The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis.
In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It employed an iconography that was direct, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists.
Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categories
The action was carried out by the Soviet-installed Polish communist authorities with the aim of removing material support and assistance to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The Ukrainian Insurgent Army continued to fight until 1947 in both Subcarpathian and Lublin Voivodeships with no hope for any peaceful resolution, Operation Vistula effectively brought an end to the hostilities. The operation was named after the Vistula River, Wisła in Polish, some Polish and Ukrainian politicians as well as historians condemned the operation following the 1989 fall of communism in Eastern Europe, and described it as ethnic cleansing. Others pointed out no other means of stopping the violence existed at the time since partisans used to regroup outside the Polish borders. During Operation Vistula conditions of the United Nations Charter of June 26,1945 on the right of self-determination, in the years 1956-1958 they received mostly non-repayable credits totalling 170 million PLN which was a considerable amount of money in the Polish national budget.
A similar operation was performed in Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union at exactly the same time, both operations were coordinated from Moscow, there was a shocking difference between their outcomes. Operation West parallel to Operation Vistula was conducted in West Ukraine by the Soviet NKVD targeting families of suspected UPA members, over 114,000 mostly women and children were deported to Kazakh SSR and Siberia and forced into extreme poverty. Only 19,000 men were among the NKVD deportees, most of them sent to coal mines, none of the people deported by the NKVD received any farms or empty homes to live in. The stated goal of the operation was to suppress the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, the original codename of the operation was Akcja Wschód, similar to Operation West conducted by the NKVD on the Soviet side of the border. It is sometimes assumed that the cause for Operation Vistula was the March 28,1947 assassination of the Polish communist General Karol Świerczewski in an ambush set up by UPA.
About 12 hours after the incident, the Polish communist authorities made the decision to deport all Ukrainians and it is known, that preparations for Operation Vistula had started already in January 1947, if not earlier. On September 10,1947 the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued an Order № 3214-1050, the operation was carried out by the Operational Group Vistula consisting of about 20,000 personnel commanded by General Stefan Mossor. The group included soldiers of the Polish Peoples Army and the Internal Security Corps, as well as functionaries of the police Milicja Obywatelska, the operation commenced at 4 a. m. Initially, the expellees comprised about 20,000 Ukrainians and Lemkos, with time, the total number grew to 80,000 and eventually to 150,000 inhabitants of Polesie, Pogórze Przemyskie, Low Beskid, Beskid Sądecki, and Ruś Szlachtowska. The expellees were resettled over an area in the Northern and Western Territories assigned to Poland by the Potsdam Agreement including Warmia and Masuria.
They received financial credits and material help from the government, including grain contingents, most of their personal debts, have been remitted in the following years. Nevertheless, the UPA continued its fight for a few more years, after the last relocations, UPAs activities on Polish territory died out. Some Ukrainian insurgents fled to Western Europe, notably to West Germany, and they were helped by the former Nazis from the Gehlen Organization
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska park
The park, located near the town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, which took its name from the park, was added in 1999 to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The site is one of Polands official national Historic Monuments, as designated November 17,2000. Kalwaria Zebrzydowska was established in 1600 by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, voivode of Kraków for Franciscan monks and it was modelled on the 1584 map of Jerusalem by Christian Kruik van Adrichem. Basilica of St. Mary was established by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski for Order of Friars Minor, the church was designed by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni and the construction process was conducted by Paul Baudarth, an architect and goldsmith from Antwerp, between 1603-1609. Ecce Homo Chapel was built on the plan of the Greek cross between 1605-1609 by Paul Baudarth, the vault adorned with profuse stucco decorations in the style of Dutch mannerism. Chapel of the Crucifixion is the first structure built by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski in Kalwaria, heart of Mary Chapel was built on the plan of a heart in 1615 by Paul Baudarth.
The chapel commemorate Jesus encounter with Mary on the road to Calvary and our Lady of Calvary List of mannerist structures in Southern Poland Kalwaria Zebrzydowska city website The Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Sanctuary
A powiat is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture in other countries. The term powiat is most often translated into English as county, a powiat is part of a larger unit, the voivodeship or province. A powiat is usually subdivided into gminas, major towns and cities, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas. They are termed city counties and have roughly the same status as county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiats are termed land counties, as of 2008, there were 379 powiat-level entities,314 land counties, and 65 city counties. For a complete listing, see List of Polish counties. For tables of counties by voivodeship, see the articles on the individual voivodeships, the history of Polish powiats goes back to the second half of the 14th century. They remained the basic unit of organization in Poland, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After Poland regained independence in 1918, the powiats were again the territorial units.
Powiats were abolished in 1975 in favor of a number of voivodeships. This reform created 16 larger voivodeships, legislative power within a powiat is vested in an elected council, while local executive power is vested in the starosta, who is elected by that council. The administrative offices headed by the starosta are called the starostwo, however, in city counties these institutions do not exist separately – their powers and functions are exercised by the city council, the directly elected mayor, and the city offices. In some cases a powiat has its seat outside its own territory, for example, Poznań County has its offices in Poznań, although Poznań is itself a city county, and is therefore not part of Poznań County. Powiats have relatively limited powers, since many local and regional matters are dealt with either at gmina or voivodeship level, the Polish the name of an county, in the administrative sense, consists of the word powiat followed by a masculine-gender adjective. In most cases, this is the formed from the name of the town or city where the county has its seat.
Thus the county with its seat at the town of Kutno is named powiat kutnowski, if the name of the seat comprises a noun followed by an adjective, as in Maków Mazowiecki, the adjective will generally be formed from the noun only. There are a few counties whose names are derived from the names of two towns, from the name of a city and an adjective, or a mountain range. There is more one way to render such names into English
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork, located in the Polish town of Malbork, is the largest castle in the world measured by land area. It was originally built by the Teutonic Knights, a German Roman Catholic religious order of crusaders, the town which grew around it was named Marienburg. In 1466, both castle and town became part of Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, heavily damaged after World War II, the castle was renovated under the auspices of modern-day Poland in the second half of the 20th century and most recently in 2016. Nowadays, the castle hosts exhibitions and serves as a museum, the castle is a classic example of a medieval fortress and, on its completion in 1406, was the worlds largest brick castle. UNESCO designated the Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork and the Malbork Castle Museum a World Heritage Site in December 1997 and it is one of two World Heritage Sites in the region with origins in the Teutonic Order. The other is the Medieval Town of Toruń, founded in 1231 as the site of the castle Thorn, Malbork Castle is one of Polands official national Historic Monuments, as designated September 16,1994.
Its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland, the castle was built by the Teutonic Order after the conquest of Old Prussia. Its main purpose was to strengthen their own control of the following the Orders 1274 suppression of the Great Prussian Uprising of the Baltic tribes. The work lasted until around 1300, under the auspices of Commander Heinrich von Wilnowe, the castle is located on the southeastern bank of the river Nogat. It was named Marienburg after Mary, patron saint of the religious Order, the Order had been created in Acre. When this last stronghold of the Crusades fell to Muslim Arabs, Malbork became more important in the aftermath of the Teutonic Knights conquest of Gdańsk and Pomerania in 1308. The Orders administrative centre was moved to Marienburg from Elbing, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Siegfried von Feuchtwangen, who arrived in Marienburg from Venice, undertook the next phase of the fortress construction. In 1309, in the wake of the persecution of the Knights Templar.
He chose the site of Marienburg conveniently located on the Nogat in the Vistula Delta, as with most cities of the time, the new centre was dependent on water for transportation. The castle was expanded several times to house the number of Knights. Soon, it became the largest fortified Gothic building in Europe, the castle has several subdivisions and numerous layers of defensive walls. It consists of three separate castles - the High and Lower Castles, separated by dry moats. The castle once housed approximately 3,000 brothers in arms, the outermost castle walls enclose 21 ha, four times the enclosed area of Windsor Castle
Polish People's Republic
The Polish Peoples Republic covers the history of Poland under Communist control between 1952 and 1990. The name was defined by the Constitution of 1952 which was based on the 1936 Soviet Constitution, between 1947 and 1952, the name of the Polish state was the Republic of Poland, in accordance with the temporary Constitution of 1947. The Soviet Union had much influence over internal and external affairs, and Red Army forces were stationed in Poland. In 1945, Soviet generals and advisors formed 80% of the cadre of the Polish Armed Forces. The Polish United Workers Party became the dominant political party, officially making the country a Communist state, at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin was able to present his western allies, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, with a fait accompli in Poland. His armed forces were in occupation of the country, and his agents, the USSR was in the process of incorporating the lands in eastern Poland which it had occupied between 1939 and 1941.
In compensation, the USSR awarded Poland German territories in Pomerania and these awards were confirmed at the Tripartite Conference of Berlin, otherwise known as the Potsdam Conference in August 1945 after the end of the war in Europe. Stalin was determined that Polands new government would become his tool towards making Poland a Soviet puppet state controlled by the communists. He had severed relations with the Polish government-in-exile in London in 1943, the communists held a majority of key posts in this new government, and with Soviet support they soon gained almost total control of the country, rigging all elections. This important victory would be their last, however, as the communists, tightening their grip on power, many of their opponents decided to leave the country, and others were put on staged trials and sentenced to many years of imprisonment or execution. In June 1946 the Three Times Yes referendum was held on a number of issues—abolition of the Senate of Poland, land reform, the communist-controlled Interior Ministry issued results showing that all three questions passed overwhelmingly.
Years later, evidence was uncovered showing that the referendum had been tainted by massive fraud, Gomułka took advantage of a split in the Polish Socialist Party. One faction, which included Prime Minister Edward Osóbka-Morawski, wanted to join forces with the Peasant Party, another faction, led by Józef Cyrankiewicz, argued that the Socialists should support the Communists in carrying through a socialist program, while opposing the imposition of one-party rule. Pre-war political hostilities continued to influence events, and Mikołajczyk would not agree to form a front with the Socialists. The Communists played on these divisions by dismissing Osóbka-Morawski and making Cyrankiewicz Prime Minister, between the referendum and the January 1947 general elections, the opposition was subjected to persecution. Only the candidates of the pro-government Democratic Bloc were allowed to campaign completely unmolested, several opposition candidates were prevented from campaigning at all. Mikołajczyks Polish Peoples Party in particular suffered persecution, it had opposed the abolition of the Senate as a test of strength against the government, although it supported the other two questions, the Communist-dominated government branded the PSL traitors.
This massive oppression was overseen by Gomułka and the provisional president, the official results of the election showed the Democratic Bloc with 80.1 percent of the vote
In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church. Iconostasis refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church, the iconostasis evolved from the Byzantine templon, a process complete by the fifteenth century. A direct comparison for the function of the iconostasis can be made to the layout of the great Temple in Jerusalem. That Temple was designed with three parts, the holiest and inner-most portion was that where the Ark of the Covenant was kept. This portion, the Holy of Holies, was separated from the larger part of the buildings interior by a curtain. Only the High Priest was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies, the third part was the entrance court. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition only men can enter the altar portion behind the iconostasis, the word comes from the Greek εἰκονοστάσι, which means icon stand. The nave is the body of the church where most of the worshippers stand.
The sanctuary is one to three steps higher than the nave. The Iconostasis does not sit directly on the edge of the sanctuary and this forms a walkway in front of the iconostasis for the clergy, called a soleas. In the very center of the soleas is an extension, often rounded, called the ambon, on which the deacon will stand to give litanies during the services, the iconostasis, though often tall, rarely touches the ceiling. Acoustically, this permits the ekphoneses of the clergy to be heard clearly by the faithful, in small, modern churches the iconostasis may be completely absent, in such cases it is replaced by a few small icons on analogia, forming a virtual divide. The iconostasis typically has three openings or sets of doors, the Beautiful Gates or Holy Doors in the center, and the North and South Doors to either side. The Beautiful Gates are sometimes called the Royal Doors, but that more properly belongs to the central doors connecting the narthex, or porch. They remain shut whenever a service is not being held, modern custom as to when they should be opened during services varies depending upon jurisdiction and local custom.
The North and South Doors are often called Deacons Doors because the use them frequently. Icons of sainted deacons are often depicted on these doors, they may be called Angels Doors, and the Archangels Michael and Gabriel are often depicted there. The South Door is typically the entrance door, and Michael is depicted there because he is the Defender, the North Door is the exit and these doors may be casually referred to as the side doors
The royal doors, holy doors, or beautiful gates are the central doors of the iconostasis in an Eastern Orthodox or Eastern Catholic church. In Orthodox Churches, the sanctuary is separated from the nave by a screen called the iconostasis. The iconostasis represents Christian continuity from the veil of the Temple in Jerusalem which separated the people from the Holy of Holies that housed the Ark of the Covenant, the iconostasis has three doors in it. The two single doors to the right and left are called deacons doors or angel doors and they usually have on them icons of either sainted deacons or the Archangels Michael and Gabriel and these are the doors that the clergy will normally use when entering the altar. The central double doors are the doors, which are considered to be most sacred, and may only be entered at certain sacred moments during the services. The term Royal Doors is commonly used to describe the Holy Doors, in Russia, they are sometimes called the Red Gates, red being synonymous with beautiful.
Whatever its name, a typical gate consists of two hinged doors, often they will be only half-height, but sometimes they go almost all the way to the top of the opening. The doors themselves are made of wood or metal and usually have painted on them an icon of the Annunciation in the form of a diptych, other icons may be used also. The doors may be carved and gilded, and are almost always topped by a cross. Theologically the Holy Doors represent the gates of Jerusalem, through which Christ entered on Palm Sunday and they represent the entrance to the Heavenly Jerusalem. In the Russian practice, there are detailed rules as to when the doors are to be opened during Vespers and the Divine Liturgy. When the gates are opened, it represents moments when God is especially present to his people, such as during the reading of the Gospel, most of the time the doors are closed. This is symbolic of penitence, a reminder that sin separates the individual from God, there is a curtain or veil, scored to remind that in the Temple in Jerusalem, behind the Holy Doors which is opened and closed at specific times during the services.
While the veil is always open whenever the Holy Doors are opened, sometimes when the Holy Doors are closed, the curtain is usually more plainly decorated. Alternatively a sliding panel depicting Christ the Great High Priest may take place of the doors, only the higher clergy are permitted to go through the Holy Doors, and even they may only pass through them when it is prescribed by the liturgical rubrics. During Bright Week, the Holy Doors and veil remain open the entire week, during this time, the open doors symbolize the open Tomb of Christ. The Epitaphios is visible on top of the Holy Table through the open Holy Doors as a witness of the Resurrection, the bishop will always pass through the Holy Doors, even at times when priests or deacons cannot. If the rubrics call for the Holy Doors to be closed, they will be opened for him to pass through and this is the formal entrance to the church proper and was, in former times, the ceremonial entrance of the Emperor, hence the epithet royal
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term Ukrainians to all its citizens, among historical names of the people of Ukraine Rusyns, etc. can be found. According to some definitions, a descriptive name for the inhabitants of Ukraine is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people. Belarusians and Russians are considered among the bloodline of Ukrainians, while Rusyns are another closely related group, the ethnonym Ukrainians became widely accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917. People of these territories were usually called Rus or Rusyns, the Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries, but at that time, it was mostly known as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only occasionally, and the people of Ukraine usually continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian.
This official name did not spread widely among the peasantry constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine and to themselves, in areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century, Ukrainians were known by their pre-existing names for much longer. The modern name derives from Ukrayina, a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term, according to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term u-kraine as in-land, home-land or our-country. The name in this context derives from the word u-kraina in the sense of domestic region, in the last few centuries the population of Ukraine experienced periods of Polonization and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity. Most ethnic Ukrainians live in Ukraine, where make up over three-quarters of the population.
The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities, Ukrainian and Cossack, approximately 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known historically as Green Ukraine. According to some assumptions, an estimated number of almost 2.1 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America. Large numbers of Ukrainians live in Brazil, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Portugal, there are Ukrainian diasporas in the UK, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Ireland and the former Yugoslavia. Today, large ethnic Ukrainian minorities reside in Russia, Ukrainians have one of the largest diasporas in the world. The East Slavs emerged from the undifferentiated early Slavs with the Slavic migrations in the 6th and 7th centuries CE, the East Slavs were united in the Kievan Rus during the 9th to 13th centuries. East Slavic tribes cited as proto-Ukrainian include the Volhynians, Derevlianians and Siverianians and the less significant Ulychians, the Gothic historian Jordanes and 6th-century Byzantine authors named two groups that lived in the south-east of Europe and Antes