Herodotus was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire and lived in the fifth century BC, a contemporary of Socrates. The Histories is the work which he is known to have produced. Despite Herodotus historical significance, little is known of his personal life and his place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked. His work is the earliest Greek prose to have survived intact, of these only fragments of Hecataeuss work survive yet they allow us glimpses into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. In his introduction to Hecataeus’s work, This points forward to the ‘folksy’ yet ‘international’ outlook typical of Herodotus. Yet, one scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as “a curious false start to history” since despite his critical spirit. It is possible that Herodotus borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a recorded by Eusebius. But Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism.
For example, He argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the theory of a perfectly circular earth with Europe. Yet, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his notions of the Danube. His debt to previous authors of prose ‘histories’ might be questionable, this point is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship. It is on account of the strange stories and the folk-tales he reported that his critics in early modern times branded him “The Father of Lies”. Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement, the Athenian historian Thucydides dismissed Herodotus as a “logos-writer”. Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek world-view, the interplay of civilizations was more relevant to Greeks living in Anatolia, such as Herodotus himself, for whom life within a foreign civilization was a recent memory. Modern scholars generally turn to Herodotus’s own writing for reliable information about his life, supplemented with ancient yet much sources, modern accounts of his life typically go something like this, Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus around 484 BC.
His name is not mentioned in the tribute list of the Athenian Delian League, the epic poet Panyassis – a relative of Herodotus – is reported to have taken part in a failed uprising. Herodotus expresses affection for the island of Samos, and this is an indication that he might have lived there in his youth. So it is possible that his family was involved in an uprising against Lygdamis, leading to a period of exile on Samos, Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect, yet he was born in Halicarnassus, which was a Dorian settlement
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with a radius about nine times that of Earth. Although it has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive, Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture, its astronomical symbol represents the gods sickle. Saturns interior is composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock. This core is surrounded by a layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. Saturn has a yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Saturns magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiters, the outer atmosphere is generally bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h, higher than on Jupiter, sixty-two moons are known to orbit Saturn, of which fifty-three are officially named. This does not include the hundreds of moonlets comprising the rings, Saturn is a gas giant because it is predominantly composed of hydrogen and helium.
It lacks a definite surface, though it may have a solid core, Saturns rotation causes it to have the shape of an oblate spheroid, that is, it is flattened at the poles and bulges at its equator. Its equatorial and polar radii differ by almost 10%,60,268 km versus 54,364 km, Jupiter and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are oblate but to a lesser extent. Saturn is the planet of the Solar System that is less dense than water—about 30% less. Although Saturns core is considerably denser than water, the specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the atmosphere. Jupiter has 318 times the Earths mass, while Saturn is 95 times the mass of the Earth, together and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. On 8 January 2015, NASA reported determining the center of the planet Saturn, the temperature and density inside Saturn all rise steadily toward the core, which causes hydrogen to transition into a metal in the deeper layers. Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a rocky core surrounded by hydrogen.
This core is similar in composition to the Earth, but more dense, in 2004, they estimated that the core must be 9–22 times the mass of the Earth, which corresponds to a diameter of about 25,000 km. This is surrounded by a liquid metallic hydrogen layer, followed by a liquid layer of helium-saturated molecular hydrogen that gradually transitions to a gas with increasing altitude
A temperature is an objective comparative measurement of hot or cold. It is measured by a thermometer, several scales and units exist for measuring temperature, the most common being Celsius, and, especially in science, Kelvin. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, the kinetic theory offers a valuable but limited account of the behavior of the materials of macroscopic bodies, especially of fluids. Temperature is important in all fields of science including physics, chemistry, atmospheric sciences, medicine. The Celsius scale is used for temperature measurements in most of the world. Because of the 100 degree interval, it is called a centigrade scale.15, the United States commonly uses the Fahrenheit scale, on which water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Many scientific measurements use the Kelvin temperature scale, named in honor of the Scottish physicist who first defined it and it is a thermodynamic or absolute temperature scale.
Its zero point, 0K, is defined to coincide with the coldest physically-possible temperature and its degrees are defined through thermodynamics. The temperature of zero occurs at 0K = −273. 15°C. For historical reasons, the triple point temperature of water is fixed at 273.16 units of the measurement increment, Temperature is one of the principal quantities in the study of thermodynamics. There is a variety of kinds of temperature scale and it may be convenient to classify them as empirically and theoretically based. Empirical temperature scales are historically older, while theoretically based scales arose in the middle of the nineteenth century, empirically based temperature scales rely directly on measurements of simple physical properties of materials. For example, the length of a column of mercury, confined in a capillary tube, is dependent largely on temperature. Such scales are only within convenient ranges of temperature. For example, above the point of mercury, a mercury-in-glass thermometer is impracticable. A material is of no use as a thermometer near one of its phase-change temperatures, in spite of these restrictions, most generally used practical thermometers are of the empirically based kind.
Especially, it was used for calorimetry, which contributed greatly to the discovery of thermodynamics, empirical thermometry has serious drawbacks when judged as a basis for theoretical physics. Theoretically based temperature scales are based directly on theoretical arguments, especially those of thermodynamics, kinetic theory and they rely on theoretical properties of idealized devices and materials
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
Flamingos or flamingoes /fləˈmɪŋɡoʊz/ are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only family in the order Phoenicopteriformes. There are four species in the Americas and two species in the Old World. A similar etymology has the Latinate Greek term Phoenicopterus, literally blood red-feathered. ]Traditionally, the long-legged Ciconiiformes, probably a paraphyletic assemblage, have considered the flamingos closest relatives. Usually the ibises and spoonbills of the Threskiornithidae were considered their closest relatives within this order, earlier genetic studies, such as those of Charles Sibley and colleagues, supported this relationship. Relationships to the waterfowl were considered as well, especially as flamingos are parasitized by feather lice of the genus Anaticola, the peculiar presbyornithids were used to argue for a close relationship between flamingos and waders. Living flamingoes based on the work by John Boyd, six extant flamingo species are recognized by most sources, and were formerly placed in one genus, Phoenicopterus.
As a result of a 2014 publication, the family was reclassified into three genera, prehistoric species of flamingo, Phoenicopterus floridanus Brodkorb 1953 Phoenicopterus stocki Phoenicopterus siamensis Cheneval et al. They hold at least eleven morphological traits in common, which are not found in other birds, many of these characteristics have been previously identified on flamingos, but not on grebes. The fossil palaelodids can be considered evolutionarily, and ecologically, intermediate between flamingos and grebes, for the grebe-flamingo clade, the taxon Mirandornithes has been proposed. Alternatively, they could be placed in one order, with Phoenocopteriformes taking priority, flamingos usually stand on one leg while the other is tucked beneath their body. The reason for this behaviour is not fully understood, recent research indicates that standing on one leg may allow the birds to conserve more body heat, given that they spend a significant amount of time wading in cold water. However, the behaviour takes place in warm water, as well as standing in the water, flamingos may stamp their webbed feet in the mud to stir up food from the bottom.
Young flamingos hatch with greyish reddish plumage, but adults range from pink to bright red due to aqueous bacteria. A well-fed, healthy flamingo is more vibrantly colored and thus a more desirable mate, captive flamingos are a notable exception, many turn a pale pink as they are not fed carotene at levels comparable to the wild. Flamingos filter-feed on brine shrimp and blue-green algae and their bills are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they eat, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae which line the mandibles, the pink or reddish color of flamingos comes from carotenoids in their diet of animal and plant plankton. These carotenoids are broken down into pigments by liver enzymes, the source of this varies by species, and affects the saturation of color. Flamingos whose sole diet is blue-green algae are darker in color compared to those who get it second hand, flamingos are very social birds, they live in colonies whose population can number in the thousands
Douz is a town in the Kebili Governorate in the south of Tunisia, known as the gateway to the Sahara. By road it is located 31 kilometres kilometres southwest of Blidet,125 kilometres southeast of Tozeur and it has been called the ultimate palm oasis, because it has over 500,000 palm trees in the area, and it is a major producer of diglat noor dates. In previous times it was an important stop on the caravan routes. Today, it is destination for tourists who are interested in seeing the desert, every year Douz hosts the International Festival of the Sahara, a four-day celebration of traditional desert culture. The festival, usually held in November or December, features music and dancing, poetry readings, camel wrestling. Douz is home to the Museum of the Sahara, which displays on traditional nomadic desert culture of the Mrazig people who now mostly live a settled life in the town
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn. It is the only known to have a dense atmosphere. Titan is the sixth ellipsoidal moon from Saturn, frequently described as a planet-like moon, Titan is 50% larger than Earths Moon, and it is 80% more massive. It is the second-largest moon in the Solar System, after Jupiters moon Ganymede, and is larger than the smallest planet, discovered in 1655 by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens, Titan was the first known moon of Saturn, and the sixth known planetary satellite. Titan orbits Saturn at 20 Saturn radii, from Titans surface, Saturn subtends an arc of 5.09 degrees and would appear 11.4 times larger in the sky than the Moon from Earth. Titan is primarily composed of ice and rocky material. The geologically young surface is smooth, with few impact craters, although mountains. The atmosphere of Titan is largely nitrogen, minor components lead to the formation of methane and ethane clouds and nitrogen-rich organic smog. The climate—including wind and rain—creates surface features similar to those of Earth, such as dunes, lakes and deltas, Huygens was inspired by Galileos discovery of Jupiters four largest moons in 1610 and his improvements in telescope technology.
Christiaan, with the help of his brother Constantijn Huygens, Jr. began building telescopes around 1650 and it was the sixth moon to be discovered. He named it Saturni Luna, publishing in the 1655 tract De Saturni Luna Observatio Nova, after Giovanni Domenico Cassini published his discoveries of four more moons of Saturn between 1673 and 1686, astronomers fell into the habit of referring to these and Titan as Saturn I through V. Other early epithets for Titan include Saturns ordinary satellite, Titan is officially numbered Saturn VI because after the 1789 discoveries the numbering scheme was frozen to avoid causing any more confusion. Numerous small moons have been discovered closer to Saturn since and he suggested the names of the mythological Titans and sisters of Cronus, the Greek Saturn. In Greek mythology, the Titans were a race of powerful deities, descendants of Gaia and Uranus, Titan orbits Saturn once every 15 days and 22 hours. Because of this, there is a point on its surface. Longitudes on Titan are measured westward, starting from the passing through this point.
Its orbital eccentricity is 0.0288, and the plane is inclined 0.348 degrees relative to the Saturnian equator. Viewed from Earth, Titan reaches a distance of about 20 Saturn radii from Saturn
West African crocodile
The West African crocodile or desert crocodile is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the Nile crocodile. The species was named by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1807, who discovered differences between the skulls of a crocodile and those of C. niloticus. Niloticus, and thereby resurrected the name C. suchus, one C. suchus specimen exists at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, and pairs live in Copenhagen Zoo and Dublin Zoo. West African crocodiles in Mauritania have adapted to their environment by staying in caves or burrows in a state of æstivation during the driest periods. When it rains, the reptiles gather at gueltas, the people of Ancient Egypt worshiped Sobek, a crocodile-god associated with fertility and the power of the pharaoh. They had an ambivalent relationship with Sobek, as they did with C. suchus, sometimes they hunted crocodiles and reviled Sobek, C. suchus was known to be more docile than the Nile crocodile and was chosen by the Ancient Egyptians for spiritual rites, including mummification.
A recent DNA test found that all sampled mummified crocodiles from Grottes de Thebes, Grottes de Samoun, Sobek was depicted as a crocodile, as a mummified crocodile, or as a man with the head of a crocodile. The center of his worship was in the Middle Kingdom city of Arsinoe in the Faiyum Oasis, another major temple to Sobek is in Kom-Ombo, other temples were scattered across the country. Historically, C. suchus inhabited the Nile River in Lower Egypt along with the Nile crocodile, herodotus wrote that the Ancient Egyptian priests were selective when picking crocodiles. Priests were aware of the difference between the two species, C. suchus being smaller and more docile, making it easier to catch, herodotus indicated that some Egyptians kept crocodiles as pampered pets. In Sobeks temple in Arsinoe, a crocodile was kept in the pool of the temple, where it was fed, covered with jewelry, when the crocodiles died, they were embalmed, placed in sarcophagi, and buried in a sacred tomb. Many mummified C.
suchus specimens and even crocodile eggs have been found in Egyptian tombs, spells were used to appease crocodiles in Ancient Egypt, and even in modern times Nubian fishermen stuff and mount crocodiles over their doorsteps to ward against evil. In modern times, Mauritanian traditional peoples who live in proximity to West African crocodiles revere them. This is due to their belief that, just as water is essential to crocodiles, so crocodiles are essential to the water, the crocodiles live in harmony with the humans, and never attack swimmers. As late as the 1920s, museums continued to obtain C. suchus specimens from the Nile in Sudan
Salt pan (geology)
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the Sun. They are found in deserts, and are natural formations, a salt pan forms by evaporation of a water pool such as a lake or pond. This happens in climates where the rate of water exceeds the rate of precipitation. If the water drain into the ground, it remains on the surface until it evaporates. Over thousands of years, the minerals accumulate on the surface and these minerals reflect the Suns rays and often appear as white areas. The crust of salt can conceal a quagmire of mud that can engulf a truck, the Qattara Depression in the eastern Sahara desert contains many such traps which served as strategic barriers during World War II. The Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, where land speed records have been set, is a well-known salt pan in the arid regions of the western United States. The Etosha pan, in the Etosha National Park in Namibia, is another prominent example of a salt pan, the Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is the largest salt pan in the world.
It contains 50%-70% of the worlds lithium reserves, dry lake Pan Sabkha Salt evaporation pond Salt lake Sink Solonchak Briere, Peter R. Playa, playa lake, Proposed definitions for old terms. Lowenstein, Tim K. Lawrence A. Hardie, criteria for the recognition of salt-pan evaporites
Frank Heller was the pen name of the Swedish writer Gunnar Serner. He wrote a string of books about shady business transactions in an international milieu. His best known works concerned the recurring character Philip Collin, who was simultaneously a detective and he was uncle to the actor Håkan Serner. Collin,1924 The London Adventures of Mr. Collin,1923 Mr. Collin is Ruined,1925 The Strange Adventures of Mr. Collin, Crowell New York 1926 The Thousand and Second Night, An Arabesque. Williams & Norgate, London,1926 Lead Me into Temptation, Crowell New York 1927 Twilight of the Gladiators,1944 Works by Frank Heller at Project Gutenberg
Jules Gabriel Verne was a French novelist and playwright. Verne is generally considered a literary author in France and most of Europe. Verne has been the second most-translated author in the world since 1979 and he has sometimes been called the Father of Science Fiction, a title that has been given to H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback. His parents were Pierre Verne, an originally from Provins, and Sophie Allote de la Fuÿe. In 1829, the Verne family moved some hundred meters away to No.2 Quai Jean-Bart, three sisters, Anna and Marie, would follow. In 1834, at the age of six, Verne was sent to boarding school at 5 Place du Bouffay in Nantes, the teacher, Mme Sambin, was the widow of a naval captain who had disappeared some 30 years before. Mme Sambin often told the students that her husband was a shipwrecked castaway, the theme of the Robinsonade would stay with Verne throughout his life and appear in many of his novels, including The Mysterious Island, Second Fatherland, and The School for Robinsons.
In 1836, Verne went on to École Saint‑Stanislas, a Catholic school suiting the pious religious tastes of his father, Verne quickly distinguished himself in mémoire, Greek and singing. In the same year,1836, Pierre Verne bought a house at 29 Rue des Réformés in the village of Chantenay on the Loire River. In his brief memoir Souvenirs d’enfance et de jeunesse, Verne recalled a deep fascination with the river and with the many merchant vessels navigating it. He took vacations at Brains, in the house of his uncle Prudent Allotte, a retired shipowner, who had gone around the world and served as mayor of Brains from 1828 to 1837. Verne took joy in playing interminable rounds of the Game of the Goose with his uncle, and both the game and his uncles name would be memorialized in two late novels. It is now known that the legend is a tale invented by Vernes first biographer, his niece Marguerite Allotte de la Füye. In 1840, the Vernes moved again to an apartment at No.6 Rue Jean-Jacques-Rousseau. In the same year Verne entered another school, the Petit Séminaire de Saint-Donatien.
His unfinished novel Un prêtre en 1839, written in his teens, from 1844 to 1846, Verne and his brother were enrolled in the Lycée Royal in Nantes. After finishing classes in rhetoric and philosophy, he took the baccalauréat at Rennes, his father took it for granted that Verne, being the firstborn son of the family, would not attempt to make money in literature but would instead inherit the family law practice. In 1847, Vernes father sent him to Paris, primarily to begin his studies in law school, and secondarily to distance him temporarily from Nantes
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of the four states of matter. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container, most liquids resist compression, although others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, a distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena. The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, therefore and solid are both termed condensed matter. On the other hand, as liquids and gases share the ability to flow, although liquid water is abundant on Earth, this state of matter is actually the least common in the known universe, because liquids require a relatively narrow temperature/pressure range to exist. Most known matter in the universe is in form as interstellar clouds or in plasma form within stars.
Liquid is one of the four states of matter, with the others being solid, gas. Unlike a solid, the molecules in a liquid have a greater freedom to move. The forces that bind the molecules together in a solid are only temporary in a liquid, a liquid, like a gas, displays the properties of a fluid. A liquid can flow, assume the shape of a container, if liquid is placed in a bag, it can be squeezed into any shape. These properties make a suitable for applications such as hydraulics. Liquid particles are bound firmly but not rigidly and they are able to move around one another freely, resulting in a limited degree of particle mobility. As the temperature increases, the vibrations of the molecules causes distances between the molecules to increase. When a liquid reaches its point, the cohesive forces that bind the molecules closely together break. If the temperature is decreased, the distances between the molecules become smaller, only two elements are liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure and bromine.
Four more elements have melting points slightly above room temperature, caesium and rubidium, metal alloys that are liquid at room temperature include NaK, a sodium-potassium metal alloy, galinstan, a fusible alloy liquid, and some amalgams