Sani Abacha was a Nigerian Army officer and dictator who served as the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. He is the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full star General without skipping a single rank, he is accredited for his economic reforms and achievements, after he died allegations surrounding his administration use of government funds marred the unprecedented growth rates and indices recorded by his administration. He is seen as the most enigmatic leader the country has had. Sani is popular the Northern region of Nigeria Kano State, Borno State, Kaduna State and Sokoto State, many still decorate their vehicles with his posters and praise him for the various establishments he laid around the country and for bringing back security to the region. Further south of the country, there is still a disdain for the late military ruler; this can be attributed to the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa after being found guilty of killing four Ogoni leaders. A Kanuri from Borno, Abacha was brought up in Kano, Nigeria.
He attended the Nigerian Military Training College and Mons Officer Cadet School before being commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in 1963. Abacha was commissioned in 1963 after he had attended Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, England. Before he had attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna; the military career of Abacha was marked by involvement by a string of successful coups. When he was still a Second Lieutenant with the 3rd Battalion in Kaduna, he took part in the July 1966 Nigerian counter-coup from the conceptual stage, he could well have been a participant in the Lagos or Abeokuta phases of the coup the previous January as well. In addition, Abacha took a prominent role in the 1983 Nigerian coup d'état which brought General Muhammadu Buhari to power in 1983, the August 1985 coup which removed Buhari from power; when General Ibrahim Babangida was named President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1985, Abacha was named Chief of Army Staff.
He was appointed Minister of Defence in 1990. Abacha became in 1993 the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full General without skipping a single rank. On 17 November 1993, Abacha took over from the transitional government - being the Minister of Defence and most senior official - after Chief Ernest Shonekan resigned. In his nationwide broadcast, Abacha cited the stagnant nature of Chief Ernest Shonekan's government, being unable to manage the democratic process in the country as a cause of his resignation. In September 1994, he issued a decree that placed his government above the jurisdiction of the courts giving him absolute power. Another decree gave him the right to detain anyone for up to three months without trial. During Abacha's regime, he established The Petroleum Trust Fund under Decree 25, of which Muhammadu Buhari, it was inaugurated on the 25th March 1995. The PTF was formed to undertake major economic issues. Between 25-100km of urban road in major cities such as Kano, Benin, Zaria, Kaduna, Lagos and Port Harcourt each.
A N27.3bn contract was awarded for road rehabilitation in the first quarter of 1996. Before the disestablishment of the PTF in 1999 by Olusegun Obasanjo, the PTF had undertaken a holistic stance to support the sum of N1.328bn, awarded to 53 pharmaceutical companies for the supply of drugs, while the importation of vaccines cost N229.9m. As at December 31, 1997, funds available to PTF stood at N115.1bn. They oversaw the restructuring of major insurance companies that supported SME's across the entire country. Contrary to many views that the Abacha administration was financially shrouded in secrecy, Abacha had mandated the PTF to publicise its accounts as it was the second largest public corporation at the time. In 1997, the account of PTF showed that it disbursed N24.3bn on roads, N21.2bn on security, N7.8bn on health, N3bn on other projects. Other disbursements include N936m on food supply and N476m on education, it realised a total of N1.049bn from various investment activities. The Abacha administration became the first to record unprecedented economic achievements: he oversaw an increase in the country's foreign exchange reserves from $494 million in 1993 to $9.6 billion by the middle of 1997, reduced the external debt of Nigeria from $36 billion in 1993 to $27 billion by 1997.
He is revered for achieving this, in comparison no other administration before or after the inception of the Fourth Nigerian Republic had been able to achieve this. Sani Abacha brought all the controversial privatization programs of the Ibrahim Babangida administration to a halt, reduced an inflation rate of 54% inherited from IBB to 8.5% between 1993 and 1998, all while the nation's primary commodity, oil was at an average of $15 per barrel. Between 1993 and 1998, during his presidency, the country cracked-down on insecurity. Abacha, being a military man disincentivized crime on the streets or the formation of any insurgent groups; the Nigeria Police Force underwent a large scale retraining, The term'Abacha boy' emerged after the success and efficiency of security implementation by security agents of the Abacha administration. In 2013, The Goodluck Jonathan administration launched a recall of able'Abacha boy' to rejoin the security apparatus of the country but was unsuccessful because a large portion had been retired at the time.
The 1994-1995 National Constitutional Conference, which sat for one year had reasonable time to discuss and ponder over many thorny issues that concerned the Nige
Chief of Army Staff (Nigeria)
The Chief of Army Staff is the highest ranking military officer of the Nigerian Army. The position is occupied by the most senior commissioned officer appointed by the President of Nigeria. In the chain of command, the Chief of Army Staff reports to the Chief of Defence Staff, who in turn, reports to the Defence Minister, accountable to the President of Nigeria; the Statutory duty of the Officer is to formulate and execute policies towards the highest attainment of National Security and operational competence of the force. Following is a chronological list of officers holding the position of General Officer Commanding or Chief of Army Staff. Nigerian Army Day
Murtala Rufai Ramat Muhammed was the military ruler of Nigeria from 1975 until his assassination in 1976. Murtala Muhammed was born on 8 November 1938, one of eleven children of Muhammed Risqua and Uwani Rahamat in Kurama quarters of Kano, Nigeria, he was born to a Fulani family of the Genawa Clan with a history of Islamic jurisprudence as both his great-grand father and grand father held the title of Chief Alkali of Kano. His father was related to Aminu Wali and many members of the Wali family of Kano. Mohammed was educated at Cikin Gida Elementary School, within the grounds of the emir's palace, he transferred to Gidan Makama primary school in Kano, just outside the palace, he proceeded to kano Middle School in 1949 before attending the famous Government College in Zaria, where he obtained his school certificate in 1957. At Barewa College, Mohammed was a member of the Cadet Corps and was captain of shooting in his final year. In 1957, he obtained a school leaving certificate and applied to join the Nigerian army in the year.
Murtala Muhammed joined the Nigerian Army in 1958. He spent short training stints in Nigeria and Ghana and was trained as an officer cadet at Sandhurst Royal Military Academy in England, he subsequently took a specialized signals course in the tenth arm specialty of Signal at Carrerick Garrison. After his training, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1961 and assigned to the Nigerian Army Signals that same year spending a short stint with the No. 3 Brigade Signals Troop in Congo. In 1962, Muhammed was appointed aide-de-camp to M. A. Majekodunmi, the federally-appointed administrator of the Western Region. In 1963, he became the officer-in-charge of the First Brigade Signal Troop in Nigeria; that year he traveled to the Royal Corps of Signals at Catterick Garrison, England for a course on advanced telecommunications techniques. On his return to Nigeria in 1964, he was promoted to major and appointed officer-commanding, 1st Signal Squadron in Apapa, Lagos. In November 1965, he was made acting Chief of Signals of the Army, while his uncle, Inuwa Wada had been appointed Defense Minister.
Unknown to Mohammed, majors planning the January 1966 coup recruited troops from the signal unit. The coup plotters went on to assassinate leading politicians and soldiers from the Northern and Western region. After the coup plot failed, new military postings made by the new leader generated some discomfort in the North. In April 1966, Mohammed was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and was the inspector of signals posted to Army Headquarters, Lagos in a move, to pacify Northerners weary about the new military regime. Mohammed was appointed member of a Post and Telecommunications management committee. Muhammed opposed the regime of Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, which took power after a coup d'etat on 15 January 1966. Aguiyi-Ironsi, as GOC of the Nigerian Army, brought normality back to the nation by imprisoning the coup makers and intimidating the federal cabinet into handing over the helms of government to him. However, many northerners saw this and the reluctance of Ironsi to prosecute the coup leaders, the fact that the army was purportedly giving exceptional privileges to the coupist as an indication of Ironsi's support for the killings.
Northern politicians and civil servants mounted pressure upon northern officers such as Muhammed to avenge the coup. The promulgation of Decree No. 34 restructuring Nigeria from a federal constitutional structure to a unitary structure raised suspicions among many Northern officers and Mohammed and a few others began to contemplate separation of the Northern region from the country. In the night of 29 July 1966, northern soldiers at Abeokuta barracks mutinied, thus precipitating a counter-coup, which may well have been in the planning stages. A group among the officers supported secession and thus gave the code name of the coup'Araba' meaning secession in Hausa. However, after the success of the counter-coup, a group of civilians including the Chief Justice Adetokunbo Ademola, Sule Katagum, head of the Federal Public service and Musa Daggash, Permanent Secretary, defense convinced the plotters including Mohammed about the advantages of a union; the counter-coup led to the installation of Lieutenant-Colonel Yakubu Gowon as Supreme Commander of the Nigerian Armed Forces, despite the intransigence of Muhammed who wanted the role of Supreme Commander for himself.
However, as Gowon was militarily his senior, finding a lack of support from the British and American advisors, he caved in. Gowon rewarded him by confirming his appointment; the acceptance of Gowon as the Head of State was not supported by all the key military leaders, in particular, Odumegwu Ojukwu military governor of the Eastern Region. Mohammed soon felt a military option would be the outcome to keep all sides together. In January 1967, Mohammed still a Lieutenant-Colonel was appointed General Commanding Officer of the No. 2 Infantry Division. At the start of the Nigerian Civil War, Mohammed led the newly established 2nd Infantry Division; the first major act of the division was to stop the march of Biafran troops that had overran the Mid-West region and were marching towards the Western region. The division repelled the Biafran forces at Ore, Ondo State and pushed back the rebels, driving them out of the Mid-West; the actions of the division during this period in Asaba became a subject of speculation.
In a 2017 book Professors S. Elizabeth Bird and Fraser Ottanelli document the 1967 mass murder of civilians (often
Kano is the state capital of Kano State in North West, Nigeria. It is situated in the Sahelian geographic region, south of the Sahara. Kano is the second largest city in Nigeria; the Kano metropolis covered 137 square kilometres, comprised six local government areas — Kano Municipal, Dala, Gwale and Nasarawa. The total area of Metropolitan Kano is now 499 square kilometres, with a population of 2,828,861 as of the 2006 Nigerian census; the principal inhabitants of the city are the Hausa people. However, there are many; as in most parts of northern Nigeria, the Hausa language is spoken in Kano. The city is the capital of the Kano Emirate; the current emir, Muhammadu Sanusi II, was enthroned on 8 June 2014 after the death of Alhaji Ado Bayero, the thirteenth emir of Kano Emirate, on Friday, 6 June 2014. The city's Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, the main airport serving northern Nigeria, was named after politician Aminu Kano. In the 7th century, Dala Hill, a residual hill in Kano, was the site of a hunting and gathering community that engaged in iron work.
Kano was known as Dala, after the hill, was referred to as such as late as the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th by Bornoan sources. The Kano Chronicle identifies a priest of a Dala Hill spirit, as the city's first settler. While small chiefdoms were present in the area, according to the Kano Chronicle, Bagauda, a grandson of the mythical hero Bayajidda, became the first king of Kano in 999, reigning until 1063, his grandson Gijimasu, the third king, began building city walls at the foot of Dala Hill. His own son, the fifth king, completed them during his reign. In the 12th century Ali Yaji as King of Kano renounced his allegiance to the cult of Tsumburbura, accepted Islam and proclaimed the Sultanate, to last until its fall in the 19th century; the reign of Yaji ensued an era of expansionism that saw Kano becoming the capital of a pseudo Habe Empire. In 1463 Muhammad Rumfa ascended the throne. During his reign, political pressure from the rising Songhai Empire forced him to take Auwa, the daughter of Askiyah the Great as his wife.
She was to become the first female Madaki of Kano. Rumfa reformed the city, expanded the Sahelian Gidan Rumfa, played a role in the further Islamization of the city, as he urged prominent residents to convert; the Kano Chronicle attributes a total of twelve "innovations" to Rumfa. According to the Kano Chronicle, the thirty-seventh Sarkin Kano was Mohammed Sharef, his successor, Kumbari dan Sharefa, engaged in major battles with Sokoto. At the beginning of the 19th century, Fulani Islamic leader Usman dan Fodio led a jihad affecting much of central Sudan, leading to the emergence of the Sokoto Caliphate. In 1805 the last sultan of Kano was defeated by the Jobe Clan of the Fulani, Kano became an Emirate of the Caliphate. Kano was the most prosperous province of the empire; this was one of the last major slave societies, with high percentages of enslaved population long after the Atlantic slave trade had been cut off. Heinrich Barth, a German scholar who spent several years in northern Nigeria in the 1850s, estimated the percentage of slaves in Kano to be at least 50%, most of whom lived in slave villages.
The city suffered famines from 1807–10, in the 1830s, 1847, 1855, 1863, 1873, 1884, from 1889 until 1890. From 1893 until 1895, two rival claimants for the throne fought Basasa. With the help of royal slaves, Yusufu claimed the title of emir. In March, 1903 after a scanty resistance, the Fort of Kano was captured by the British, It replaced Lokoja as the administrative centre of Northern Nigeria, it was replaced as the centre of government by Zungeru and Kaduna and only regained administrative significance with the creation of Kano State following Nigerian independence. From 1913 to 1914, as the peanut business was expanding, Kano suffered a major drought, which caused a famine. Other famines during British rule occurred in 1908, 1920, 1927, 1943, 1951, 1956, 1958. By 1922, groundnut trader Alhassan Dantata had become the richest businessman in Kano, surpassing fellow merchants Umaru Sharubutu Koki and Maikano Agogo. In May 1953, an inter-ethnic riot arose due to southern newspapers misreporting on the nature of a disagreement between northern and southern politicians in the House of Representatives.
Thousands of Nigerians of southern origin died as a result of the riot. Ado Bayero became emir of Kano in 1963. Kano state was created in 1967 from the Northern Nigeria by the Federal military government; the first military police commissioner, Audu Bako, is credited with building a solid foundation for the progress of a modern society. Most of the social amenities in the state are credited to him; the first civilian governor was Abubakar Rimi. In the late 60's, a ground tracking station was established on the hill overlooking Kano to track NASA's Mercury and Gemini spacecraft when they passed over Africa. In December 1980, radical preacher Mohammed Marwa Maitatsine led riots in Kano, he was killed by security forces, but his followers started uprisings in other northern cities. After the introduction of sharia law in Kano State in 2000, many Christians left the city. 100 people were k
Anambra is a state in southeastern Nigeria. Its name was inspired by one of its Northern and riverine clans Anam but merged with "branch"; the colonialists who travelled from the present day Anambra region to present Northern Nigeria described where they were coming from as "Anam branch". The term coupled with Omambala, the Igbo name of the Anambra River formed the name Anambra; the capital and seat of government is Awka. Onitsha, a historic port city from pre-colonial times, has developed as by far the largest urban area in the state; the state's theme is "Light of the nation". Boundaries are formed by Delta State to the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east, Kogi State to the north; the name was derived from the Anambra River m which flows through the area and is a tributary of the River Niger. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo and a small population of Igala, who live in the north-western part of the state. Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State.
The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre. Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil and ceramic, it has an 100 percent arable soil. Anambra state has many other resources in terms of agro-based activities such as fisheries and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry, it has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria. In the year 2006, a foundation-laying ceremony for the first Nigerian private refinery, Orient Petroleum Refinery, was made at Aguleri area; the Orient Petroleum Resource Ltd, owners of OPR, was licensed in June 2002, by the Federal Government to construct a private refinery with a capacity of 55,000 barrels per day. In 2012, following the efforts of Governor Peter Obi and other stakeholders of Orient Petroleum, Anambra State became an oil-producing state; the indigenous company struck oil in the Anambra River basin.
On August 2, 2015, the management of Orient Petroleum Resources Plc said the company planned to increase its crude oil production to 3,000 barrels per day by September 2015, as it stepped up production activities in two new oil wells in its Aguleri oil fields. An indigenous company and Stanley Ltd, was to establish a gas plant at Umueje in Ayamelum Local Government Area to support economic activities in the oil and gas industry in the state. Since the late 1990s, there has been a migration from rural to urban areas in the state, resulting in Anambra becoming a urbanized state: 62% of its population lives in urban areas. In October 2015, the APGA-led state government of Willie Obiano signed a memorandum of understanding with Galway modular housing company, Affordable Building Concepts International, for 10,000 housing units to be built in the state. Given decades of neglect of infrastructure and bad governance, the shift in human migration has posed problems for the state. Infrastructure improvements, both physical and social, have lagged behind the growth in population.
There are problems in environmental sanitation, erosion control, provision of social services. Major cities have become characterized by inadequate and deteriorated road networks and walkways, unregulated building patterns, poor sanitation, uncontrolled street trading, mountains of garbage, chaotic transport systems, creating congestion, noise pollution, overcrowding; the government of Peter Obi, with the assistance of the UN-HABITAT, produced 20-year structural plans for three major cities in the State: Onitsha and Awka Capital Territory, to restore urban planning and guide their growth into the future. The plans contain policies and proposals for land use, city beautification, road infrastructure, industrial development, waste disposal, water supply and health and educational facilities to turn the cities into successful urban areas that can generate employment and wealth, provide high living standards for their residents. Anambra became the first state in Nigeria to adopt Structural Plans for its cities.
With effective implementation, it should systematically grow as a major economic center in Nigeria and West Africa. The process of urbanization is contributed by population growth, immigration and infrastructure initiatives like good road, water and gardens, resulting in the growth of villages into towns, town into cities and cities into metros. To have ecologically feasible development, planning requires an understanding of the growth dynamics. There is a fear that if too many people leave the villages, only the aged men and women will be left to farm; this pattern has been seen in Amesi and Achina towns in Aguata local government area. They have been important in the production of yam and cassava through consistent agriculture, but such activities have suffered due to the out-migration of youth to the urban centres. There has been both food scarcity in the over-population in urban areas. To upgrade the State capital and improve traffic, Governor Willie Obiano signed off on construction of three fly-overs between the Amawbia and Arroma end of the Enugu-Onitsha Expressway, a distance of about three kilometres within the city.
Agulu Crocodile Lake is located along Awka road in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of the state. A potential tourist site, it is home to water turtles. Fishing is not allowed on the lake; as the crocodiles are considered sacred animals, they cannot be killed. Legend says that t
Chief Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan is a British-trained Nigerian lawyer, industrialist and traditional chieftain. He was appointed as interim president of Nigeria by General Ibrahim Babangida on 26 August 1993. Babangida resigned under pressure to cede control to a democratic government. Shonekan's transitional administration only lasted three months, as a palace coup led by General Sani Abacha forcefully dismantled the remaining democratic institutions and brought the government back under military control on 17 November 1993. Prior to his political career, Shonekan was the chief executive of the United African Company of Nigeria PLC, a large Nigerian conglomerate. Shonekan was raised in Lagos, the former Nigerian capital; the son of an Abeokuta-born civil servant, he was one of six children born into the family. Shonekan was educated at C. M. S grammar Igbobi College Yaba, he attended and received a law degree from the University of London, was called to the bar. He joined UAC in 1964, was sent to Harvard Business School.
At UAC, he pursued a legal path. He became a deputy adviser two years and soon joined the board. In 1980, he was made chairman and chief executive of UAC; as head of UAC, he was the chief executive of the largest African-controlled company in Sub-Saharan Africa. Shonekan was a proven businessman with a wide network, his abilities and political neutrality made him a prospective leader for Babangida's council of civilian government, an entity, in the midst of economic turmoil and came to a political crisis. On 2 January 1993, Shonekan assumed office as the head of government affairs under the leadership of the military president Babangida. At the time, the transitional council was designed to be the final phase leading to a scheduled hand over to an elected democratic leader. Shonekan learned of the dire condition of government finances; the 1993 budget was pegged to include a 28 billion naira deficit with little money left in its foreign reserves. The government was hard pressed on debt obligations and had to hold constant talks for debt rescheduling.
Improvements were underway. The Armed Forces Ruling Council had designed a realistic two-year economic program; the program's outline called for reducing the petrol subsidy, to bring in 65 billion naira to government coffers. A modification of VAT was in the works and a plan to inculcate fiscal discipline. By the end of June, following the cancellation of the presidential elections of 12 June, the Nigerian nation was engulfed in political turmoil. Fiscal discipline was not heeded, the government exceeded the deficit target by the beginning of the second quarter. By August 1993, Babangida had decided to install an Interim government. Oloye Shonekan assumed the office of President of Nigeria on 26 August 1993, with Babangida's blessing; the nation was moving towards a stalemate. Shonekan had lobbied for debt cancellation but, after the cancellation of 12 June elections, most of the western powers had imposed economic sanctions on Nigeria. Inflation was uncontrollable and most non-oil foreign investment disappeared.
The political problems continued. The winner of the 12 June elections vowed to oppose the interim government; the democracy supporters of southwest Nigeria, Shonekan's region, considered him an obstacle on the nation's path to democracy, social justice, improving the welfare of the people. During his few months in power, he tried to create a new timetable for democratic return, while his government was hampered by a workers' strike. Shonekan released, he tried to set a timetable for troop withdrawal from ECOMOG's peacekeeping mission in Liberia. The government initiated an audit of the accounts of NNPC, the oil giant, an organisation that had many operational inefficiencies. Shonekan's administration introduced a bill to repeal three major draconian decrees of the military government, his control of the military was loose. This would prove to be his undoing, as the defence secretary made a military coup and took control of power in November 1993, just a few months into the administration. Cabinet of Ernest Shonekan "Military swears in transitional government", Agence France Presse—English, 4 January 1993 "Nigeria prepares medium-term plan", Financial Times, 28 January 1993 "NIGERIA: HARD ROAD AHEAD FOR INTERIM GOVERNMENT", IPS-Inter Press Service, 26 August 1993
Idris Garba is a Nigerian soldier, Military Governor of Kano State from 1989 to 1992. Idris Garba was born on July 1947 in Gulu, Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, he had a secondary education in the Nigerian Military School, Zaria 1963 - 1967. He entered the Nigerian Defence Academy and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1968, he attended the following courses: Artillery Troop Commanders Course USSR, July 1970 - September 1971 Young Officers Course Nowshera, July - December, 1972 Technical Gunnery Course Larkhill, Salisbury, UK, May - August, 1975. Field Artillery Officers Advanced Course, Oklahoma, USA June 1977 to February 1978, his commands were: Troop Commander, second Field Artillery Regiment, November, 1968 - September 1969. Commanding Officer, second Field Artillery Regent Ibadan, September 1969 to July 1970. Battalion Commander, Oyo September, 1971 to October, 1973. Instructor/Chief Instructor Nigerian Army School of Artillery, Kaduna 1974 to August, 1976. May to December, 1980.
During the military rule of General Ibrahim Babangida he was appointed Military Governor of Benue State in 1988. He was appointed governor of Kano State in August 1988. In December 1991, Col. Idris Garba enacted an edict which repealed previous laws and vested the Kano State Sports Council with the responsibilities of promoting and developing sports in the state