C. Farris Bryant
Cecil Farris Bryant was the 34th Governor of Florida. He served on the United States National Security Council and in the Office of Emergency Planning during the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Born in Marion County, Bryant graduated from Ocala High School before attending Emory University in Atlanta, from 1931 to 1932, he completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Florida in Gainesville in 1935 with a business degree. There he was a member of Florida Blue Key, the Alpha Tau Omega social fraternity, the Alpha Kappa Psi business fraternity. Bryant continued his education at Harvard University in Cambridge, where he earned a law degree in 1938. After completing his education, he went to work in the office of the state Comptroller, where he met his future wife, Julia Burnett, he proposed on their first date. They were married for 56 years. In 1942, Bryant won, he resigned the seat to join the armed services during World War II, in which he served in the United States Navy as a gunnery and antisubmarine officer in the North Atlantic and Pacific.
In 1946, he was again elected to his seat, he served five consecutive terms until 1956. He was Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives in 1953, his uncle, Ion Farris, was a former state House Speaker. In 1960, Bryant was elected governor and took the oath of office on January 3, 1961. Like most Florida politicians at the time, he was a segregationist; when running for governor in 1956 Bryant told a crowd: "I'm for segregation.... In the homes of Negroes we find different intellectual levels and moral and sanitary standards." White opposition to the first Civil Rights protests in Florida helped him win the election in 1960. Bryant's administration continued Collins's focus on education, he helped fund 28 junior colleges and additional state universities. He worked to get interstate and state highways built in Florida and to purchase public lands for future use by the state, saying that it was important to do it "before the need arose – or before it became critical." Bryant was a major proponent of the Cross Florida Barge Canal.
Like his predecessor and successor, he opposed the death penalty, but some executions took place during his administration, as the Florida governor had limited power to commute sentences. Bryant left office on January 5, 1965. After his term as governor, Bryant headed to Washington, D. C. to serve in the White House Office of Emergency Planning. In 1970, back in Florida, he ran for the U. S. Senate seat vacated by the retiring Democrat Spessard L. Holland, but was defeated in the Democratic runoff election by the more liberal and lesser-known state senator Lawton Chiles of Lakeland. Chiles went on to win the seat over the Republican nominee, U. S. Representative William C. Cramer of St. Petersburg. During the campaign, in which President Nixon came to Cramer's assistance, Chiles quipped that Cramer had expected to face Bryant: "I'm not anything Cramer thought he would be running against. So he's reduced to telling lies about me." Chiles served in the Senate from 1971 to 1989 and as governor from 1991 to 1998.
Upon his defeat, Bryant returned to the practice of law in Jacksonville, where he lived until his death in 2002. In 1972, he joined John B. Connally, Jr. the former governor of Texas, in the "Democrats for Nixon" organization and helped secure Florida for the Republican presidential ticket that year. Never a diehard segregationist, he renounced his earlier positions and came out in support of civil rights. Bryant had become a multimillionaire due to his lucrative law practice and an insurance company he founded, his wife, died of cancer in 1996. Bryant was devastated by her death, saying that "to lose her was hell", he died six years later, they are interred together in the Woodlawn Cemetery. In 2000, Bryant created the Farris and Julia Bryant Florida History Preservation Fund Endowment for the University of Florida Libraries to preserve Florida history and culture. Collections digitally and physically preserved include the Papers of C. Farris Bryant and the Florida History and Heritage Collections".
The Age of the Mind is a 2013 documentary film about Bryant’s policies and their lasting impact on Florida. Focusing on his years as governor, the documentary highlights many contentious episodes during his administration, including the St. Augustine Civil Rights protests, the construction of the Florida Turnpike and Florida Barge Canal, the Cuban refugee crisis that resulted from the failed Bay of Pigs invasion. Papers of Governor C. Farris Bryant Digital Collection in The Floridians within the University of Florida Digital Collections Official Governor's portrait and biography from the State of Florida University of Florida video, "Adapting the Atom" with introduction by C. Farris Bryant on YouTube Video of C. Farris Bryant on Florida Memory Obituary of C. Farris Bryant in the New York Times
Platoon is a 1986 American anti-war film written and directed by Oliver Stone, starring Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe, Charlie Sheen, Keith David, Kevin Dillion, John C. McGinley, Forest Whitaker, Johnny Depp, it is the first film of a trilogy of Vietnam War films directed by Stone, followed by Born on the Fourth of July and Heaven & Earth. The film, based on Stone's experience from the war, follows a U. S. Army volunteer fighting in the war while his two sergeants argue over the leadership of the platoon. Stone wrote the screenplay based upon his experiences as a U. S. infantryman in Vietnam, to counter the vision of the war portrayed in John Wayne's The Green Berets. Although having written films such as Midnight Express and Scarface, Stone struggled to get the film developed until Hemdale Film Corporation acquired the project along with Salvador. Filming lasted 54 days. Platoon was the first Hollywood film to be directed by a veteran of the Vietnam War. Upon its release, Platoon received critical acclaim for Stone's directing and screenplay, the performances, battle sequences, realism.
The film was a box office success upon its release, grossing $138.5 million domestically against its $6 million budget. The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards at the 59th Academy Awards, won four including Best Picture, Best Director for Stone, Best Sound and Best Film Editing. In 1998, the American Film Institute placed Platoon at #83 in their "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies" poll. In 1967, U. S. Army volunteer Chris Taylor arrives in South Vietnam and is assigned to an infantry platoon of the 25th Infantry Division near the Cambodian border; the platoon is led by the young and inexperienced Lieutenant Wolfe, but in reality the soldiers defer to two of his older and more experienced subordinates: the hardened and cynical Staff Sergeant Robert "Bob" Barnes, the more idealistic Sergeant Elias. Taylor is sent out with Barnes and veteran soldiers on a planned night ambush for a North Vietnamese army force; the NVA soldiers manage to get close to the sleeping Americans before a brief firefight ensues.
After his return from hospital, Taylor bonds with Elias and his circle of marijuana-smokers while remaining aloof from Barnes and his more hard-edged followers. During a subsequent patrol, three men are killed by booby traps and unseen assailants. On edge, the platoon is further angered when they discover an enemy supply and weapons cache in a nearby village. Barnes, through a Vietnamese-speaking soldier, aggressively interrogates the village chief about whether the villagers have been aiding the NVA, cold-bloodedly shoots the chief's wife dead when she snaps back at him. Elias arrives, getting into a physical altercation with Barnes over the killing before Wolfe breaks it up and orders the supplies destroyed and the village razed. Taylor prevents a gang-rape of two girls by some of Barnes' men; when the platoon returns to base, the veteran company commander Captain Harris declares that if he finds out that an illegal killing took place, a court-martial will ensue, leaving Barnes worried that Elias will testify against him.
On their next patrol, the platoon is ambushed and pinned down in a firefight, in which numerous soldiers are wounded. More men are wounded when Lieutenant Wolfe accidentally directs an artillery strike onto his own unit before Barnes calls it off. Elias takes two other men to intercept flanking enemy troops. Barnes orders goes back into the jungle to find Elias' group. Barnes finds Elias alone and shoots him returns and tells Taylor that Elias was killed by the enemy. While the platoon is extracting via helicopter, they glimpse Elias, mortally wounded, emerging from the treeline and being chased by a group of North Vietnamese soldiers, who kill him. Taylor realizes. At the base, Taylor attempts to talk his group into fragging Barnes in retaliation when Barnes, having overheard them, enters the room and mocks them. Taylor assaults the intoxicated Barnes but is overpowered. Barnes cuts Taylor near his eye with a push dagger before departing; the platoon is sent back to the front line to maintain defensive positions, where Taylor shares a foxhole with Francis.
That night, a major NVA assault occurs, the defensive lines are broken. Most of the platoon, including Wolfe and most of Barnes' followers, are killed in the ensuing battle. During the attack, an NVA sapper, armed with explosives, destroys the battalion headquarters in a suicide attack. Now in command of the defense, Captain Harris orders his air support to expend all their remaining ordnance inside his perimeter. During the chaos, Taylor encounters Barnes, wounded and driven to insanity. Just as Barnes is about to kill Taylor, both men are knocked unconscious by the air strike. Taylor regains consciousness the following morning, picks up an enemy rifle, finds Barnes, who orders Taylor to call a medic. Seeing that Taylor will not help, Barnes contemptuously tells Taylor to kill him. Francis, who survived the battle unharmed, deliberately stabs himself in the leg and reminds Taylor that because they have been twice wounded, they can return home. Taylor waves goodbye to the remaining troops as helicopters carry him and Francis away along with other wounded soldiers.
Overwhelmed, Taylor sobs. In a voice-over, Taylor says that although the war is now over for him, it will remain with him for the rest of his life. After his tour of duty in the Vietnam War ended in 1968, Oliver Stone wrote
Gary Leonard Oldman is an English actor and filmmaker who has performed in theatre and television. Known for his versatility and expressive acting style, Oldman is regarded as one of the greatest actors of his generation. Among other accolades, he has won an Academy Award, three BAFTA Awards, two Critics' Choice Awards, a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, along with nominations for an Emmy Award and the Palme d'Or. In 2011, Empire readers voted him the recipient of the Empire Icon Award. Oldman began acting in theatre in 1979, made his earliest screen appearances in Remembrance and Meantime, he continued to lead a stage career, during which he performed at London's Royal Court and was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company, with credits including Cabaret, The Massacre at Paris, Entertaining Mr Sloane, The Country Wife and Hamlet. Oldman rose to prominence in British film with his portrayals of Sid Vicious in Sid and Nancy, Joe Orton in Prick Up Your Ears, a football firm leader in The Firm and Rosencrantz in Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead.
Identified with the "Brit Pack", he achieved greater renown as a Hell's Kitchen gangster in State of Grace, Lee Harvey Oswald in JFK and Count Dracula in Bram Stoker's Dracula. Oldman went on to star as the antagonists of several films, including True Romance, The Fifth Element, Air Force One and The Contender, he meanwhile played Ludwig van Beethoven in Immortal Beloved. In the 21st century, Oldman is known for his roles as Sirius Black in the Harry Potter series, James Gordon in The Dark Knight Trilogy, George Smiley in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, a human leader in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, Winston Churchill in Darkest Hour, which earned him the Academy Award for Best Actor. Films in which he has appeared have grossed over $11 billion. In addition to acting in film, Oldman directed Nil by Mouth. Oldman was born in New Cross, the son of Leonard Bertram Oldman, a former sailor who worked as a welder, Kathleen, he has stated. Oldman attended West Greenwich School in Deptford, leaving school at the age of 16 to work in a sports shop.
He was a pianist as a child, a singer, but gave up his musical aspirations to pursue an acting career after seeing Malcolm McDowell's performance in the 1971 film The Raging Moon. In a 1995 interview with Charlie Rose, Oldman said: "Something about Malcolm just arrested me, I connected, I said,'I wanna do that'."Growing up in south London, Oldman supported his local football club Millwall, followed Manchester United so that he could watch his idol, George Best. In 2011, Oldman would learn from his mother that his father represented Millwall after World War II, with Oldman stating: "Just after the war, she ran a boarding house, for football players, Millwall players, and I knew. But two weeks ago my mum said,'Oh yeah, your dad played for Millwall; when he was young he had a couple of first team games'." Oldman studied with the Young People's Theatre in Greenwich during the mid-1970s, while working jobs on assembly lines, as a porter in an operating theatre, selling shoes and beheading pigs in an abattoir.
He unsuccessfully applied to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, which welcomed him to try again the following year, but advised him to find something else to do for a living. When asked by Charlie Rose if he had reminded RADA of this, Oldman joked that "the work speaks for itself", he won a scholarship to attend the Rose Bruford College in Sidcup, Southeast London, from which he graduated with a BA in Acting in 1979. Oldman describes himself as'shy but diligent worker' during his time there, where he performed roles such as Puck in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. After leaving school, Oldman was the first in his class to receive professional work. Oldman stated on The South Bank Show that it had nothing to do with being better than someone else, rather his diligence and application, he made his professional stage debut in 1979 as Puss, alongside Michael Simkins and Peter Howitt, in Dick Whittington and His Cat, at York's Theatre Royal. The play ran in Colchester with Glasgow's Citizens Theatre.
In 1979, he starred in Cabaret. From 1980 to 1981, he appeared in The Massacre at Paris, Desperado Corner, Robert David MacDonald's plays Chinchilla and A Waste of Time, he performed in a 6-month West End run of MacDonald's Summit Conference, opposite Glenda Jackson, in 1982. That year, Oldman made his film debut in Colin Gregg's Remembrance, would have starred in Don Boyd's Gossip if that film had not collapsed; the following year, he landed a starring role as a skinhead in Mike Leigh's film Meantime, moved on to Chesterfield to assume the lead role in Entertaining Mr Sloane. Afterwards, he went to Westcliffe to star in Saved. Saved proved to be a major breakthrough for Oldman. Max Stafford-Clark, artistic director of the Royal Court Theatre, had seen Oldman's performance and
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Florida State Hospital
Florida State Hospital is a hospital and psychiatric hospital in Chattahoochee, Florida. Established in 1876, it Florida's only state mental institution until 1947, it has a capacity of 1,042 patients. The hospital's current Administration Building is on the National Register of Historic Places; the facility's property served as a military arsenal during the Seminole Wars and the American Civil War, became the site of Florida's first state prison. It was subsequently refurbished as a mental hospital known as Florida State Hospital for the Insane, which opened in 1876, it gained notoriety over the course of its long history. It was sued in O'Connor v. Donaldson, a case that went to the US Supreme Court, which ruled that the hospital had illegally confined one of its patients; the decision contributed to the deinstitutionalization movement, which resulted in changes to state laws and the closure of many public mental institutions in the country. The hospital today treats patients with severe mental disabilities who have been civilly or forensically committed to the institution.
The hospital campus was the site of the Apalachicola Arsenal, built in the 1830s and named after the nearby Apalachicola River. The hospital's current Administration Building was adapted from the original Officers' Quarters of the Arsenal and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Arsenal facility served as a supply depot during the Seminole Wars. The first engagement of the American Civil War in Florida took place here on January 6, 1861 when a Confederate militia unit from Quincy overcame Union soldiers at the Arsenal. In 1868, Florida Governor Harrison Reed converted the arsenal property at Chattahoochee into Florida's first penitentiary. Florida's first recorded inmate was Calvin Williams, incarcerated in Chattahoochee in November 1868 for the crime of larceny and sentenced to one year. By 1869 there were 14 guards. In 1871, the prison was put under civilian jurisdiction. Malachi Martin was appointed as warden, gaining a reputation for corruption, he used prison labor for his personal benefit to build houses and tend his personal vineyards, amassing a huge fortune.
The book The American Siberia, written in 1891, portrayed the Chattahoochee prison as a place of relentless barbarity. After the prisoners were relocated in 1876 to a prison at Raiford, the facility was adapted as a state hospital. In 1876, the prison was refurbished and established by the Reconstruction era legislature as the Florida State Hospital for the Insane, the state's first mental institution, it was an effort by the legislature to establish some public welfare institutions to assist residents in the state. Over time, the hospital was investigated for allegations of mistreatment of patients as treatment standards changed; the hospital was sued in a case that reached the United States Supreme Court. Kenneth Donaldson, a patient held there, sued the hospital and staff for confining him for fifteen years against his will; the court ruled. The decision, as interpreted by the American Civil Liberties Union, means that it is unconstitutional to commit for treatment persons who are not imminently a danger to themselves or others and who are capable to a minimal degree of surviving on their own.
This interpretation has hampered efforts to implement changes in commitment laws throughout the United States, as most states insist the person meet the "imminent danger" standard, accepting the ACLU's interpretation of the O'Connor v. Donaldson case; the ruling contributed to the deinstitutionalization movement in the United States, resulting in the shutting down of many large, public psychiatric hospitals. The hospital treats individuals with persistent major mental illnesses. Two categories of patients are treated at the hospital; the Civil portion of the hospital houses adult and elderly individuals who have been civilly committed to the hospital, forensic residents who have been "stepped down" to the civil unit. The civil units are known as Forensic Transition units. Florida State Hospital maintains a forensic wing for the Florida Department of Corrections to care for inmates who have been adjudicated through the criminal justice system to be incompetent to proceed to trial, or not guilty by reason of insanity.
The current maximum housing capacity is 491 residents in civil units and 646 residents in forensic units. The goal of the hospital's efforts is recovery; the hospital works to restore competency to residents adjudicated incompetent to proceed to trial. Residents receive competency training in both civil units; the amount of time needed to restore competency varies to up to five years. However, by statute, a patient cannot be committed for more than five years as incompetent to proceed. Upon five years of commitment that patient will be returned to court to have his/her charges dropped or commuted in some way. For residents adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity, the hospital works to assist the resident in transitioning back into community living by learning appropriate activities for daily living, social cues. Hospital staff ensure the resident is no longer at risk of reoffending before recommending to the judge that the patient is ready for a conditional release to the community. Unlike patients committed as "Incompetent to Proceed," those committed as "Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity" have no time limit on their commitment.
They can remain committed by their presiding judge. One of the tasks of the fore
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Hoosiers is a 1986 sports film written by Angelo Pizzo and directed by David Anspaugh in his feature directorial debut. It tells the story of a small-town Indiana high school basketball team that wins the state championship, it is loosely based on the Milan High School team. Gene Hackman stars as a new coach with a spotty past; the film co-stars Barbara Hershey and Dennis Hopper, whose role as the basketball-loving town drunk earned him an Oscar nomination. Jerry Goldsmith was nominated for an Academy Award for his score. In 2001, Hoosiers was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In 1951, Norman Dale arrives in rural Hickory, Indiana, to become a high school teacher and head basketball coach of the Huskers, he was hired by principal Cletus Summers. Speaking with Summers, Dale thanks him for the opportunity and mysteriously mentions that he hopes things will work out for him this time.
The townspeople are passionate about basketball. They are upset because the best player in town, Jimmy Chitwood, has left the team to focus on his schoolwork, he is still mourning the death of the previous coach. At a meet-and-greet, Dale tells the townspeople he used to coach college basketball and has been in the United States Navy for the past ten years. Fellow teacher Myra Fleener, who senses something negative in Dale's past, warns him not to try to persuade Jimmy to change his mind; the school is so small. At the first practice, Dale dismisses Buddy Walker for rudeness, Whit Butcher walks out. Dale begins drilling the remaining five players with fundamentals and conditioning but no scrimmages or shooting, much to the players' dismay. With the team having worked on a four-pass offense, Dale remains committed to this approach in the opening game of the season when Rade disobeys him and shoots without passing. Dale benches him and, when Merle fouls out, refuses to let Rade return to the game, leaving his team with only four players on the floor.
In a subsequent game, when an opposing player pokes Dale in the chest during an on-court argument, Rade jumps to his defense and hits the player. After the ensuing brawl, assisting Dale in coaching, suffers a mild heart attack; the coach further alienates the community by having the team play with a slow, defensive style that does not produce results and by losing his temper, causing him to be ejected from multiple games. With Cletus laid up, Dale invites knowledgeable former Husker Wilbur "Shooter" Flatch, Everett's alcoholic father, to join him on the bench as a new assistant; this too confounds the town, including Everett. Dale has one major requirement for Shooter: he must be sober at all times around the boys. By the middle of the season, the townspeople decide to hold a meeting and vote on whether Dale should be dismissed. Before the meeting, Fleener tells Dale she has learned from an old newspaper article that he was banned from coaching years ago after hitting one of his players. At the meeting, Fleener starts to tell the townspeople what she found out, but she changes her mind and tells them to give Dale a chance.
As the ballots are being counted, Jimmy enters and announces that he is ready to rejoin the team, but only if Dale remains as coach. The ballot count is reported, it has gone against Dale, but everyone votes again, this time overwhelmingly choosing for Dale to stay. With Jimmy back on the team, the reenergized Huskers rack up a series of wins. Along the way, Dale proves Shooter's value by intentionally getting himself ejected from a game and forcing Shooter to demonstrate his coaching ability. Shooter does. Despite a setback in which Shooter arrives drunk at a sectional playoff game and ends up in the hospital, the team advances through tournament play with contributions from unsung players, such as the pint-sized Ollie and devoutly religious Strap. Hickory reaches the state championship game in Indianapolis. At Butler Fieldhouse, before a crowd bigger than any they have seen, the Hickory players face long odds to defeat the South Bend Central Bears, whose players are taller and more athletic.
But with Jimmy scoring at the last second, Hickory wins the 1952 state championship. The film is loosely based on the story of the 1954 Indiana state champions, Milan High School, but the term "inspired by a true story" may be more appropriate, as there was little the two teams had in common. In most U. S. states, high school athletic teams are divided into different classes based on the number of enrolled students, with separate state championship tournaments held for each classification. At the time, Indiana conducted a single state basketball championship for all of its high schools and continued to do so until 1997; some elements of the film do match with those of Milan's real story. Like the film's fictional "Hickory High School", Milan was a small high school in a rural, southern Indiana town. Both schools had undersized teams. Both Hickory and Milan won the state finals by two points: Hickory won 42–40, Milan won 32–30; the final seconds of the Hoosiers state final hold closely to the details of Milan's 1954 final.
The film's final game was shot in the same building that hosted the 1954 Indiana final, Butler University's Hinkle Fieldhouse (ca