambrel roof was unique to Puget Sound Coast Salish. The front is very elaborately decorated with an integrated mural of numerous drawings of faces and heraldic crest icons of raven, whale, etc. A totem pole was erected outside the longhouse; the style varies and sometimes it became part of the entrance way. Tribes or ethnic groups along the North American Pacific coast with some sort of longhouse building traditions include the Haida, Tlingit, Clatsop, Coast Salish and Multnomah. From beneath mud flows dating back to about 1700, archaeologists have recovered planks, they are studying household arrangements from the distant past. In the part of one house where a woodworker lived, tools were found and tools in all stages of manufacture. There were wood chips. Where a whaler lived, there lay harpoons and a wall screen carved with a whale.
Benches and looms were inlaid with shell, there were other indications of wealth. A single house had five separate living areas centered on cooking hearths. More bows and arrows were found at one living area than any of the others, an indication that hunters lived there. Another had more fishing gear than other subsistence equipment, at another, more harpoon equipment; some had everyday work gear, few elaborately ornamented things. The whaler's corner was just the opposite; the houses were built so that planks on the walls and roofs could be taken off and used at other places, as the people moved seasonally. Paired uprights supported rafters. Wall planks were lashed between sets of poles; the position of these poles depended on the lengths of the boards they held, they were evidently set and reset through the years the houses were occupied. Walls met at the corners by butting together, they stayed structurally inde
The Onondaga people are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in northeast North America. Their traditional homeland is in and around present-day Onondaga County, New York, south of Lake Ontario, they are known as Gana’dagwëni:io’geh to the other Iroquois tribes. Being centrally located, they are considered the "Keepers of the Fire" in the figurative longhouse that shelters the Five Nations; the Cayuga and Seneca have territory to the Oneida and Mohawk to their east. For this reason, the League of the Iroquois met at the Iroquois government's capital at Onondaga, as the traditional chiefs do today. According to oral tradition, The Great Peacemaker approached the Onondaga and other tribes to found the Haudenosaunee; the tradition tells that at the time the Seneca nation debated joining the Haudenosaunee based on the Great Peacemaker's teachings, a solar eclipse took place. The most eclipse to be recounted was in 1142AD, visible to the people in the land of the Seneca.
This oral tradition is supported by archeological studies. Carbon dating of particular sites of Onondaga habitation shows dates starting close to 1200AD ± 60 years with growth for hundreds of years. In the American Revolutionary War, the Onondaga were at first neutral, although individual Onondaga warriors were involved in at least one raid on American settlements. After Americans attacked on their main village on April 20, 1779, the Onondaga sided with the majority of the League and fought against the American colonists in alliance with the British. After the United States was accorded independence, many Onondaga followed Joseph Brant to Upper Canada, where they were given land by the Crown at Six Nations. On November 11, 1794, the Onondaga Nation, along with the other Haudenosaunee nations, signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States, in which their right to their homeland was acknowledged by the United States in article II of the treaty. In 1816, 450 Onondaga were living in New York.
The Onondaga in New York have a traditional form of government, with chiefs nominated by clan mothers, rather than elected. On March 11, 2005, the Onondaga Nation in the town of Onondaga, New York, filed a land rights action in federal court, seeking acknowledgment of title to over 3,000 square miles of ancestral lands centering in Syracuse, New York, they hoped to obtain increased influence over environmental restoration efforts at Onondaga Lake and other EPA Superfund sites in the claimed area. The Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit rejected the Onondagas' claim in 2012, the Supreme Court in 2013 declined to hear an appeal. Leon Shenandoah, Tadodaho Oren Lyons Tom Longboat Canassatego, Tadadaho of the Iroquois Confederacy Tadodaho Sidney Hill Samuel George, Lyle Thompson, Gail Tremblay Eric Gansworth Erik J. Sorensen Onondaga Nation south of Nedrow, New York outside Syracuse Onondaga of Ohswegen and Bearfoot Onondaga, both at Six Nations of the Grand River, Canada Onöñda'gega' Onondaga language Onontakeka Oneida language Onondagaono Seneca language Hiawatha Onondaga language HMCS Onondaga Oberon Class submarine Sainte-Marie among the Hurons John Arthur Gibson Onondaga Reservation, New York United States Census Bureau Onondaga Nation web page
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, as the Iroquois Confederacy, to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations; the Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their tribes as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. Culturally, all are considered members of the clans and tribes into which they are adopted by families; the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot and Susquehannock, all independent peoples spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language. In addition, Cherokee is an Iroquoian language: the Cherokee people are believed to have migrated south from the Great Lakes in ancient times, settling in the backcountry of the Southeast United States, including what is now Tennessee.
In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin; the first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Other spellings appearing in the earliest sources include "Erocoise", "Hiroquois", "Hyroquoise", "Irecoies", "Iriquois", "Iroquaes", "Irroquois", "Yroquois", as the French transliterated the term into their own phonetic system. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin, the earliest by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said—with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi—and of Koué, a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter.
In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that Charlevoix's etymology was dubious, that "no other nation or tribe of which we have any knowledge has borne a name composed in this whimsical fashion". Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". In 1888, J. N. B. Hewitt expressed doubts, his preferred the etymology from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he revised this to Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw. A more modern etymology was advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, elaborating upon Charles Arnaud from 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning "terrible man", via the reduced form irokue. Day proposed a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning "a man, an Iroquois", as the origin of this term. For the first element irno, Day cites cognates from other attested Montagnais dialects: irinou, iriniȣ, ilnu. However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance.
By 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown."More Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for "Iroquois". Basque fishermen and whalers are known to have frequented the waters of the Northeast in the 1500s, so much so that a Basque-based pidgin developed for communication with the Algonquian tribes of the region. Bakker claims that it is unlikely that "-quois" derives from a root used to refer to the Iroquois, citing as evidence that several other Indian tribes of the region were known to the French by names terminating in the same element, e.g. "Armouchiquois", "Charioquois", "Excomminquois", "Souriquois". He proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil "to kill", ko, a. In favor of an original form beginning with /h/, Bakker cites alternate spellings such as "hyroquois" sometimes found in documents from the period, the fact that in the Southern dialect of Basque, the word hil is pronounced il.
He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the phonemic inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as "the killer people", it is similar to other terms used by Eastern Algonquian tribes to refer to their enemy the Iroquois, which translate as "murderers". The Five Nations referred to themselves by the autonym, meaning "People of the Longhouse"; this name is preferred by scholars of Native American history, who consider the name "Iroquois" derogatory. The name derives from two phonetically similar but etymologically distinct words in the Seneca language: Hodínöhšö:ni:h, meaning "those of the extended house," and Hodínöhsö:ni:h, meaning "house builders"; the name "Haudenosaunee" first appears in English in Lewis Henry Morga
Cayuga Lake is the longest of central New York's glacial Finger Lakes, is the second largest in surface area and second largest in volume. It is just under 40 miles long, its average width is 1.7 miles, it is 3.5 mi wide at its widest point near Aurora. It is 435 ft deep at its deepest point; the city of Ithaca, site of Ithaca College and Cornell University, is located at the southern end of Cayuga Lake. Villages and settlements along the east shore of Cayuga Lake include Myers, King Ferry, Levanna, Union Springs, Cayuga. Settlements along the west shore of the lake include Sheldrake, Poplar Beach, Canoga; the lake has two small islands. One is near Union Springs; this island is not inhabited. The other island, Canoga Island is located near the town of Canoga; this island is inhabited during the summer months. The only other island in any of the Finger Lakes is Squaw Island in Canandaigua Lake. Cayuga Lake is located at 42°41′00″N 76°41′46″W, its depth, steep east and west sides with shallow north and south ends is typical of the Finger Lakes, as they were carved by glaciers during the last ice age.
The water level is regulated by the Mud Lock at the north end of the lake. It is connected to Lake Ontario by the Erie Seneca Lake by the Seneca River; the lake is drawn down as winter approaches, to minimize ice damage and to maximize its capacity to store heavy spring runoff. The north end is dominated by shallow mudflats. An important stopover for migratory birds, the mudflats and marsh are the location of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge; the southern end is shallow and freezes during the winter. Cayuga Lake is popular among recreational boaters; the Allan H. Treman State Marine Park, a large state marina and boat launch, is located at the southern end of the lake in Ithaca. There are two yacht clubs on the western shore: Ithaca Yacht Club a few miles north of Ithaca, Red Jacket Yacht Club just south of Canoga. There are boat launches scattered along the lake shore. Cayuga Lake is the source of drinking water for several communities, including Lansing near the southern end of the lake along the east side, which draws water through the Bolton Point Municipal Water system.
There are several lake source cooling systems that are in operation on the lake, whereby cooler water is pumped from the depths of the lake and circulated in a closed system back to the surface. One of these systems, operated by Cornell University and began operation in 2000, was controversial during the planning and building states for potential negative environmental impact. All the environmental impact reports and scientific studies have shown that the Cornell lake source cooling system has not yet had and will not have any measurably significant environmental impact. Furthermore, Cornell's system pumps less warm water back into the lake than others further north which have been operating for decades, including the coal-fired power plant on the eastern shore; the AES Cayuga electrical generating station operates in the Town of Lansing, on the east shore of Cayuga Lake. This coal-fired plant uses Cayuga Lake as a cooling source. In the late 1960s, citizens opposed the construction of an 830-MW nuclear power plant on the shore of Cayuga Lake.
Rod Serling named his production company Cayuga Productions during the years of his TV series, The Twilight Zone. Serling and his family had a summer home at Cayuga Lake; the fish population is managed and substantial sport fishing is practiced, with anglers targeting smelt, lake trout and smallmouth bass. Fish species present in the lake include lake trout, landlocked salmon, brown trout, rainbow trout, smallmouth bass, alewife, atlantic salmon, black crappie, pickerel, largemouth bass, northern pike, pumpkinseed sunfish, rock bass, yellow perch. There are state owned hard surface ramps in Mudlock Canal Park, Long Point State Park, Cayuga Lake State Park, Dean's Cove State Marine Park, Taughannock Falls State Park, Allen H. Treman Marine Park. Demont Creek Canoga Creek Schuyler Creek Red Creek Big Hollow Creek Mack Creek Bloomer Creek Barnum Creek Groves Creek Sheldrake Creek Lively Run Bergen Creek Trumansburg Creek Taughannock Creek Willow Creek Glenwood Creek Indian Creek Williams Brook Cayuga Inlet Fall Creek Gulf Creek Minnegar Brook Salmon Creek Morrow Creek Paines Creek Little Creek Dean Creek Glen Creek Great Gully Brook Yawger Creek The lake is the subject of local folklore.
Cornell's alma mater makes reference to its position "Far Above Cayuga's Waters", while that of Ithaca College references "Cayuga's shore". A tradition at Wells College in Aurora holds that if the lake freezes over, classes are canceled. According to Wells College records, this most happened in 1979 and 2015. However, other sources suggest that the only time the entire lake froze over solid end to end in the 20th century was in 1912. Cayuga Lake, like nearby Seneca Lake, is the site of a phenomenon known as the Guns of the Seneca, mysterious cannon-like booms heard in the surrounding area. Many of these booms may be attributable to bird-scarers, automated cannon-like devices used by farmers to scare birds away from the many vineyards and crops. There is however no proof of this. Cayuga Lake is included in the American Viticultural Area. Established in 1988, the AVA now boasts over a dozen wineries, four distilleries, a cidery, a meadery. Taughannock Falls World Lakes Database entry for Cayuga Lake.
Cayugalake.org Cayuga Lake Defense Fund Montez
The 1779 Sullivan Expedition known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, or Sullivan Campaign was an extended systematic military campaign during the American Revolutionary War against Loyalists and the four Nations of the Haudenosaunee which had sided with the British. The campaign ordered and organized by George Washington and his staff was conducted chiefly in the lands of the Iroquois Confederacy "taking the war home to the enemy to break their morale", the expedition was successful in that goal as they destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages and stores of winter crops, breaking the power of the six nations in New York all the way to the Great Lakes, as the terrified Indian families relocated to Canada seeking protection of the British. Today this area is the heartland of Upstate New York, with the military power of the Iroquois vanquished, the events opened up the vast Ohio Country, the Great Lakes regions, Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky to post-war settlements. Led by Major General John Sullivan and Brigadier General James Clinton, the expedition was conducted during the summer of 1779, beginning June 18 when the army marched from Easton, Pennsylvania, to October 3 when it abandoned Fort Sullivan, built at Tioga, to return to George Washington's main camp in New Jersey.
While the campaign had only one major battle, at Newtown along the Chemung River in western New York, the expedition damaged the Iroquois nations' economies by burning their crops and chattels, thus ruining the Iroquois technological infrastructure. With the Amerindians' shelter gone and food supplies destroyed, thereafter the strength of the Iroquois Confederacy was broken; the death toll from exposure and starvation dwarfed the casualties received in the Battle of Newtown, in which about 1,000 Iroquois and Loyalists were decisively defeated by an army of 3,200 Continental soldiers. Sullivan's army carried out a scorched earth campaign, methodically destroying at least forty Iroquois villages throughout the Finger Lakes region of western New York, to put an end to Iroquois and Loyalist attacks against American settlements as had occurred the previous year of 1778, such as the Cobleskill, Wyoming Valley and Cherry Valley massacres; the survivors fled to British regions in the Niagara Falls and Buffalo areas.
The devastation created great hardships for the thousands of Iroquois refugees who fled the region to shelter under British military protection outside Fort Niagara that winter, many starved or froze to death, despite strenuous attempts by the British authorities to import food and provide shelter via their limited resources. The Sullivan Expedition devastated the Iroquois crops and towns and left them dependent upon the mercy of the British for the harsh winter of 1779. With the Iroquois population decimated by disease and battle, the Indian morale never recovered, the Iroquois thereafter limited their incursions into the new United States to isolated hunting parties, the main populations having permanently migrated north of the border; when the American Revolutionary War began, British officials as well as the colonial Continental Congress sought the allegiance of the influential Iroquois Confederacy. The Six Nations divided over. Most Mohawks, Cayugas and Senecas chose to ally themselves with the British.
But the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, thanks in part to the influence of Presbyterian missionary Samuel Kirkland, joined the American revolutionaries. For the Iroquois, the American Revolution became a civil war; the Iroquois homeland lay on the frontier between the Province of Quebec and the provinces of New York and Pennsylvania. After a British army surrendered after the Battles of Saratoga in upstate New York in 1777, Loyalists and their Iroquois allies raided American Patriot settlements in the region, as well as the villages of American-allied Iroquois. Working out of Fort Niagara, men such as Loyalist commander Colonel John Butler, Mohawk military leader Joseph Brant, Seneca chief Cornplanter led the British-Indian raids. Commander-in-chief General George Washington never allocated more than minimal Continental Army troops for the defense of the frontier and he told the frontier settlements to use local militia for their own defense. On June 10, 1778, the Board of War of the Continental Congress concluded that a major Indian war was in the offing.
Since a defensive war would prove to be inadequate the board called for a major expedition of 3,000 men against Fort Detroit and a similar thrust into Seneca country to punish the Iroquois. Congress designated Major General Horatio Gates to lead the campaign and appropriated funds for the campaign. In spite of these plans, the expedition did not occur until the following year. On July 3, 1778, Loyalist commander Colonel Butler led his Rangers accompanied by a force of Senecas and Cayugas in an attack on Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley annihilating 360 armed Patriot defenders lured out of their defenses at Forty Fort. In September 1778, revenge for the Wyoming defeat was taken by American Colonel Thomas Hartley who, with 200 soldiers, burned nine to twelve Seneca and Mingo villages along the Susquehanna River in northeast Pennsylvania, including Tioga and Chemung. At the same time, Butler's Rangers attacked German Flatts in the Mohawk Valley, destroying all the houses and fields in the area. Further American retaliation was soon taken by Continental Army units under William Butler and John Cantine, burning the substantial In
Upstate New York
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area. The Upstate region includes most of the state of New York, excluding New York City, the Lower Hudson Valley, Long Island, although the precise boundary is debated. Major cities in Upstate New York include Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse. Before the American Revolutionary War, Upstate was populated by Native Americans and was home to the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy; the region saw many battles between the Continental Army and the Iroquois, several treaties drawn up after the war ceded much of the land to settlers of European descent. It is rural with rugged terrain; the development of Upstate New York was spurred by the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which eased the transport of goods between the port of New York City and inland cities along the Great Lakes. As a result, Upstate became a hotbed for manufacturing, giving birth to such firms as General Electric, IBM, Xerox, it welcomed a large influx of immigrants.
Since the mid 20th century, American de-industrialization has contributed to economic and population decline Upstate, the region is considered part of the Rust Belt. Unlike the New York metropolitan area, Upstate New York contains vast areas of rural land; as a result, Upstate supports a strong agriculture industry, is notable for its milk and other dairy products, its fruit production, winemaking. New York City is dependent on the natural resources of Upstate for a variety of services, including the city's water supply and electricity; the region is home to several popular tourist and recreational destinations, including Niagara Falls, the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, the Finger Lakes. There is no clear official boundary between Downstate New York; the most expansive definition of the term Upstate New York excludes only New York City and Long Island, which are always considered to be part of Downstate New York. Another usage locates the Upstate/Downstate boundary further north, at the point where New York City's suburbs segue into its exurbs, as the exurbs do not fall within the US Census' urban area.
This latter boundary places most, but not all, of Westchester and Rockland Counties in Downstate, while putting the northwestern edge of Rockland County as well as the northernmost quarter of Westchester County in Upstate. Yet another usage follows the U. S. Census definition of the New York metropolitan area prior to 2010, which included Westchester and Putnam Counties; this was the definition used by the plaintiffs in the federal redistricting case Rodriguez v. Pataki. In New York State law, the definition of the Upstate boundary varies: while Westchester is always considered downstate under state law, some definitions include Rockland and Putnam Counties in the downstate region, others include Orange and Dutchess Counties. Ulster County, and, in the largest state-defined extent of downstate, Columbia County, are sometimes included; the division line between the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York places Sullivan County and Dutchess County in the Southern District, Ulster and Columbia Counties in the Northern District.
Within New York State, surveys have had difficulty determining a consensus. In a 2016 poll of New York voters in which respondents were asked to choose among four definitions of where Upstate begins, three were about common, selected by between 25% and 30% of respondents each: north of New York City, north of Westchester County, north of Poughkeepsie in Dutchess County. An informal 2018 poll found the Hudson Valley region is the most disputed area regarding whether it is Upstate or Downstate. Residents of Upstate New York sometimes prefer to identify with a more specific subregion, such as Western New York or Central New York. A number of businesses and institutions in the area have "Upstate" as part of their name. Examples of this include the State University of New York Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, the Upstate New York Chapter of the Arthritis Foundation serving 31 of New York's 62 counties, the VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York, which includes all of New York State northward and westward from Kingston, New York in Ulster County.
Other organizations in New York with "Upstate" in their name include the Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association, the Upstate Correctional Facility, the Upstate New York Club Hockey League, the Upstate New York Synod, the Upstate Citizens for Equality. The other regions of New York State are culturally and economically distinct from the New York City area and in many ways from each other. Most of New York State is characterized both by agricultural and forested rural communities, by small and medium-sized cities and their surrounding suburbs located along major transportation corridors; the state's major metropolitan areas outside of New York City are Buffalo, Albany-Schenectady-Troy, Syracuse, each of whose population exceeds 500,000. The different regions of New York State are influenced by and have affinities with other adjacent regions. Western New York has cultural and economic ties to the other Great Lakes states as well as Southern Ontario; the Capital Distr
Aurora, Cayuga County, New York
Aurora, or Aurora-on-Cayuga, is a village and college town in the town of Ledyard, Cayuga County, New York, United States, on the shore of Cayuga Lake. The village had a population of 724 at the 2010 census. Wells College, an institution of higher education for women founded by Henry Wells in 1868, is located in Aurora, it became coeducational in 2005, since enrollment has risen. In 1980, its Aurora Village-Wells College Historic District, with more than 50 contributing properties, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. From 2001 to 2007, redevelopment of historic properties in the village by entrepreneur Pleasant Rowland and the Aurora Foundation earned compliments, as well as provoking citizen concern, a lawsuit joined by state and national preservation organizations, national media attention. Indigenous peoples occupied the lakeshore and riverways in present-day New York for thousands of years. Prior to European-American settlement, a major Cayuga Indian village, stood near the present-day site of Aurora village.
It had permanent dwellings and the people cultivated fields for their staple crops of varieties of corn and squash. Chonodote was destroyed by the Sullivan Expedition in 1779 during the Revolutionary War, when the Cayuga were allies of the British army, in retaliation for raids by Joseph Brant and his Mohawk and Loyalist forces in the eastern Mohawk Valley. Most of the Cayuga went with other Iroquois nations to Canada, where their descendants are enrolled in the Six Nations Reserve; some members of the Cayuga tribe returned to the area after the war, but the tribe had been forced to cede its land to New York. They were left landless and shared space with the Seneca on their reservation that once included the north end of Cayuga Lake. Part of the village was within the Central New York Military Tract; the United States reserved this portion to pay off veterans with deeds to land after the Revolutionary War. The tract was part of the five million acres of lands which the Iroquois were forced to cede in the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua.
Many veterans from New England settled in the Finger Lakes area, as did some migrants from the Mohawk and Hudson valleys. During the 19th century, Aurora developed as a minor center for manufacturing. A stopping point for canal traffic after the Cayuga–Seneca Canal opened, the village was incorporated in 1837, it became a port, shipping produce from farmers in the region up Cayuga Lake by the Erie Canal to other major markets. Academies and seminaries for basic education were established in 1800. Notable schools include Cayuga Lake Academy, founded in 1797 and chartered by the New York State Regents in 1801, its second structure, built in 1835, remained until it was destroyed by fire on April 19, 1945. Many prominent graduates attended the school, including President Millard Fillmore, William Brookfield, the founder of the Bushwick Glass Works. In 1868 Henry Wells founded Wells College for the education of women. With changes in transportation, development of the Midwest, other economic shifts, local agriculture declined in importance.
The village is a local center with well-preserved buildings composing the Aurora Village–Wells College Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It has come to rely on Wells College as the major employer. During the school year, nearly half the population of the village is made up of students. Since the renovations in the town and the college's 2005 decision to enroll men and become co-educational, enrollment has increased; the student body, with enrollment of 567 in 2007, had increased by a third since a few years ago. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places are the Aurora Steam Grist Mill and Mosher Farmstead. In December 2005, the S. H. A. R. E. Farm was signed over to the Cayuga Nation of New York by US citizens who had purchased and developed the 70-acre farm in Aurora, New York; this is the first substantial property which the Cayuga Nation has owned since after being forced to cede its lands after the Revolutionary War. Settlement here has meant their first chance to live within the borders of their ancestral homeland in more than 200 years.
Frances Folsom Cleveland, First Lady of the United States and Wells College alumna Robert P. T. Coffin, writer and professor Victor Hammer, sculptor and typographer Edwin B. Morgan, congressman, a founder of The New York Times Lewis Henry Morgan, pioneering anthropologist and social theorist Edwin V. Morgan, United States Ambassador to Brazil 1912-1933 Laura Nader and Wells College alumna Thomas J. Preston, Jr. President pro tem of Wells College, they voted to close the historic Aurora Inn on Main Street and look for a private developer to redevelop and manage it. The college's proposed changes raised concerns as some of the properties and master plan were within the historic district. In 2001, entrepreneur Pleasant Rowland together with Wells College founded the Aurora Foundation and teamed up to renovate the Aurora Inn, they acquired a