Bobby Ray Simmons Jr. known professionally as B.o. B, is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and conspiracy theorist from Decatur, Georgia. In 2006, B.o. B was discovered by Brian Richardson, who introduced him to TJ Chapman, who subsequently brought him to American record producer Jim Jonsin. After hearing his music, Jonsin signed B.o. B to his Rebel Rock Entertainment imprint. Two years Jonsin and B.o. B signed a joint venture deal, with Atlantic Records and American rapper T. I.'s Grand Hustle Records. B.o. B rose to fame after his commercial debut single "Nothin' on You", reached number one in both the United States and the United Kingdom, he would release his third single "Airplanes", which topped several major music charts. His fifth single "Magic", became his 3rd top 10 hit on the US Billboard Hot 100. B.o. B's debut studio album The Adventures of Bobby Ray, preceded by two extended plays and several mixtapes, was released in April 2010; the album reached number one on the US Billboard 200 and was certified 2× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2016.
B.o. B was named the ninth "Hottest MC in the Game of 2010" on their annual list. B.o. B released his second studio album Strange Clouds, in May 2012; the album spawned six singles. The album's eponymous lead single became his fourth top 10 hit on the Billboard Hot 100; the singles "So Good", "Both of Us" and "Out of My Mind", followed behind, with the former two being certified platinum by the RIAA. The album itself debuted at number five on the Billboard 200, his third album Underground Luxury, was released in December 2013 and supported by the lead single "HeadBand". In August 2015, B.o. B unexpectedly released a new project Psycadelik Thoughtz, via digital distribution, with little-to-no promotion. B.o. B is an outspoken believer that the earth is flat. B.o. B was born in North Carolina, he played the trumpet in his school band from elementary school through high school. Although his parents wanted him to continue his education, B.o. B decided in sixth grade that he wanted to pursue a music career.
His father, a pastor, disapproved of his son's choices, until he realized B.o. B was using music as a form of therapy and a creative outlet. B.o. B reflected on his experience, saying, "They've always supported me, they got my first keyboard to make beats on and they helped me out getting equipment here and there. But it was kind of hard for them to understand what I was trying to accomplish." B.o. B attended Columbia High School in Decatur, where he played the trumpet in the school band, until he landed a record deal and decided to drop out of school in the ninth grade. In 2002, after meeting his mentor and co-manager B- Rich at the age of 14, B.o. B sold his first beat to former Slip-n-Slide recording artist Citti, for a song titled "I'm the Cookie Man". Meanwhile, B.o. B felt he had made it: "I went and blew all of my money on fast stuff like a chain and ballin'. Soon I was broke again, but I learned two important things from it. Back to square one, B.o. B continued performing at open mics and underground venues, to perfect his craft.
In 2006, because he was underage, B- Rich helped sneak B.o. B into Club Crucial, a night club owned by Atlanta-based rapper T. I.. There, B.o. B performed a song titled "Cloud 9", a self-produced, spoken word-like ode to marijuana. In attendance was producer and industry veteran, T. J. Chapman, chief executive officer of TJ's DJ's. Chapman agreed to co-manage B.o. B, which only a month led to B.o. B's signing with Atlantic Records and subsidiary imprint Rebel Rock, run by Florida-based producer Jim Jonsin, his first single for Atlantic, 2007's "Haterz Everywhere", reached the top five of Billboard's Bubbling Under R&B/Hip-Hop singles chart. Along with his solo production career, B.o. B is part of a production/rap group called HamSquad, along with Playboy Tre, DJ Swatts, DJ Smooth, Moss B, B-Rich and TJ Chapman. B.o. B first began to gain recognition at the start of 2007; the underground single, "Haterz Everywhere" featuring Wes Fif, gained the rapper attention by peaking at number 5 on the US Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles.
The remix to "Haterz Everywhere" featuring Rich Boy, was included used in the video game Fight Night Round 4, a music video was released for that version. Another single, "I'll Be in the Sky", was released in 2008 and it has reached at number 15 on the same charts. About.com called the song a "smart, funky artrap and a strong prelude to his album" and included it at number 13 on its subjective ranking "Top 100 Rap Songs of 2008". Incidentally, another song produced by B.o. B called "Generation Lost", listed alongside the song, on the ranking at number 32; this was followed by another single titled "Don't Let Me Fall". B.o. B made his first big feature appearing on T. I.'s acclaimed album Paper Trail, on the song "On Top of the World", alongside fellow Atlanta-based rapper Ludacris. In 2008, it was revealed he would appear on the cover of XXL magazine, along with Asher Roth, Charles Hamilton and Wale as part of their "Hip-Hop's Class of'09" issue. In October 2008, B.o. B was featured on the cover of Vibe along with some of these same young musicians and was identified as promising young talent.
From 2007 to 2008, B.o. B released four mixtapes. My Name is B.o. B Who the F#*k is B.o. B? and two extended plays. In 2008, it was revealed B.o. B was included in XXL's 2009 annual Freshman Class, was featured on the cover alongside fellow up-and-coming rappers Asher Roth, Wale
Eric Lynn Wright, known professionally as Eazy-E, was an American rapper, record producer, entrepreneur. Dubbed the "Godfather of Gangsta Rap", he gained prominence for his work with N. W. A, where he has been credited for pushing the boundaries of lyrical and visual content in mainstream popular music. Born and raised in Compton, Eazy-E faced several legal troubles before founding the Ruthless Records record label in 1986. After beginning a short solo career, where he worked with Ice Cube and Dr. Dre, the trio came together to form the group N. W. A that year; as a member of the group, he released the controversial album, Straight Outta Compton, which tackled many socio-political issues. The album has been regarded as one of the greatest albums of all-time, one of the most influential in the genre; the group released their final studio album three years and disbanded shortly after, due to long-standing financial disputes. Eazy-E resumed his solo career, where he released two EPs, which drew inspiration from funk music, contemporary hip-hop, comedians.
He engaged in a high-profile feud with Dr. Dre, before being hospitalized with AIDS in 1995, he died a month after his hospitalization. Eric Wright was born to Richard and Kathie Wright on September 7, 1964, in Compton, California, a Los Angeles suburb notorious for gang activity and crime, his father was a postal worker and his mother was a grade school administrator. Wright dropped out of high school in the tenth grade, but received a high-school general equivalency diploma. Wright supported himself by selling drugs, introduced to the occupation by his cousin. Wright's friend Jerry Heller admits that he witnessed Wright selling marijuana, but says that he never saw him sell cocaine; as Heller noted in his book Ruthless: A Memoir, Wright's "dope dealer" label was part of his "self-forged armor". Wright was labeled as a "thug". Heller explains: "The hood was a dangerous place, he was a small guy.'Thug' was a role, understood on the street. Likewise,'dope dealer' was a role that accorded you certain privileges and respect."In 1986, at the age of 22, Wright had earned as much as US$250,000 from dealing drugs.
However, after his cousin was shot and killed, he decided that he could make a better living in the Los Angeles hip hop scene, growing in popularity. He started recording songs during the mid-1980s in his parents' garage; the original idea for Ruthless Records came. Wright suggested a half-ownership company, but it was decided that Wright would get eighty percent of the company's income and Heller would only get twenty percent. According to Heller, he told Wright, "Every dollar comes into Ruthless, I take twenty cents. That's industry standard for a manager of my caliber. I take twenty, you take eighty percent. I am responsible for my expenses and you're responsible for yours. You own the company. I work for you." Along with Heller, Wright invested much of his money into Ruthless Records. Heller claims that he invested the first $250,000 and would put up to $1,000,000 into the company. N. W. A's original lineup consisted of Arabian Prince, Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube. DJ Yella and MC Ren joined later; the compilation album N.
W. A. and the Posse was released on November 6, 1987, would go on to be certified Gold in the United States. The album featured material released as singles on the Macola Records label, responsible for distributing the releases by N. W. A and other artists like the Fila Fresh Crew, a West Coast rap group based in Dallas, Texas. Eazy-E's debut album, Eazy-Duz-It, was released on September 16, 1988, featured twelve tracks, it was labeled as West Coast hip hop, gangsta rap and as golden age hip hop. It has sold over 2.5 million copies in the United States and reached number forty-one on the Billboard 200. The album was produced by Dr. Dre and DJ Yella and written by MC Ren, Ice Cube and The D. O. C.. Both Glen Boyd from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and MTV's Jon Wiederhorn claimed that Eazy-Duz-It "paved the way" for N. W. A's Straight Outta Compton. Wright's only solo in the album was a remix of the song "8 Ball", which appeared on N. W. A. and the Posse. The album featured Wright's performing. After the release of Straight Outta Compton, Ice Cube left because of internal disputes and the group continued as a four-piece ensemble.
N. W. A released 100 Miles and Runnin' and Niggaz4Life in 1991. A diss war started between N. W. A and Ice Cube when "Runnin"' and "Real Niggaz" were released. Ice Cube responded with "No Vaseline" on Death Certificate. Wright performed on seven of the eighteen songs on Niggaz4Life. In March 1991 Wright accepted an invitation to a lunch benefiting the Republican Senatorial Inner Circle, hosted by then-U. S. President George H. W. Bush. A spokesman for the rapper said that Eazy-E supported Bush because of his performance in the Persian Gulf War. N. W. A began to split up. Dr. Dre recalls: "The split came, he conquer game. Instead of taking care of everybody, he picked one nigga to take care of and, Eazy, and Eazy was like,'I'm taken care of, so fuck it'." Dre sent Suge Knight to look into Eazy's financial situation because he was beginning to grow suspicious of Eazy and Heller. Dre asked Eazy to release him from the Ruthless Records contract; the impasse led to what repor
In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece and is measured in beats per minute. In modern classical compositions, a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will simply be stated in bpm. Tempo may be separated from articulation and meter, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando. In ensembles, the tempo is indicated by a conductor or by one of the instrumentalists, for instance the drummer. While tempo is described or indicated in many different ways, including with a range of words, it is measured in beats per minute.
For example, a tempo of 60 beats per minute signifies one beat per second, while a tempo of 120 beats per minute is twice as rapid, signifying one beat every 0.5 seconds. The note value of a beat will be that indicated by the denominator of the time signature. For instance, in 44 the beat will be a crotchet; this measurement and indication of tempo became popular during the first half of the 19th century, after Johann Nepomuk Maelzel invented the metronome. Beethoven was one of the first composers to use the metronome. Instead of beats per minute, some 20th-century classical composers specify the total playing time for a piece, from which the performer can derive tempo. With the advent of modern electronics, bpm became an precise measure. Music sequencers use the bpm system to denote tempo. In popular music genres such as electronic dance music, accurate knowledge of a tune's bpm is important to DJs for the purposes of beatmatching; the speed of a piece of music can be gauged according to measures per minute or bars per minute, the number of measures of the piece performed in one minute.
This measure is used in ballroom dance music. In different musical contexts, different instrumental musicians, conductors, music directors or other individuals will select the tempo of a song or piece. In a popular music or traditional music group or band, the bandleader or lead singer may select the tempo. In popular and traditional music, whoever is setting the tempo counts out one or two bars in tempo. In some songs or pieces in which a singer or solo instrumentalist begins the work with a solo introduction, the tempo they set will provide the tempo for the group. In an orchestra or concert band, the conductor sets the tempo. In a marching band, the drum major may set the tempo. In a sound recording, in some cases a record producer may set the tempo for a song. In classical music it is customary to describe the tempo of a piece by one or more words, most in Italian, in addition to or instead of a metronome mark in beats per minute. Italian is used because it was the language of most composers during the time these descriptions became commonplace.
Some well-known Italian tempo indications include "Allegro", "Andante" and "Presto". This practice developed during the baroque and classical periods. In the earlier Renaissance music, performers understood most music to flow at a tempo defined by the tactus; the mensural time signature indicated. In the Baroque period, pieces would be given an indication, which might be a tempo marking, or the name of a dance, the latter being an indication both of tempo and of metre. Any musician of the time was expected to know how to interpret these markings based on custom and experience. In some cases, these markings were omitted. For example, the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 has no tempo or mood indication whatsoever. Despite the increasing number of explicit tempo markings, musicians still observe conventions, expecting a minuet to be at a stately tempo, slower than a Viennese waltz. Genres imply tempos. Thus, Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "In tempo d'un Menuetto" over the first movement of his Piano Sonata Op. 54, though that movement is not a minuet.
Many tempo markings indicate mood and expression. For example and allegro both indicate a speedy execution, but allegro connotes joy. Presto, on the other hand indicates speed. Additional Italian words indicate tempo and mood. For example, the "agitato" in the Allegro agitato of the last movement of George Gershwin's piano concerto in F has both a tempo indication and a mood indication. Composers name movements of compositions after their tempo marking. For instance, the second movement of Samuel Barber's first String Quartet is an Adagio. A particular musical form or genre implies its own tempo, so composers need place no further explanation in the score. Popular music charts use terms such as bossa nova, ballad
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in the U. S. state of Missouri. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States, it is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after. Sitting on Missouri's western boundary, with Downtown near the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, the modern city encompasses some 319.03 square miles, making it the 23rd largest city by total area in the United States. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay and Platte counties. Along with Independence, one of its major suburbs, it serves as one of the two county seats of Jackson County.
Other major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Blue Springs and Lee's Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of several neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east, the Country Club Plaza in the south. Kansas City is known for its long tradition of jazz music and culture, for its cuisine, its craft breweries. Kansas City, Missouri was incorporated as a town on June 1, 1850, as a city on March 28, 1853; the territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a good place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, Woodneath are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, he had deserted his post as fort commander and was avoiding French authorities.
Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. To clear his name, he wrote Exact Description of Louisiana, of Its Harbors and Rivers, Names of the Indian Tribes That Occupy It, the Commerce and Advantages to Be Derived Therefrom for the Establishment of a Colony in 1713 followed in 1714 by The Route to Be Taken to Ascend the Missouri River. In the documents, he describes the junction of the "Grande Riv des Cansez" and Missouri River, making him the first to adopt those names. French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the area's first reasonably accurate map; the Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, but were not to play a major role other than taxing and licensing Missouri River ship traffic. The French continued their fur trade under Spanish license; the Chouteau family operated under Spanish license at St. Louis in the lower Missouri Valley as early as 1765 and in 1821 the Chouteaus reached Kansas City, where François Chouteau established Chouteau's Landing.
After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, noting it was a good place to build a fort. In 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in, they built the first school within Kansas City's current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833 and their settlement remained vacant. In 1833 John McCoy, son of missionary Isaac McCoy, established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail, 3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a landing point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, taking their name from an English spelling of "Cansez." In 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas. By that time, the Town of Kansas and nearby Independence, had become critical points in the United States' westward expansion. Three major trails – the Santa Fe, Oregon – all passed through Jackson County. On February 22, 1853, the City of Kansas was created with a newly elected mayor.
It had an area of 0.70 square miles and a population of 2,500. The boundary lines at that time extended from the middle of the Missouri River south to what is now Ninth Street, from Bluff Street on the west to a point between Holmes Road and Charlotte Street on the east; the Kansas City area was rife with animosity just prior to the U. S. Civil War. Kansas petitioned the U. S. to enter the Union as a free state that did not allow slavery under the new doctrine of popular sovereignty. Missouri had many slaves, slavery sympathizers crossed into Kansas to sway the state towards allowing slavery, at first by ballot box and by bloodshed. During the Civil War, the city and its immediate surroundings were the focus of intense military activity. Although the First Battle of Independence in August 1862 resulted in a Confederate States Army victory, the Confederates were unable to leverage their win in any significant fashion, as Kansas City was occupied by Union troops and proved too fortified to assault.
The Second Battle of Independence, which occurred on October 21–22, 1864 as part of Sterling Price's Missouri expedition of 1864 resulted in a Confederate triumph. Once again their victory proved hollow, as Price was decisively defeated in the pivotal Battle of Westport the next day ending Confederate e
Marshall Bruce Mathers III, known professionally as Eminem, is an American rapper, record producer, record executive, film producer, actor. He is cited as one of the greatest and most influential artists of all time in hip hop, with Rolling Stone placing him in its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and labeling him the "King of Hip Hop". After his debut album Infinite and the extended play Slim Shady EP, Eminem signed with Dr. Dre's Aftermath Entertainment and subsequently achieved mainstream popularity in 1999 with The Slim Shady LP, which earned him his first Grammy Award for Best Rap Album, his next two releases, 2000's The Marshall Mathers LP and 2002's The Eminem Show, were worldwide successes, with each being certified diamond in U. S. sales and both winning Best Rap Album Grammy Awards—making Eminem the first artist to win the award for three consecutive LPs. They were followed by Encore in another critical and commercial success. Eminem went on hiatus after touring in 2005 due to a prescription drug addiction.
He released Relapse in 2009 and Recovery in 2010. Both won Grammy Awards and Recovery was the best-selling album of 2010 worldwide, the second time he had the international best-selling album of the year. Eminem's eighth album, 2013's The Marshall Mathers LP 2, won two Grammy Awards, including Best Rap Album; these were followed by 2017's Revival and 2018's Kamikaze, the latter being the best-selling hip hop album of 2018. In addition to his solo career, Eminem is an original member of the Midwest hip hop groups Soul Intent and D12, he is known for his collaborations with fellow Detroit-based rapper Royce da 5'9". Eminem has developed other ventures, including Shady Records, with manager Paul Rosenberg, which helped launch the careers of artists such as 50 Cent. Eminem has established his own channel, Shade 45, on Sirius XM Radio. In November 2002, he starred in the hip hop film 8 Mile playing himself, which won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Lose Yourself", becoming the first rap artist to win the award.
Eminem has made cameo appearances in the films The Wash, Funny People, The Interview, the television series Entourage. Eminem is the best-selling artist of the 2000s in the United States. Throughout his career, he has had 9 number-one albums on the Billboard 200 and five number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100, he is the only artist to have nine albums consecutively debut at number one on the Billboard 200. With over 220 million records sold globally, Eminem is among the world's best-selling artists of all time. Marshall Bruce Mathers III was born on October 17, 1972, in St. Joseph, the only child of Marshall Bruce Mathers Jr. and Deborah Rae "Debbie". He is of English, German, Swiss and Luxembourgian ancestry, his mother nearly died during her 73-hour labor with him. Eminem's parents were in a band called Daddy Warbucks, playing in Ramada Inns along the Dakotas–Montana border before their separation. Eminem's father, referred to by his middle name Bruce, left the family, moving to California and having two other children: Michael and Sarah.
Debbie had son Nathan "Nate" Kane Samara. During his childhood and Debbie shuttled between Michigan and Missouri staying in one house for more than a year or two and living with family members. In Missouri, they lived in several places, including St. Joseph and Kansas City; as a teenager, Eminem wrote letters to his father, which Debbie stated all came back marked "return to sender". Friends and family remember Eminem as a happy child, but "a bit of a loner", bullied. One bully, D'Angelo Bailey injured Eminem's head in an assault. Eminem spent much of his youth in a working-class black, Detroit neighborhood, he and Debbie were one of three white households on their block, Eminem was beaten by black youths several times. As a child he was interested in storytelling, aspiring to be a comic-book artist before discovering hip hop. Eminem heard his first rap song on the Breakin' soundtrack, a gift from Debbie's half-brother Ronnie Polkinghorn, close to him and became a musical mentor to him; when Polkinghorn committed suicide in 1991, Eminem stopped speaking for days and did not attend his funeral.
Eminem's home life was stable. When her son became famous, Debbie was unimpressed by suggestions that she was a less-than-ideal mother, contending that she sheltered him and was responsible for his success. In 1987, Debbie allowed runaway Kimberly Ann "Kim" Scott to stay at their home. After spending three years in ninth grade due to truancy and poor grades, he dropped out of Lincoln High School at age 17. Although he was interested in English, he never explored literature and disliked math and social studies. Eminem worked at several jobs to help his mother pay the bills maintaining that she threw him out of the house anyway; when she left to play bingo, he would write songs. At age 14, Eminem began rapping with high-school friend Mike Ruby.
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Jonathan Burks, better known by his stage name Jaz-O, is an American rapper and record producer active in the late 1980s through the 1990s, best known for being the mentor of Brooklyn rapper Jay-Z. Jaz is known as the Originator and had a song called "The Originators" that featured a young Jay-Z in 1990; as The Jaz, he had success with his 1989 single "Hawaiian Sophie" from his debut album Word to the Jaz. He has been featured on some of Jay-Z's songs, such as "Bring it On", "Ain't No Nigga", the single "Nigga What, Nigga Who" from Vol. 2: Hard Knock Life, where he was credited as Big Jaz. He produced the single "Ain't No Nigga" from Reasonable Doubt and the song "Rap Game/Crack Game" from In My Lifetime, Vol. 1. The album "Kingz Kounty - with The Immobilarie Present" marked the last time Jay-Z and mentor Jaz-O would collaborate; the long-standing feud between him and Jay-Z started when Jay-Z started Roc-A-Fella Records and he tried to convince Jaz-O and fellow rapper Sauce Money to sign with the label.
They both refused. It is rumored that they didn't trust Kareem "Biggs" Burke. In addition, they weren't satisfied with what they were to be receiving had they signed the contract, $300,000 in Jaz-O's case. Jay-Z confirms this event on the song "What We Talkin' About" on the Blueprint 3 album when he says "Dame made millions Jaz made some scraps, he could've made more but he ain't sign his contract". Jay-Z went on to diss Jaz first on a track released by DJ Kayslay featuring Freeway, Geda K, Young Chris, Memphis Bleek titled "Fuck Jaz-O AKA Jaz Ho" in which they rapped over Styles P's "Good Times" instrumental and on his album The Blueprint 2: The Gift & The Curse. Jay-Z states on the track, "I'ma let karma catch up to Jaz-O." Jaz responded with a record on a DJ Kayslay mixtape entitled "Ova" and after the response from Jay-Z and the members of Roc-A-Fella, he released his own response with the diss record known as "Ova Part 2" in which he raps over N. O. R. E.'s "Nothin'" instrumental. Despite the long-standing feud between mentor and protégé, Jay-Z still gives Jaz-O credit for his success as heard in the song "I Do It For Hip Hop" on Ludacris's Theater of the Mind album.
Jay-Z says "Shout out to Grand Master Flash and to Caz and Jaz's bum ass". Soon after the "I Do It For Hip Hop" diss from Jay-Z, Jaz-O responded with a diss record entitled "Go Harder" where he starts by rapping over his protege's "Brooklyn Go Hard" beat before the beat changes. In late August 2009, Jaz-O was featured on another song dissing Jay-Z entitled "Gangstas Ride" with West Coast rapper, The Game. Jaz references "Ether" with the line, "Jaz-O, stupid motherfucker, not Shawn, never been bashed on a Tupac song"; the song was fueled by the beef between Game and Jay-Z. In December 2017 they reunited at Jay Z's 4:44 concert ending the feud. Besides being an emcee, he has produced songs for several hip hop artists other than Jay-Z, such as Group Home, M. O. P, Ras Kass, Kool G Rap, others. 1989 - Word to the Jaz 1990 - To Your Soul 2002 - Kingz Kounty 1991 - Ya Don't Stop