Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario, corporately branded as Western University as of 2012 and shortened to Western, is a public research university in London, Canada. The main campus is located on 455 hectares of land, surrounded by residential neighbourhoods and the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion; the university operates twelve academic schools. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario". It incorporated Huron University College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. The Western University of London became non-denominational in 1908. Beginning in 1919, the university has affiliated with several denominational colleges; the university grew in the post-World War II era, as a number of faculties and schools were added to university. Western is a co-educational university, with more than 24,000 students, with over 306,000 living alumni worldwide.
Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, distinguished fellows. Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of U Sports; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as The Western University of London Ontario, its first chancellor was Chief Justice Richard Martin Meredith. It incorporated Huron College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. There were only 15 students when classes began in 1881. Although the university was incorporated in 1878, it was not until 20 June 1881 that it received the right to confer degrees in Arts and Medicine. In 1882, the name of the university was revised to The Western University and College of London, Ontario; the first convocation of graduates was held on 27 April 1883. Affiliated with the Church of England, Western became non-denominational in 1908.
In 1916, the university's current site was purchased from the Kingsmill family. There are two World War I memorial plaques in University College; the first lists the 19 students and graduates of the University of Western Ontario who lost their lives. A third plaque lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. In 1923, the university was renamed The University of Western Ontario; the first two buildings constructed by architect John Moore and Co. at the new site were the Arts Building and the Natural Science Building. Classes on the university's present site began in 1924; the University College tower, one of the university's most distinctive features, was named the Middlesex Memorial Tower in honour of the men from Middlesex County who fought in World War I. In 1919, the Ursuline Sisters had established Brescia College as a Roman Catholic affiliate, in the same year Assumption College in Windsor affiliated with the university.
Before the end of the affiliation, Assumption College was one of the largest colleges associated with the university. Waterloo College of Arts became affiliated with Western in 1925. St. Peter's College seminary of London, Ontario was became affiliated with Western in 1939, it became King's College, an arts college. Today, King's, Brescia colleges are all still affiliates of Western. Two World War II memorial honour rolls are hung on the Physics and Astronomy Building: the first lists the UWO students and graduates who served in the Second World War, the second lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. Although enrollment was small for many years, the university began to grow after World War II, it added a number of faculties in the post-war period, such as the Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of Business Administration, the Faculty of Engineering Science, the Faculty of Law, Althouse College for education students and the Faculty of Music.
In 2012, the university rebranded itself as "Western University" to give the school less of a regional or national identity. "We want to be international," president Dr. Amit Chakma told The Globe and Mail; the university's legal name, remains "The University of Western Ontario" and is used on transcripts and diplomas. The University of Western Ontario is in the city of London, Ontario, in the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the majority of the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods, with the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion. Western Road is the university's major transportation artery, going north to south; the central campus of Western, which includes most of the University's student residences and teaching facilities is 170.8 hectares. Student residences make up the largest portion of Western's building area, with 31 percent of all building space allocated for residential use. Teaching and research facilities take up the second largest portion of building space, with 28 percent of all buildin
Bancroft is a town located on the York River in Hastings County in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was first settled in the 1850s by Irish immigrants. From the mid 1950s to about 1982 mining was the primary industry. A village until 1999, Bancroft merged with Dungannon Township to form the Town of Bancroft; the population at the time of the 2016 Census was 3,881. By 1823, the government had purchased nearly two million acres of land from the Chippewa and Mississaga First Nations including a tract on the York River in Hastings County, established in 1792; the area was mapped in 1835 by explorer David Thompson. The first family to build a cabin here, the Clarks in 1853, did so to take advantage of the fur trade. Early settlers included James Cleak and Alfred Barker from England who arrived in 1855, settling on Quarry Lake, they got jobs in administration. Over the years the settlement grew quickly. Lumber companies arrived to remove timber; some of the earliest settlers were United Empire Loyalists, but from 1856 to 1861, most were from Ireland, fleeing the problems caused by the Great Famine.
Most of the settlers were attracted to the area by the offer of free 100-acre parcels, advertised in Great Britain. Some of the residents sold furs, obtained through trapping; the settlement had various names over York Mills, York River and York Branch. A grist mill opened in 1865, gold was discovered in 1866 and other minerals would be discovered later; the first church and two schools were built in 1870 In 1879 the name of the settlement was changed to Bancroft by Senator Billa Flint, after the maiden name of his wife. Flint convinced tradesmen to move to the area and that helped to attract more settlers. A woolen mill began operating in 1884; the Central Ontario Railway arrived in 1900, in 1903 a second railway, the I. B. & O. built a line through here. They were beneficial in transporting goods. Bancroft was incorporated as a village in December 1904; the first telephone in the village was at the railway station. Electricity was not available until 1930. Uranium was discovered in 1949 and construction of the first mine started in 1952.
The large Madawaska Mine operated until 1982. Other minerals were mined over the years; the closing of the mine caused some economic hardship. In 1999, Bancroft merged with Dungannon Township to form the Town of Bancroft; as of the Oct 2018 Municipal election, the current Mayor is Paul Jenkins. Population trend: Population in 2016: 3881 Population in 2011: 3880 Population in 2006: 3838 Population in 2001: 4089 Population in 1996: Bancroft: 2554 Dungannon: 1526 Population in 1991: Bancroft: 2383 Dungannon: 1412Mother tongue: English as first language: 96.4% French as first language: 0.8% English and French as first language: 0.3% Other as first language: 2.5% Silent Lake Provincial Park nearby south on Highway 28 provides local camping opportunities. American sportsmen hunted on this private lake for 40 years before it became a park. Silent Lake has a rocky and undeveloped shoreline, a mixed forest and marshes full of birds and wildlife best seen by canoe. A rugged trail circles the lake, sections of groomed ski trails have been graded for mountain biking.
Algonquin Provincial Park about an hour away on Highway 62 N - Highway 127 N - Highway 60 W provides camping and hiking opportunities, beautiful forest and outdoor scenery. Portaging is quite common in this park. Algonquin offers many visitor attractions. Like Silent Lake, Algonquin has a rocky and extensive undeveloped shoreline, a mixed forest and marshes full of birds and wildlife best seen by canoe; the OFSC trails through the park provide easy winter access by snowmobile. One of the most common sights is the Canadian Moose. In 2004, Bancroft won TVOntario's "Most Talented Town in Ontario" contest. A large number of artists and artisans live in the surrounding area, exhibit together in events like the "Fall Studio Tour"; the Art Gallery of Bancroft is the area's only public not-for profit art gallery. Run by dedicated volunteers, the AGB mounts 11-12 exhibitions per year celebrating the work of local and regional artists and artisans; these exhibitions include the popular annual "Juried Show" and the annual student show displaying the work of four regional high schools.
The gallery gift shop displays the paintings and fine crafts of area artists and the AGB boasts a permanent collection including some of Ontario's finest artists. The town is home to the "Village Playhouse", a theatre, hosting sold out plays and concerts since the early 1990s; the Bancroft Community Hall, the historical building was once the local jail, court house and library. Bancroft lies at the intersection of two provincial highways, Highway 28 and Highway 62, with several other inroads allowing access to the city. Bancroft is served by the Jack Brown Airport, a Transport Canada Registered Aerodrome, with a 2,200 foot crushed gravel runway, located adjoining the town. A small airport, it was named after the man, reeve at the time and instrumental in its construction. Operated by the Bancroft Flying Club, the Jack Brown Airport is available to the general public and referred to as The Bancroft Airport. Due to high terrain near both ends of the runway, pilots use a non-standard ci
Waterloo is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, is adjacent to the city of Kitchener. Kitchener and Waterloo are jointly referred to as "Kitchener–Waterloo", "KW", or the "Twin Cities". While there were several unsuccessful attempts to combine the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo, following the 1973 establishment of the Region of Waterloo there was less motivation to do so. At the time of the 2016 census, the population of Waterloo was 104,986. Waterloo started on land, part of a parcel of 675,000 acres assigned in 1784 to the Iroquois alliance that made up the League of Six Nations; the rare gift of land from Britain to indigenous people took place to compensate for wartime alliance during the American Revolution. Immediately—and with much controversy—the native groups began to sell some of the land. Between 1796 and 1798, 93,000 acres were sold through a Crown Grant to Richard Beasley, with the Six Nations Indians continuing to hold the mortgage on the lands.
The first wave of immigrants to the area comprised Mennonites from Pennsylvania. They bought deeds to land parcels from Beasley and began moving into the area in 1804; the following year, a group of 26 Mennonites pooled resources to purchase all of the unsold land from Beasley and to discharge the mortgage held by the Six Nations Indians. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000 acre section of Block Two from the German Company, established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; the Tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least four hundred acres in size; the German Company, represented by Daniel Erb and Samuel Bricker, had acquired the land from previous owner Richard Beasley. The payment to Beasly, in cash, arrived from Pennsylvania in kegs, carried in a wagon surrounded by armed guards; the Mennonites divided the land into smaller lots. Erb called the founder of Waterloo, had come to the area in 1806 from Franklin County, Pennsylvania.
He bought 900 acres of bush land in 1806 from the German Company and founded a sawmill and grist mill. The grist mill operated continuously for 111 years. Other early settlers of what would become Waterloo included Samuel and Elia Schneider who arrived in 1816; until about 1820, settlements such as this were quite small. In 1816 the new township was named after Waterloo, the site of the Battle of Waterloo, which had ended the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. After that war, the new township became a popular destination for German immigrants. By the 1840s, German settlers had overtaken the Mennonites as the dominant segment of the population. Many Germans settled in the small hamlet to the southeast of Waterloo. In their honour, the village was named Berlin in 1833. By 1831, Waterloo had a small post office in the King and Erb Street area, operated by Daniel Snyder, some 11 years before one would open in neighbouring Berlin; the Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 states that the Township of Waterloo consisted of Pennsylvanian Mennonites and immigrants directly from Germany who had brought money with them.
At the time, many did not speak English. There were eight grist and twenty saw mills in the township. In 1841, the population count was 4424. In 1846 the village of Waterloo had a population of 200, "mostly Germans". There was a sawmill and some tradesmen. By comparison, Berlin had a population of about 400 "mostly German", more tradesmen than the village of Waterloo."Berlin was chosen as the site of the seat for the County of Waterloo in 1853. By 1869, the population was 2000. Waterloo was incorporated as a village in 1857 and became the Town of Waterloo in 1876 and the City of Waterloo in 1948. In 2016, a corduroy road was unearthed in the King St. area of the business district. The road was built by Mennonites using technology acquired in Lancaster County Pennsylvania, between the late 1790s and 1816; the log road was buried in about 1840 and a new road built on top of it. Waterloo's city centre is located near the intersection of Erb streets. Since 1961, the centrepiece has been the Waterloo Town Square shopping centre, which underwent a thorough renovation in 2006.
Much of the mall was torn down and has been replaced by buildings that emphasize street-facing storefronts. Residents refer to the Waterloo city centre as "uptown", while "downtown" is reserved for the Kitchener city centre, as Kitchener had been the dominant centre, Waterloo was a small town on the Kitchener's north side. Waterloo surged into a significant City in the third-quarter of the 20th Century, due in large part to its role as a university city, it has benefited with the growth of Insurance companies. Waterloo has prospered with the relationship between the Tech Sector, which has blossomed, the University of Waterloo whose technology graduates have excelled. Blackberry Research In Motion, is the best example; the city centre was once along Albert Street, near the Marsland Centre and the Waterloo Public Library. The town hall, fire hall, farmers' market were located there. Amidst some controversy, all were demolished
Sioux Lookout is a town in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. Located 350 km northwest of Thunder Bay, it has a population of 5,272 people and an elevation of 390 m. Known locally as the "Hub of the North", it is serviced by the Sioux Lookout Airport, Highway 72, the Sioux Lookout railway station. According to a 2011 study commissioned by the municipality, health care and social services ranked as the largest sources of employment, followed by the retail trade, public administration and warehousing, manufacturing and food services, education. There are a number of fishing camps in the area that allow access to an extensive lake system fed by the English River; the town is surrounded by several beaches, including Umphreville Park, a historical site that predates the town itself. During the summer months, Sioux Lookout's population rises as tourists, most of whom are American, arrive to take advantage of the multitude of lakes and rivers in the area. Experienced guides, employed by the camps, can locate the best locations and provide an educated tour of the unique land known affectionately as "sunset country".
In addition to the town of Sioux Lookout itself, the municipal boundaries include the community of Hudson and the railway point Pelican, located west on the Canadian National Railway transcontinental main line. Sioux Lookout's name comes from First Nations story; this mountain, known as Sioux Mountain, was used in the late 18th century by Ojibway People to watch for any oncoming Sioux warriors looking to ambush their camp. A careful eye could see the sun shining off the birch of enemy canoes crossing nearby rapids. Women and children could be led away safely while the warriors could intercept the Sioux on the water. Illustrating this old story on the front page of the local newspaper, The Sioux Lookout Bulletin, is an iconic image of a First Nations man, holding a hand above his eyes to scan the waters. Present-day Sioux Lookout was incorporated in 1912 and was a terminal and junction on the National Transcontinental Railway. For many years, Sioux Lookout was a railway town; when gold was discovered in Red Lake, it became one of the leading aviation centers in Canada during the twenties and thirties.
During the Cold War, Sioux Lookout operated a radar base to monitor any activity from the Soviet Union. Now, the Canadian National Railway is a significant employer, but it and the forest products industry are no longer the largest sectors of the municipality’s diversified economy. Instead, as a service centre for numerous northern First Nations communities, health-care and social services and the provincial and federal government are major sources of Sioux Lookout employment; as a result, Sioux Lookout felt the effects of the recession in the early 1980s. The closure of the lumber mill in Hudson, around the time of the global financial crisis and recession in 2008-09, contributed to significant employment changes and demographic shifts. Urban Sioux Lookout fronts on Pelican Lake, the municipality undertook a lakefront improvement program to beautify this area. There are now more parks and other recreational facilities along the lakefront. Numerous other lakes are accessible by car or boat from Sioux Lookout.
Tourism makes a significant contribution to the local economy, there is far more capacity for development and its potential is starting to be recognized. The boundaries of Sioux Lookout were expanded on January 1, 1998 to include a number of unorganized geographic townships surrounding the town itself. Sioux Lookout experiences a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and short, warm summers; the highest temperature recorded in Sioux Lookout was 39.4 °C on 29 June 1931 and 11 July 1936. The coldest temperature recorded was −46.1 °C on 18 February 1966. Sioux Lookout has a population of 5,272 as of 2016, a 4.7% increase from 2011. As an ethnically diverse community, Sioux Lookout has a large Indigenous population along with a smaller number of individuals from all over the world; the average household size is 2.6 persons. The median household income in 2015 for Sioux Lookout was $85,146, above the Ontario provincial average of $74,287; the average age in Sioux Lookout is 37.1 years old.
Population trend: Population in 2016: 5272 Population in 2011: 5037 Population in 2006: 5183 Population in 2001: 5336 Population in 1996: 3469 Population in 1991: 3311 Sioux Lookout elects one mayor, four "councillors-at-large", one councillor for Ward 1, one councillor for Ward 2. Mayor Doug Lawrance leads a council of Don Fenelon, John Bath, Steven Forbes, Yolaine Kirlew, Joyce Timpson, Cal Southall; the town is represented in the House of Commons of Canada by Liberal MP Bob Nault in the electoral district of Kenora, in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario by NDP MPP Sol Mamakwa in the electoral district of Kiiwetinoong. The main industries of Sioux Lookout are: Services Forestry Transportation Tourism The population explodes during the spring and summer months when seasonal residents arrive. Most of Sioux Lookout's tourism comes from people wanting to experience outdoor activities. Fishing is the main tourist attraction during the summer months due to the access to numerous lakes, such as Lac Seul and Minnitaki Lake.
While Confederation College is based in Thunder Bay, it operates several campuses across northwestern Ontario which incl
University of Guelph
The University of Guelph is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Canada. It was established in 1964 after the amalgamation of Ontario Agricultural College, the MacDonald Institute, the Ontario Veterinary College, has since grown to an institution of more than 32,000 students and over 1,500 faculty as of fall 2015, it offers 94 undergraduate degrees, 48 graduate programs, 6 associate degrees in many different disciplines. The Veterinary medicine program at the University of Guelph was ranked 4th in the world in 2015; the University of Guelph is ranked 4th in Canada in Maclean's "University Rankings 2018" in the Comprehensive category, which includes universities that conduct a significant degree of research and offer a wide range of undergraduate and professional degrees. It is given top marks for student satisfaction among medium-sized universities in Canada by The Globe and Mail, it has held these rankings with its reputation, innovative research-intensive programs, lively campus life cited as particular strengths.
According to the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, the university's Hospitality and Tourism Management program has Canada's highest research index. The University of Guelph has been ranked 50th by Times Higher Education in their list of the top 100 universities under 50 years old; the university has a key focus on life science and has ranked 76–100 in the world by ARWU. The faculty at the University of Guelph hold 28 Canada Research Chair positions in the research areas of natural sciences, health sciences and social sciences. Academic achievements include the first scientific validation of water on Mars, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on board the Curiosity rover, the Barcode of Life project for species identification; the University of Guelph traces its origins back to when the Ontario government bought 200 hectares of farmland from Frederick William Stone and opened the Ontario School of Agriculture on May 1, 1874, renamed the Ontario Agricultural College in 1880. The Experimental Farm has been part of the original project along with the museum of agriculture and horticulture.
Its first building was Moreton Lodge, located where Johnston Hall now stands, which included classrooms, residences, a library, a dining room. In 1874, the school started an apiculture department, teaching students about bees and beekeeping, in a dedicated building. In more recent years, the program has continued at the Honey Bee Research Centre located in the Arboretum, continuing research on honeybee health, providing apiculture and beekeeping courses and offering "many other educational experiences" including informative videos for beekeepers; the Macdonald Institute was established in 1903 to house women's home economics programs, nature studies, some domestic art and science. It was named after its financier, Sir William Macdonald, who worked to promote domestic sciences in rural Canada, founded Macdonald College and McGill University College; the Ontario Veterinary College, founded in Toronto in 1862, was moved to Guelph in 1922. Famous economist John Kenneth Galbraith was an undergraduate at the college.
In 1919 the Ontario Agricultural College aimed at recruiting "farm boys" with a low cost, two year program and "the lowest possible rate" for room and board. The Ontario Legislature amalgamated the three colleges into the single body of the University of Guelph on May 8, 1964; the University of Guelph Act brought about the Board of Governors to oversee administrative operations and financial management, the Senate to address academic concerns. The non-denominational graduate and undergraduate institution was, remains known for the agricultural and veterinary programs that shaped it. Wellington College was established shortly after the University of Guelph Act, five years was split three ways into the College of Arts, which exists in the present day, the College of Physical Science and the College of Social Science; the Macdonald Institute would be renamed the College of Family and Consumer Studies during the split. After this split, the University of Guelph started reorganizing into its present-day form, starting from the establishment of the College of Biological Sciences in 1971.
The College of Physical Science would be married to the OAC's School of Engineering in 1989, creating the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences. The College of Social Science and the College of Family and Consumer Studies were joined to create the College of Social and Applied Human Sciences in 1998; the College of Management and Economics would be established from the segregation of offered business and economic degrees and courses in 2006. The university is named after the city. Guelph comes from the Italian Guelfo and the Bavarian-Germanic Welf known as Guelf, it is a reference to the reigning British monarch at the time Guelph was founded, King George IV, whose family was from the House of Hanover, a younger branch of the House of Welf was sometimes spelled as Gwelf. The main university campus spans 412 hectares, including the 165-hectare University of Guelph Arboretum and a 12-hectare research park. Earliest examples of the campus' architecture date back to the inception of the Ontario Agricultural College and include the President's house and Raithby House, which were constructed with local limestone.
The campus has a number of notable midcentury modernist buildings in the Brutalism style, which were constructed in the 1960s as part of the school's
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves