The Yalu River called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China. Together with the Tumen River to its east, a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea and China and is notable as a site involved in military conflicts such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, World War II, the Korean War. Two theories are given regarding the origin of the river's name. One theory is; the Manchu word yalu means "the boundary between two countries". In Mandarin Chinese, yālù phonetically approximates the original Manchu word, but means "duck green", said to have been once the color of the river; the other theory is that the river was named after the combination of its two upper branches, which were called "鴨" and "綠" ", respectively. Revised Romanization of Korean spelled it Amnokgang and Revised Romanization of Hangeul spelled it Aprokgang. From 2500 m above sea level on Paektu Mountain on the China–North Korea border, the river flows south to Hyesan before sweeping 130 km northwest to Linjiang and returning to a more southerly route for a further 300 km to empty into the Korea Bay between Dandong and Sinuiju.
The bordering Chinese provinces are Liaoning. The river receives water from over 30,000 km ² of land; the Yalu's most significant tributaries are the Changjin, the Hochon, the Tongro and the Ai rivers from Korea and the Hun from China. The river is not navigable for most of its length. Most of the river can be crossed on foot; the depth of the Yalu River varies from some of the more shallow parts on the eastern side in Hyesan to the deeper parts of the river near the Yellow Sea. The estuary is the site of the Amrok River estuary Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International. About 205 islands are on the Yalu. A 1962 border treaty between North Korea and China split the islands according to which ethnic group was living on each island. North Korea possesses 127 and China 78. Due to the division criteria, some islands such as Hwanggumpyong Island belong to North Korea, but abut the Chinese side of the river; the river basin is the site. Many former fortresses are located along the river and the former capital of that kingdom was situated at what is now the medium-sized city of Ji'an, Jilin along the Yalu, a site rich in Goguryeo era relics.
Wihwa Island on the river is famous as the place where in 1388, General Yi Songgye decided to turn back his army southward to Kaesong in the first of a series of revolts that led to the establishment of the House of Yi. The river has been the site of several battles because of its strategic location between Korea and China, including: Battle of the Yalu River – First Sino-Japanese War Battle of Yalu River – Russo-Japanese War Battle near to the Yalu River – Korean WarThe Korean side of the river was industrialized during the period of Japanese rule, by 1945 20% of Imperial Japan's total industrial output originated in Korea. During the Korean War, the movement of United Nations troops approaching the river precipitated massive Chinese intervention from around Dandong. In the course of the conflict every bridge across the river except one was destroyed; the one remaining bridge was the Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge connecting Sinuiju, North Korea to Dandong, China. During the war the valley surrounding the western end of the river became the focal point of a series of dogfights for air superiority over North Korea, earning the nickname "MiG Alley" in reference to the MiG-15 fighters flown by the combined North Korean and Soviet forces.
It was the advance of UN forces during the Korean War toward the Yalu which allowed Chairman Mao Zedong to convince his people that China needed to intervene over fears of an American invasion, since toppling communism was one of America's stated goals and Douglas MacArthur had expressed his desire to expand the war into China. The river has been crossed by North Koreans fleeing to China since the early 1990s, although the Tumen River is the most used way; the river is important for hydroelectric power, one of the largest hydroelectric dams in Asia is in Sup'ung Dam, 106 m high and over 850 m long, located upstream from Sinuiju, North Korea. The dam has created an artificial lake over a portion of the river, called Supung Lake. In addition the river is used for transportation of lumber from its forested banks; the river provides fish for the local population. Downstream of Sup'ung is the Taipingwan Dam. Upstream of Sup'ung is the Unbong Dam. Both dams produce hydroelectric power, as well. In the river delta upstream from Dandong and adjacent to Hushan are several North Korean villages.
Economic conditions in these villages have been described without access to electricity. Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge, China – Sinŭiju, North Korea Ji'an Yalu River Border Railway Bridge, Ji'an China – Manp'o, North Korea New Yalu River Bridge, under construction between Dandong and Sinŭiju, North Korea China–North Korea border Geography of China Geography of North Korea List of China-related topics List of Korea-related topics List of rivers of Asia Encyclopædia Britannica "Ya-lu-kiang". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Goguryeo called Goryeo, was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. Along with Baekje and Silla, Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula and was associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China and Japan. The Samguk sagi, a 12th-century text from Goryeo, indicates that Goguryeo was founded in 37 BCE by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo, enthroned as Dongmyeong. Goguryeo was one of the great powers in East Asia, until its defeat by a Silla–Tang alliance in 668 after prolonged exhaustion and internal strife caused by the death of Yeon Gaesomun. After its fall, its territory was divided among the states of Later Balhae; the name Goryeo, a shortened form of Goguryeo, was adopted as the official name in the 5th century, is the origin of the English name "Korea". In the geographic monographs of the Book of Han, the word Goguryeo made its first appearance in 113 BCE in the name of Gaogouli County under the jurisdiction of Xuantu Commandery.
In the Old Book of Tang, it is recorded that Emperor Taizong refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old. According to the 12th-century Samguk sagi and the 13th-century Samgungnyusa, a prince from the Buyeo kingdom named Jumong fled after a power struggle with other princes of the court and founded Goguryeo in 37 BCE in a region called Jolbon Buyeo thought to be located in the middle Yalu and Tongjia River basin, overlapping the current China-North Korea border. In 75 BCE, a group of Yemaek who may have originated from Goguryeo made an incursion into China's Xuantu Commandery west of the Yalu. However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old Book of Tang, New Book of Tang, the Samguk sagi, the Nihon Shoki as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BCE or "middle" first century BCE foundation date for Goguryeo. Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo.
The first mention of Goguryeo as a group label associated with Yemaek tribes is a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryeo revolt in 12 CE, during which they broke away from the influence of the Chinese at Xuantu. At its founding, the Goguryeo people are believed to be a blend of people from Buyeo and Yemaek, as leadership from Buyeo may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms; the Records of the Three Kingdoms, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", implied that Buyeo and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke a similar language. Both Goguryeo and Baekje originated from Buyeo; the earliest mention of Jumong is in the 4th-century Gwanggaeto Stele. Jumong is the modern Korean transcription of 鄒牟 Chumo, or 仲牟 Jungmo; the Stele states that Jumong was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo and that he was the son of the prince of Buyeo and daughter of Habaek, the god of the Amnok River or, according to an alternate interpretation, the sun god Haebak.
The Samguk sagi and Samgungnyusa paint names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa. Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Haemosu, described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince." The river god chased Yuhwa away to the Ubal River due to her pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of Geumwa. Jumong was well known for his exceptional archery skills. Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, Jumong was forced to leave Eastern Buyeo; the Stele and Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo Jumong came from. The Stele says he came from Buyeo and the Samgungnyusa and Samguk sagi say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Jumong made it to Jolbon, where he married Soseono, daughter of its ruler, he subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo with a small group of his followers from his native country. A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk sagi says that Soseono was the daughter of Yeon Tabal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon and married to Jumong. However, the same source states that the king of Jolbon gave his daughter to Jumong, who had escaped with his followers from Eastern Buyeo, in marriage.
She gave her husband, financial support in founding the new statelet, Goguryeo. After Yuri, son of Jumong and his first wife, Lady Ye, came from Dongbuyeo and succeeded Jumong, she left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms, one of, Baekje. Jumong's given surname was "Hae", the name of the Buyeo rulers. According to the Samgungnyusa, Jumong changed his surname to "Go" in conscious reflection of his divine parentage. Jumong is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu in 36 BCE, Haeng-in in 33 BCE, Northern Okjeo in 28 BCE. Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. In the time of Taejodae in 53 CE, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology.
Manpho is a city of northwestern Chagang Province, North Korea. As of 2008, it had an estimated population of 116,760, it looks across the border to the city of Jilin province, China. Manp'o was incorporated as a city in 1961. Along the shores of the Yalu River and the Kŏnp'o River are the small Kosan Plain and the Kŏnha Plain; the yearly average temperature is 6.5 °C. The yearly average rainfall is 947.8 millimetres, generous due to the mountainous terrain. Manpo has a humid continental climate. Manp'o is divided into 11 tong and 15 ri: Lumber processing and transportation are well developed. Geography of North Korea Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 In Korean language online encyclopedias: Doosan Encyclopedia Korean language Britannica Encyclopedia of Korean Culture Pascal World Encyclopedia North Korea Uncovered, see much of Manpo's industrial and political infrastructure on Google Earth. City profile of Manpo
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
Geography of North Korea
North Korea is located in East Asia on the Northern half of the Korean Peninsula. North Korea shares a border with three countries; the Yellow Sea and the Korea Bay are off the west coast and the Sea of Japan is off the east coast. Most of North Korea is a series of medium-sized to large-sized Mountain Ranges and large hills, separated by deep, narrow valleys; the highest peak, Paektu-san on the volcanic Baekdu Mountain, is located on its northern border with China, rises 9,002 ft.. Along the west coast there are wide coastal plains, while along the Sea of Japan coastline, narrow plains rise into mountains. Similar to South Korea, dozens of small islands dot the western coastline. North Korea's longest river is the Yulu. Other large rivers include the Tumen and Imjin; the terrain consists of hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys. The coastal plains are wide in discontinuous in the east. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.
Some 80 percent of North Korea's land area is composed of mountains and uplands, with all of the peninsula's mountains with elevations of 2,000 metres or more located in North Korea. The great majority of the population lives in the lowlands. Paektu Mountain, the highest point in North Korea at 2,743 m, is a volcanic mountain near Manchuria with basalt lava plateau with elevations between 1,400 metres and 2,000 metres above sea level; the Hamgyong Range, located in the extreme northeastern part of the peninsula, has many high peaks, including Kwanmobong at 2,541 metres. Other major ranges include the Rangrim Mountains, which are located in the north-central part of North Korea and run in a north-south direction, making communication between the eastern and western parts of the country rather difficult. Geumgangsan written Mt Kumgang, or Diamond Mountain, in the Thaebaek Range, which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty. For the most part, the plains are small; the most extensive are the Pyongyang and Chaeryŏng plains, each covering about 500 km2.
Because the mountains on the east coast drop abruptly to the sea, the plains are smaller there than on the west coast. The mountain ranges in the northern and eastern parts of North Korea form the watershed for most of its rivers, which run in a westerly direction and empty into the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay; the longest is the Amnok River, navigable for 678 km of its 790 kilometres. The Tuman River, one of the few major rivers to flow into the Sea of Japan, is the second longest at 521 kilometres but is navigable for only 85 kilometres because of the mountainous topography; the third longest river, the Taedong River, flows through Pyongyang and is navigable for 245 of its 397 km. Lakes tend to be small because of the lack of glacial activity and the stability of the Earth's crust in the region. Unlike neighboring Japan or northern China, North Korea experiences few severe earthquakes; the country has a number of natural spas and hot springs, which number 124 according to one North Korean source.
North Korea has a combination of a continental climate and an oceanic climate, with four distinct seasons. Most of North Korea is classified as being of a humid continental climate within the Köppen climate classification scheme, with warm summers and cold, dry winters. In summer, there is a short rainy season called changma. Long winters bring bitter cold and clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia; the daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang in January are −3 and −13 °C. On average, it snows thirty-seven days during the winter. Winter can be harsh in the northern, mountainous regions. Summer tends to be short, hot and rainy because of the southern and southeastern monsoon winds that bring moist air from the Pacific Ocean. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by mild temperatures and variable winds and bring the most pleasant weather; the daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang in August are 29 and 20 °C.
On average 60% of all precipitation occurs from June to September. Natural hazards include late spring droughts which are followed by severe flooding. Typhoons affect the peninsula on an average of at least early autumn; the drought that started in June 2015, according to the Korean Central News Agency, has been the worst seen in 100 years. The environment of North Korea is diverse, encompassing alpine, farmland and marine ecosystems. In recent years, the environment has been reported to be in a state of "crisis", "catastrophe", or "collapse". Cultivation and natural disasters have all put pressure on North Korea's forests. During the economic crisis of the 1990s, deforestation accelerated, as people turned to the woodlands to provide firewood and food; this in turn has led to soil erosion, soil depletion, increased risk of flooding. In response, the government has promoted a tree planting program. Based on satellite imagery, it has been estimated that 40 percent of forest cover has been lost since 1985.
North Korea has an area of 120,538 km², of which 120,408 km² is land and 130 km² is water. It has 1,671.5 kilometres of land boundaries.
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Kim Hyŏng-jik was a Korean independence activist. He was the father of North Korean founder Kim Il-sung, grandfather of Kim Jong-il, great-grandfather of the current leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un. Little is known about Kim. Born on 10 July 1894, in the small village of Mangyongdae, situated atop a peak called Mungyungbong just 12 kilometers downstream on the Diadong River from Pyongyang, Kim was the son of Kim Bo-hyon. Kim attended Sungshil School, run by American missionaries, became a teacher and an herbal pharmacist, he died including third-degree frostbite. Kim and his wife attended Christian churches, Kim served as a part-time Protestant missionary, it was reported that his son, Kim Il-sung, attended church services during his teenage years before becoming an atheist in life. Kim Il-sung spoke of his father's idea of chiwŏn. Kim Jong-il's official government biography states that his grandfather was "the leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement and was a pioneer in shifting the direction from the nationalist movement to the communist movement in Korea".
This is disputed among foreign academics and independent sources, who claim that Kim's opposition was little more than general grievances with life under Japanese occupation. Kim Il-sung claimed his ancestors, including his grandfather Kim Bo-hyon and great-grandfather Kim Ung-u, were involved in the General Sherman incident, but this is disputed and believed to be a fabrication. Father: Kim Bo-hyon Paternal grandfather: Kim Ung-u Paternal grandmother: Lady Lee Mother: Lee Bo-ik Two brothers Kim Hyong-rok Kim Hyong-gwon Three sisters Kim Gu-il Kim Hyong-sil Kim Hyong-bok Wife: Kang Pan-sok First son: Kim Il-sung Second son: Kim Chol-ju Third son: Kim Yong-ju April 15th Writing Staff, Central Committee of Korean Writers' Union. Dawn of a New Age: A Novel. 1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 154676863; the Party History Institute of the C. C. Of the Workers' Party of Korea. Kim Hyong Jik: Indomitable Anti-Japanese Revolutionary Fighter. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
OCLC 252037406. Ponghwa Revolutionary Site; the Korean Preparatory Committee for the 13th WFTYS. 1988. KPEA 2JB070