Lard is fat from a pig, in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is a semi-soft white fat derived from fatty parts of the pig, with a high saturated fatty acid content and no trans fat. Rendering is by boiling, or dry heat; the culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the processing method. At retail, refined lard is sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Many cuisines use lard as a spread similar to butter, it is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés, fillings, it is favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it provides. In western cuisine, it has ceded its popularity to vegetable oils, but many cooks and bakers still favor it over other fats for certain uses. Lard has always been an important cooking and baking staple in cultures where pork is an important dietary item, with pig fat being as valuable a product as pork. During the 19th century, lard was used to butter in North America and many European nations. Lard remained about as popular as butter in the early 20th century and was used as a substitute for butter during World War II.
As a available by-product of modern pork production, lard had been cheaper than most vegetable oils, it was common in many people's diet until the industrial revolution made vegetable oils more common and more affordable. Vegetable shortenings were developed in the early 1900s, which made it possible to use vegetable-based fats in baking and in other uses where solid fats were called for. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle, though fictional, portrayed men falling into rendering vats and being sold as lard, it generated negative publicity. By the late 20th century lard began to be considered less healthy than vegetable oils because of its high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. However, despite its reputation, lard has less saturated fat, more unsaturated fat and less cholesterol than an equal amount of butter by weight. Unhydrogenated lard contains no transfats, it has been regarded as a "poverty food". Many restaurants in the western nations have eliminated the use of lard in their kitchens because of the health-related dietary restrictions of many of their customers, religious pork-based dietary restrictions such as Kashrut and Halal mean that some bakers will substitute beef tallow for lard.
In the 1990s and early 2000s, however and bakers rediscovered lard's unique culinary values, leading to a partial rehabilitation of this fat among "foodies". Negative publicity about the transfat content of the hydrogenated vegetable oils in vegetable shortening has driven this trend. Chef and food writer Rick Bayless is a prominent proponent of the virtues of lard for certain types of cooking, it is again becoming popular in the United Kingdom among aficionados of traditional British cuisine. This led to a "lard crisis" in late 2004. Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig; the highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the "flare" visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys and inside the loin. Leaf lard has little pork flavor, making it ideal for use in baked goods, where it is valued for its ability to produce flaky, moist pie crusts; the next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, the hard subcutaneous fat between the pig's back skin and muscle. The lowest grade is obtained from the soft caul fat surrounding digestive organs, such as small intestines, though caul fat is used directly as a wrapping for roasting lean meats or in the manufacture of pâtés.
Lard may be rendered by two processes: dry. In wet rendering, pig fat is boiled in water or steamed at a high temperature and the lard, insoluble in water, is skimmed from the surface of the mixture or separated in an industrial centrifuge. In dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a oven without water; the two processes yield somewhat differing products. Wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard has a caramelized flavor and has a lower smoke point. Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high and low quality fat from throughout the pig. Lard is hydrogenated to improve its stability at room temperature. Hydrogenated lard sold to consumers contains fewer than 0.5 g of transfats per 13 g serving. Lard is often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents and antioxidants such as BHT; these treatments prevent spoilage. Consumers wanting a higher-quality source of lard seek out artisanal producers, or render it themselves from leaf lard or fatback.
A by-product of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat and membrane tissue known as cracklings. Lard consists of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides; these triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and the distribution of fatty acids varies from oil to oil. In general lard is similar to tallow in its composition. Pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a different fatty acid content and iodine value. Peanut-fed hogs or the acorn-fed pigs raised for Jamón ibérico therefore produce a somewhat different kind of lard compared to pigs raised in North American farms that are fed corn. Lard is one of the few edible oils with a high smoke point, attributable to its high saturated fatty acids content. Pure lard is useful for cooking since it
Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt. It is related to pickling in general and more to brining and is one form of curing, it is one of the oldest methods of preserving food, two significant salt-cured foods are salted fish and salt-cured meat. Vegetables such as runner beans and cabbage are often preserved in this manner. Salting is used because most bacteria and other pathogenic organisms cannot survive in a salty environment, due to the hypertonic nature of salt. Any living cell in such an environment will become dehydrated through osmosis and die or become temporarily inactivated, it was discovered in the 19th century that salt mixed with nitrates would color meats red, rather than grey, consumers at that time strongly preferred the red-colored meat. The food hence preserved stays fresh for days avoiding bacterial decay. Jewish and Muslim dietary laws require the removal of blood from freshly slaughtered meat. Salt and brine are used for the purpose in both traditions, but salting is more common in Kosher Shechita than in Halal Dhabiha.
Curing Food preservation Food storage List of dried foods Food portal
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product made from ground meat pork, beef, or veal, along with salt and other flavourings, breadcrumbs, encased by a skin. A sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages that are sold raw are cooked in many ways, including pan-frying and barbecuing; some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may be removed. Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, smoking, or freezing; some cured or smoked sausages can be stored without refrigeration. Most fresh sausages must be frozen until they are cooked. Sausages come in a huge range of national and regional varieties, which differ by their flavouring or spicing ingredients, the meat used in them and their manner of preparation; the word "sausage" was first used in English in the mid-15th century, spelled "sawsyge". This word came from Old North French saussiche"; the French word came from salsicus.
Sausage making is an outcome of efficient butchery. Traditionally, sausage makers would salt various tissues and organs such as scraps, organ meats and fat to help preserve them, they would stuff them into tubular casings made from the cleaned intestines of the animal, producing the characteristic cylindrical shape. Hence, sausages and salami are among the oldest of prepared foods, whether cooked and eaten or dried to varying degrees. An Akkadian cuneiform tablet records a dish of intestine casings filled with some sort of forcemeat; the Chinese sausage làcháng, which consists of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. The Greek poet Homer mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey, Epicharmus wrote a comedy titled The Sausage, Aristophanes' play The Knights is about a sausage vendor, elected leader. Evidence suggests that sausages were popular both among the ancient Greeks and Romans, most with the various tribes occupying the larger part of Europe; the most famous sausage in ancient Italy was from Lucania and was called lucanica, a name which lives on in a variety of modern sausages in the Mediterranean.
During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, sausages were associated with the Lupercalia festival. Early in the 10th century during the Byzantine Empire, Leo VI the Wise outlawed the production of blood sausages following cases of food poisoning. Traditionally, sausage casings were made of the cleaned intestines, or stomachs in the case of haggis and other traditional puddings. Today, natural casings are replaced by collagen, cellulose, or plastic casings in the case of industrially manufactured sausages; some forms of sausage, such as sliced sausage, are prepared without a casing. Additionally, luncheon meat and sausage meat are now available without casings in tin jars. A sausage consists of meat cut into pieces or ground, mixed with other ingredients, filled into a casing. Ingredients may include a cheap starch filler such as breadcrumbs and flavourings such as spices, sometimes others such as apple and leek; the meat may be from any animal, but is pork, beef, or veal. The lean meat-to-fat ratio depends upon the producer.
The meat content as labelled may exceed 100%. In some jurisdictions foods described. For example, in the United States The Department of Agriculture specifies that the fat content of different defined types of sausage may not exceed 30%, 35% or 50% by weight. Many traditional styles of sausage from Asia and mainland Europe use no bread-based filler and include only meat and flavorings. In the United Kingdom and other countries with English cuisine traditions, many sausages contain a significant proportion of bread and starch-based fillers, which may comprise 30% of ingredients; the filler in many sausages helps them to keep their shape. As the meat contracts in the heat, the filler absorbs moisture and fat from the meat; when the food processing industry produces sausages for a low price point any part of the animal can end up in sausages, varying from cheap, fatty specimens stuffed with meat blasted off the carcasses and rusk. On the other hand, the finest quality contain only choice cuts of seasoning.
In Britain, "meat" declared on labels could in the past include fat, connective tissue, MRM. These ingredients may still be used, but must be labelled as such, up to 10% water may be included without being labelled. Sausages are emulsion-type products, they are composed of solid fat globules, dispersed in protein solution. The proteins function by stabilizing them in water. Sausages classification is subject to regional differences of opinion. Various metrics such as types of ingredients and preparation are used. In the English-speaking world, the following distinction between fresh and dry sausages seems to be more or less accepted: Cooked sausages are made with fresh meats, fully cooked, they are either eaten after cooking or must be refrigerated. Examples include hot dogs and liver sausage. Cooked smoked sausages are cooked and smoked or smoke-cooked. T
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in Eastern and Southeastern Asia, is very common in the Western world in Central Europe, it is prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Rastafarian dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, confit from pig. Intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes.
In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers; the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard; the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples have been a staple pairing to fresh pork; the year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates. Pigs are the most eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies from place to place. The meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But, pork is consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada for example, the national dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears and feet. According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006. Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, a further 5% increase projected in 2007. In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide. By 2017, half the world's pork was consumed in China. Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine.
It is consumed in a great many ways and esteemed in Chinese cuisine. China is the world's largest pork consumer, with pork consumption expected to total 53 million tons in 2012, which accounts for more than half of global pork consumption. In China, pork is preferred over beef for aesthetic reasons. Domestic pigs feed on human waste, thus reducing cost of feeding and helping in recycling; the colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a "strategic pork reserve". Red braised pork, a delicacy from Hunan Province, inspired Mao Zedong. Other popular Chinese pork dishes are sweet and sour pork and charsiu. In the Philippines, due to 300 years of Spanish colonization and influence, an entire roasted suckling pig, is the national delicacy. Pork may be cured over time. Cured meat products include bacon.
The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or flæskesteg, prepared with crispy crackling is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner. Pork is common as an ingredient in sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, Cumberland sausage and salami. Many brands of American hot dogs and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as charcuterie. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with smoking. Shoulders and legs are most cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side. Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, their consumption has increased with industrialisation.
Non-western cuisines use preserved meat produc
Back bacon is a cut of bacon that includes the pork loin from the back of the pig. It may include a portion of the pork belly in the same cut, it is much leaner. Back bacon is derived from the same cut used for pork chops, it is the most common cut of bacon used in British and Irish cuisine, where both smoked and unsmoked varieties are found. "Canadian bacon" or "Canadian-style bacon" is the American name for a form of back bacon, cured and cooked, trimmed into cylindrical medallions, thickly sliced. "Canadian" bacon is ready to eat. Its flavor is described as more ham-like than other types because of its lean cut; the term "Canadian bacon" is not used in Canada, where the product is known as "back bacon" while "bacon" alone refers to the same streaky pork belly bacon as in the United States. Peameal bacon is a variety of back bacon popular in southern Ontario where the loin is wet cured before being rolled in cornmeal. List of smoked foods Media related to Back bacon at Wikimedia Commons "A Guide to Bacon Styles, How to Make Proper British Rashers" at thepauperedchef.com weblog
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green, red, or white biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea, belongs to the "cole crops", meaning it is related to broccoli and cauliflower. Brassica rapa is named Chinese, celery or napa cabbage and has many of the same uses. Cabbage is high in nutritional value. Cabbage heads range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, can be green, purple or white. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common. Smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors are rarer, it is a multi-layered vegetable. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large; as of 2012, the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms. Cabbage was most domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine.
Cabbage heads are picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, bacterial and fungal diseases. Cabbages are prepared many different ways for eating. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin C and dietary fiber; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reported that world production of cabbage and other brassicas for 2014 was 71.8 million metric tonnes, with China accounting for 47% of the world total. Cabbage is the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea called colewort or field cabbage. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli.
The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of common names throughout the world."Cabbage" was used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. A related species, Brassica rapa, is named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, has many of the same uses, it is a part of common names for several unrelated species. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea and Euterpe oenocarpus; the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from a Celtic word for cabbage. Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head"; the late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche, from the Picard dialect of Old French.
This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Through the centuries, "cabbage" and its derivatives have been used as slang for numerous items and activities. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. Cabbage seedlings have a thin cordate cotyledon; the first leaves produced are ovate with a lobed petiole. Plants are 40–60 cm tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, 1.5–2.0 m tall when flowering in the second year. Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg, with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to dissected. Plants have root systems that are shallow. About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm of soil; the inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm tall, with flowers that are yellow or white.
Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, a superior ovary, two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments; the fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. Self-pollination is impossible, plants are cross-pollinated by insects; the initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm by 20–30 cm. Many shapes and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. Leaf types are divided between crinkled-leaf
A ham hock or pork knuckle is the joint between the tibia/fibula and the metatarsals of the foot of a pig, where the foot was attached to the hog's leg. It is the portion of the leg, neither part of the ham proper nor the ankle or foot, but rather the extreme shank end of the leg bone. Since this piece consists of much skin and ligaments, it requires long cooking through stewing or braising to be made palatable; the cut of meat can be cooked in flavorful sauces. It is added to soups, such as pea and ham soup, with the meat being added to the soup prior to serving; the meat of meaty hocks may be removed and served as is. Ham hocks, like hog jowls, add a distinctive flavor to various dishes; this is true for collard greens, mustard greens, green beans and navy beans. Ham hocks are essential ingredients for the distinct flavor in soul food and other forms of American Southern country cooking. In the Mid-Atlantic States, in rural regions settled by the Pennsylvania Dutch, hocks are a used ingredient for making a kind of meat loaf called scrapple.
Eisbein is the name of the joint in north German, at the same time the name of a dish of roasted ham hock, called Schweinshaxe in Bavaria, Stelze in Austria and Wädli in Switzerland. Golonka is a popular Polish barbecued dish using this cut. Ham hocks are popular when boiled with escarole, more called endives, in Italian-American cuisine. Fläsklägg med rotmos is a Swedish dish consisting of cured ham hocks and a mash of rutabaga and potatoes, served with sweet mustard. In Canada, Montreal, ham hocks are referred to as "pigs' knuckles" and are served in bistros and taverns with baked beans. In northern Italy ham hocks are referred to as stinco, is served roast whole with sauerkraut. List of ham dishes – includes ham hock dishes List of smoked foods Media related to Pork knuckle at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of ham hock at Wiktionary