The Maidan referred to as the Brigade Parade Ground, is the largest urban park in Kolkata in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vast stretch of field that includes numerous play grounds, including the famous cricketing venue Eden Gardens, several football stadiums, the Kolkata Race Course; the Maidan is dotted with statues and architectural works, the most notable being the Victoria Memorial. Due to the freshness and greenery it provides to the metropolis, it has been referred to as the "lungs of Kolkata"; the property of the Indian Army, the Maidan hosts the army's Eastern zone high command in Fort William. The Maidan stretches from the Raj Bhavan building on the Esplanade in the north to the National Library on Belvedere Road in Alipore in the south; the wide field stretches from the Hoogly River in the west to the Victoria Memorial in the east. It is a historical and cultural center of Kolkata as well as a center of leisure and entertainment for Calcuttans. In 1758, one year after their decisive win in Battle of Plassey, the British East India Company commenced construction of the new Fort William in the center of the village Gobindapur.
The inhabitants of the village were compensated and provided with land in Taltala and Shovabazar. The fort was completed in 1773; the tiger-haunted jungle which cut off the village of Chowringhee from the river was cleared, gave way to the wide grassy stretch of the Maidan of which Calcutta is so proud. The formation of this airy expanse and the filling up of the creek which had cut off the settlement in the south, led the European inhabitants to forsake the narrow limits of the old palisades; the movement towards Chowringhee had been noticeable as early as 1746. In 1883–1884 the Maidan, along with grounds of the Indian Museum, hosted the Calcutta International Exhibition. In 1909, H. E. A. Cotton wrote,The great Maidan presents a most refreshing appearance to the eye, the heavy night dew in the hot season, keeping the grass green. Many of the fine trees with which it was once studded were blown down in the cyclone of 1864, but they have not been allowed to remain without successors, the handsome avenues across the Maidan still constitute the chief glory of Calcutta.
Dotting the wide expanse are a number of fine tanks, from which the inhabitants were content in former days to obtain their water-supply. The Maidan was developed as a 5-square-kilometre parade ground for the forces. While the Europeans moved to the area around the Maidan, the Indians moved away; the richer families such as the Debs moved to Sobhabazar, the Tagores to Pathuriaghata and Jorasanko, the Ghosals to Bhukailash. The Maidan has been with the army. Thieves, both Indian and European, were there as early as the 1860s; the fort and the Maidan were excluded from the city as per Act 16 of 1847. In Bengali, the maidan is called'Gawr-er maath'.'Gawr', in Bengali, means fort and it's meaning translates to the'fort's ground'. While the core of the Maidan has remained untouched except for roads and tram tracks across it, the surrounding areas have undergone significant construction activity. In 1882, the Calcutta Tramways Corporation introduced steam-powered trams across the Maidan from Chowringhee to Kalighat and Khidirpur.
In 1889 came the electric trams. The oldest road on the Maidan is the Course, extending from the'Cocked hat' in the north to the Khidirpur bridge. The'broad gravelled walk' on the west side of that portion is the Red Road, constructed in 1820. To the south of the fort is the Ellenborough Course, meant for horse exercises, towards the east is the Race Course, started in 1819; that was the scenario a century back. Government House was built in 1803, the 48-metre high Octerlony Monument in 1848, the museum was started in the Asiatic Society in 1814 but shifted to the present site as the Indian Museum in 1887, St. Paul's Cathedral was built between 1839 and 1847, it was consecrated in 1874, the Victoria Memorial was erected in 1921. On Council House Street, at one corner of the Maidan, was the long-defunct Fort William College, which played a pioneering role in the development of many of the Indian languages Bengali; the cricket stadium at Eden Gardens was built in stages. Amongst the additions are Netaji Indoor Stadium, the M. P. Birla Planetarium,Rabindra Sadan, the Academy of Fine Arts, Nandan.
Chowringhee, part of the north-south lifeline of Kolkata, was laid down at the same time as the Maidan along what was the old road made by the Sabarna Roy Choudhurys, the old zemindars of Calcutta, from Barisha, where the junior branch resided, to Halisahar, the seat of the senior branch. The Tollygunj–Esplanade section of the Metro Railway took a little over seven years to build, all the while disturbing activity on the eastern end of the Maidan; the stations bordering the Maidan as one travels from the south are Maidan, Park Street, Esplanade. The Howrah Bridge is away from the Maidan, but the second Hooghly bridge, Vidyasagar Setu, overlooks at least one corner of the Maidan and Fort William; the Maidan was dotted with statues of British governor generals and other eminent personalities of the British Raj, includingLord Curzon, Roberts, Northbrook and others who had known Kolkata well. Two or three of them were erected in the first few years of Indian independence in 1947. Over time, many of the vacant plinths or plots were filled with statues of Indians, including Mahatma Gandhi, Ram Mohan Roy, Chittaranjan Das, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sri Aurobindo, Matangini Hazra, Pritilata
Rabindra Sadan is a cultural centre and theatre in Kolkata, located near the Nandan cinema and cultural complex and the Academy of Fine Arts on AJC Bose Road in South Kolkata. The foundation stone of Rabindra Sadan was laid by the Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru on 5 August 1961; the construction work of the auditorium ended in October 1967. It is noted for its large stage, a prime venue for Bengali theatre and Kolkata Film Festival; the Rabindra Sadan complex now houses the Rabindra Sadan stage, Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi, Gaganendra Prodorshonshala, Sisir Mancha, Nazrul Academy etc. among other centers of cultural activities. It is service by Rabindra Sadan station of Kolkata Metro on North South Corridor. Rabindra Sadan profile
Thomas Babington Macaulay
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC was a British historian and Whig politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist, on contemporary and historical sociopolitical subjects, as a reviewer, his The History of England was a seminal and paradigmatic example of Whig historiography, its literary style has remained an object of praise since its publication, including subsequent to the widespread condemnation of its historical contentions which became popular in the 20th century. Macaulay served as the Secretary at War between 1839 and 1841, as the Paymaster-General between 1846 and 1848, he played a major role in the introduction of English and western concepts to education in India, published his argument on the subject in the "Macaulay Minute" in 1835. He supported the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools, the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. On the flip side, this led to Macaulayism in India, the systematic wiping out of traditional and ancient Indian education and vocational systems and sciences.
Macaulay divided the world into civilised nations and barbarism, with Britain representing the high point of civilisation. In his Minute on Indian Education of February 1835, he asserted, "It is, I believe, no exaggeration to say that all the historical information, collected from all the books written in the Sanskrit language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgement used at preparatory schools in England", he was wedded to the Idea of Progress in terms of the liberal freedoms. He opposed radicalism while idealising historic British culture and traditions. Macaulay was born at Rothley Temple in Leicestershire on 25 October 1800, the son of Zachary Macaulay, a Scottish Highlander, who became a colonial governor and abolitionist, Selina Mills of Bristol, a former pupil of Hannah More, they named their first child after his uncle Thomas Babington, a Leicestershire landowner and politician, who had married Zachary's sister Jean. The young Macaulay was noted as a child prodigy.
He was educated at a private school in Hertfordshire, subsequently, at Trinity College, Cambridge. Whilst at Cambridge, Macaulay wrote much poetry and won several prizes, including the Chancellor's Gold Medal in June 1821. In 1825, Macaulay published a prominent essay on Milton in the Edinburgh Review, he studied law, in 1826 he was called to the bar, but he soon took more interest in a political career. In 1827, Macaulay published an anti-slavery essay, in the Edinburgh Review, in which he contested the analysis of African labourers composed by Colonel Thomas Moody, the Parliamentary Commissioner for West Indian slavery. Macaulay's father, Zachary Macaulay, had condemned the philosophy of Moody, in a series of letters to the Anti-Slavery Reporter. Macaulay, who never married and had no children, was rumoured to have fallen in love with Maria Kinnaird, the wealthy ward of Richard "Conversation" Sharp. Macaulay's strongest emotional ties were to his youngest Sisters: Margaret, who died while he was in India, Hannah.
As Hannah grew older, he formed a close attachment to Hannah's daughter Margaret, whom he called "Baba". Macaulay retained a passionate interest in western classical literature throughout his life, prided himself on his knowledge of Ancient Greek literature, he had an eidetic memory. While in India, he read every ancient Greek and Roman work, available to him. In his letters, he describes reading the Aeneid whilst on vacation in Malvern in 1851, being moved to tears by the beauty of Virgil's poetry, he taught himself German and Spanish, remained fluent in French. In 1830 the Marquess of Lansdowne invited Macaulay to become Member of Parliament for the pocket borough of Calne, his maiden speech was in favour of abolishing the civil disabilities of the Jews in the UK. Macaulay made his name with a series of speeches in favour of parliamentary reform. After the Great Reform Act of 1832 was passed, he became MP for Leeds. In the Reform, Calne's representation was reduced from two to one. Though proud to have helped pass the Reform Bill, Macaulay never ceased to be grateful to his former patron, who remained a great friend and political ally.
Macaulay was Secretary to the Board of Control under Lord Grey from 1832 until 1833. The financial embarrassment of his father meant that Macaulay became the sole means of support for his family and needed a more remunerative post than he could hold as an MP. After the passing of the Government of India Act 1833, he resigned as MP for Leeds and was appointed as the first Law Member of the Governor-General's Council, he went to India in 1834, served on the Supreme Council of India between 1834 and 1838. In his well-known Minute on Indian Education of February 1835, Macaulay urged Lord William Bentinck, the Governor-General to reform secondary education on utilitarian lines to deliver "useful learning" – a phrase that to Macaulay was synonymous with Western culture. There was no tradition of secondary education in vernacular languages. Hence, he argued, "We have to educate a people who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother-tongue. We must teach them some foreign language." Macaulay argued that Sanskrit and Persian were no more accessible than English to the speakers of the Indian vernacular languages and existi
The 42 (Kolkata)
The 42 is a residential skyscraper in Kolkata in the state of West Bengal, India. The project is located in the central business district of the city, it stands between Jeevan Sudha. It was first proposed in 2008 but construction was delayed for nearly two years. Planned by developers Mani group, Salarpuria Sattva group, Alcove Realty & Diamond Group, The 42 is Kolkata’s and India's tallest residential building. Located in the middle of the city, the tower has 62 floors; the developers of The 42 have faced a civil suit in the Calcutta High Court filed by ITC Limited, the owners of the adjoining'Fountain Court' property. The suit filed by ITC claims that ITC's right to receive light and air will be violated by the 62-storeyed residential building being constructed to the west of its'Fountain Court' property. On 19 August 2013, the Calcutta High Court passed an order that any steps taken by the developers would be subject to the outcome of the case filed by ITC. On 8 May 2014, the Court ordered that the developers of The 42 should not proceed with the construction at a pace to defeat the interests of ITC.
The matter is pending before the Calcutta High Court. List of tallest buildings in Kolkata List of tallest buildings in India List of tallest buildings in the world Official website
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
Loreto Schools, Kolkata
The Loreto Schools are a group of all-girl Roman Catholic schools throughout the world associated with the Sisters of Loreto and run by Loreto Educational Society, which in India runs 17 schools and 2 colleges. They originated in Ireland in the 1850s so as to combat the growing Protestant influence in English education in the British-controlled Ireland, its chief purpose was to ensure Catholic education for Irish Catholic girls. It spread to Australia in the 1870s. In Kolkata, Loreto schools are located at 7 Middleton Row, Entally, Bowbazar Elliot Road and Dharmatala. There are Loreto schools in other cities across India including Darjeeling, Delhi and Asansol; the schools engage in charitable activities and on academic and all-round development of the students. Loreto Convent, Asansol Loreto Convent Doranda, Ranchi Loreto Convent Lucknow, established 1872 * St. Agnes' Loreto Day School, Lucknow Loreto Convent, Tara Hall, established 1892 Loreto Convent, established 1846 Loreto Convent, Shillong Loreto Convent, Delhi List of Loreto Colleges and schools Education in Kolkata