NCAA Division I Football Championship
The NCAA Division I Football Championship is a annual post-season college football game, played since 2006, used to determine a national champion of the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. From 1978 to 2005, the game was known as the NCAA Division I-AA Football Championship; the game serves as the final match of an annual postseason bracket tournament between top teams in FCS. Since 2013, 24 teams participate in the tournament, with some teams receiving automatic bids upon winning their conference championship, other teams determined by a selection committee; the reigning national champions are the North Dakota State Bison, who have won seven championship games in the past eight seasons. The FCS is the highest division in college football to hold a playoff tournament sanctioned by the NCAA to determine its champion; the four-team College Football Playoff used by the Football Bowl Subdivision is not sanctioned by the NCAA. In the inaugural season of Division I-AA, the 1978 postseason included just four teams.
The field doubled to eight teams in 1981, with champions of five conferences—Big Sky, Mid-Eastern, Ohio Valley and Yankee—receiving automatic bids. The top four teams were seeded, matched against the four remaining teams based on geographical proximity; the tournament was expanded to 12 teams in 1982, with each of the top four seeds receiving a first-round bye and a home game in the quarterfinals. Champions of the Southern and Southland conferences received automatic bids; the number of automatic bids has varied over time, due to changes in the number and size of conferences, with an automatic bid granted only to champions of conferences with at least six teams. The tournament was played in December; the playoffs expanded to a 16-team format in 1986, requiring four postseason victories to win the title. Only the top four teams were seeded, with other teams geographically placed in the bracket. From 1995 through 2000, all 16 teams independent of geography. In 2001, the number of seeded teams was reduced to four, with the seeded teams assured of home games in early tournament rounds, other teams once again placed in the bracket to minimize travel.
Home team designation in games between unseeded teams is determined based on several factors, including attendance history and revenue potential. In April 2008, the NCAA announced that the playoff field would expand to 20 teams in 2010, with the Big South and Northeast Conference earning automatic bids for the first time; that bracket structure included seeding of the top five teams. Twelve teams received first-round byes; the playoffs expanded to 24 teams beginning in 2013, with the champion of the Pioneer Football League receiving an automatic bid for the first time. The number of seeded teams was increased to eight, with the 16 unseeded teams playing in first-round games; the field is traditionally set the Sunday before Thanksgiving and play begins that weekend. At-large selections and seeding within the bracket are determined by the FCS Playoff Selection Committee, which consists of one athletic director from each conference with an automatic bid; as of the 2018 season, there are 10 conferences with automatic bids and the selection committee makes 14 at-large selections.
For the 2018 season, the committee was chaired by Dr. Brad Teague of the University of Central Arkansas; the tournament culminates with the national championship game, played between the two remaining teams from the playoff bracket. Played in December, with the 2010 expansion to a 20-team field, the championship game moved to January, with two or three weeks between the semifinals and final. From 1997 through 2009, the title game was played at Finley Stadium in Chattanooga, the home field of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. In the five prior years it was held at Marshall University Stadium in West Virginia. Since 2010, the title game has been played in Frisco, Texas, a suburb north of Dallas, at Toyota Stadium, a multi-purpose stadium used by FC Dallas of Major League Soccer; the stadium was known as Pizza Hut Park until the day after the championship game of the 2011 season, as FC Dallas Stadium until September 2013. The original contract with Frisco ran through the 2012 season; the contract has since been extended three times.
Three FCS conferences do not participate in the tournament. The Ivy League, at the FCS level since 1982 and prohibits its members from awarding athletic scholarships in any sport, plays a strict ten-game regular season and does not participate in any postseason football, citing academic concerns; the Southwestern Athletic Conference and Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference, two conferences consisting of black colleges and universities, opt to play the Celebration Bowl instead of the FCS tournament. MEAC gave up its automatic spot in the tournament prior to the 2015 season, while SWAC has not sent a team to the tournament since 1997. Teams from the MEAC and SWAC may accept at-large bids, so long as they aren't committed to other postseason games th
New Smyrna Beach, Florida
New Smyrna Beach is a city in Volusia County, United States, located on the central east coast of the state, with the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Its population was estimated to be 23,230 in 2013 by the United States Census Bureau; the downtown section of the city is located on the west side of the Indian River and the Indian River Lagoon system. The Coronado Beach Bridge crosses the Intracoastal Waterway just south of Ponce de Leon Inlet, connecting the mainland with the beach on the coastal barrier island; the surrounding area offers many opportunities for outdoor recreation: these include fishing, motorboating and hiking. Visitors participate in water sports of all kinds, including swimming, scuba diving and surfing. In July 2009, New Smyrna Beach was ranked number nine on the list of "best surf towns" in Surfer, it was recognized as "one of the world's top 20 surf towns" by National Geographic. In 2012; the area was first settled by Europeans in 1768, when Scottish physician Dr. Andrew Turnbull, a friend of James Grant, the governor of British East Florida, established the colony of New Smyrna.
Dr. Turnbull had married in Greece the daughter of a Greek merchant from Smyrna and so named the settlement in honor of his wife's birthplace and the homeland of those in his future labor force who were Greek.. No one had attempted to settle so many people at one time in a town in North America. Turnbull recruited about 1300 settlers, intending for them to grow hemp and indigo, as well as to produce rum, at his plantation on the northeastern Atlantic coast of Florida; the majority of the colonists came from Menorca, one of the Mediterranean Balearic Islands of Spain, were of Catalan culture and language. Around 500 or so came from Greece. Although the colony produced large amounts of processed indigo in its first few years of operation, it collapsed after suffering major losses due to insect-borne diseases and Indian raids, growing tensions caused by mistreatment of the colonists on the part of Turnbull and his overseers; the survivors, about 600 in number, marched nearly 70 miles north on the King's Road and relocated to St. Augustine, where their descendants live to this day.
In 1783, East and West Florida were returned to the Spanish, Turnbull abandoned his colony to retire in Charleston, South Carolina. The St. Photios Greek Orthodox National Shrine on St. George Street in St. Augustine honors the Greeks among the settlers of New Smyrna; the historical exhibit adjoining the chapel tells the story of their plight, with accompanying exhibits, of their contributions to the city. Central Florida remained sparsely populated by white settlers well into the 19th century, it was raided by Seminole Indians trying to protect their territory. United States troops fought against them in the Seminole Wars, but they were never dislodged. During the Civil War in the 1860s, the "Stone Wharf" of New Smyrna was shelled by Union gunboats. In 1887, when New Smyrna was incorporated, it had a population of 150. In 1892, Henry Flagler provided service to the town via his Florida East Coast Railway; this led to a rapid increase in the area's population. Its economy grew as tourism was added to commercial fishing industries.
During Prohibition in the 1920s, the city and its river islands were popular sites for moonshine stills and hideouts for rum-runners, who came from the Bahamas through Mosquito Inlet, now Ponce de León Inlet. "New Smyrna" became "New Smyrna Beach" in 1947, when the city annexed the seaside community of Coronado Beach. Today, it is a resort town of over 20,000 permanent residents. Like St. Augustine, established by the Spanish, New Smyrna has been under the rule of four "flags": the British, United States, the Confederate Jack. After the end of the Civil War in 1865, it returned with Florida to the United States. See also: New Smyrna Beach Historic District New Smyrna Beach's motto is cygnus inter anates, Latin for "a swan among ducks." The city is located in the so-called "Fun Coast" region of the state of Florida, a regional term created by the Daytona Beach/Halifax area Chamber of Commerce. This coincides with 386, which spells FUN on touchtone phones. According to the United States Census Bureau, it has a total area of 37.8 square miles.
34.6 square miles of it is land, 0.31 square miles of it is covered by water. It is bordered by the city of Port Orange to the northwest, unincorporated Volusia County to the north, the census-designated place of Samsula-Spruce Creek to the west, the cities of Edgewater and Bethune Beach and the Canaveral National Seashore to the south. Bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, New Smyrna Beach is on the Indian River; the city is connected to other parts of the state by Interstate 95, U. S. Route 1, State Road 44, State Road 442. Like the rest of Florida north of Lake Okeechobee, New Smyrna Beach has a humid subtropical climate characterized by hot, humid summers and mild dry winters; the rainy season lasts from May until October, the dry season, from November to April. New Smyrna averages only about four frosts per year, many species of subtropical plants and palms are grown in the area; the city has recorded snowfall only three times in its 250-year history. The summers are long and hot, with frequent severe thunderstorms in the afternoon, as central Florida is the lightning capital of North America.
Winters are pleasant with dry weather. Weather hazards include hurricanes from June u
Ottawa Rough Riders
The Ottawa Rough Riders were a Canadian Football League team based in Ottawa, founded in 1876. One of the oldest and longest lived professional sports teams in North America, the Rough Riders won the Grey Cup championship nine times, their most dominant era was a period in which they won five Grey Cups. The team's fortunes waned in the 1980s and 1990s and they ceased operations following the 1996 season. Five years a new CFL team known as the Ottawa Renegades was founded, though they suspended operations in 2006; the Ottawa Redblacks, who own the Rough Riders intellectual properties, joined the league in 2014. Founded: 1876 Folded: 1996 Formerly known as: Ottawa Football Club, Ottawa Rough Riders, Ottawa Senators. Nickname: The Red and Black Home stadium: Frank Clair Stadium called Lansdowne Park until 1993 Uniform colours: Red and white Helmet design: Black background with a face of a Rough Rider with a log driver's pike in the background. Ontario Rugby Football Union regular season championships: 3 — 1898, 1900, 1902 Quebec Rugby Football Union regular season championships: 1 — 1905 Eastern regular season championships: 19 — 1908, 1925, 1926, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1978 Canadian Dominion Football Championship appearances: 4 — 1898, 1900, 1902, 1905 Grey Cup finals appearances: 15 — 1925, 1926, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1948, 1951, 1960, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1976, 1981 The Ottawa Football Club was organized on Wednesday, September 20, 1876 where they won the first game they played on September 23 against the Aylmer Club at Jacques-Cartier Square.
The team's colours were cerise and navy blue. The club adopted the name Ottawa Rough Riders on Friday, September 9, 1898 and changed its team colours to red and black. Since red and black have been Ottawa's traditional sporting colours. Although in years the name was said to derive from logging, the team based its colours on Teddy Roosevelt's regiment in the Spanish–American War, with the date of the renaming, suggests that the name comes from the war; the team changed its nickname to Ottawa Senators from 1925 to 1930. Ottawa's first Canadian championship came in 1898; the Ottawa Football Club transferred from the Quebec Union to the Ontario League that season. The Riders defeated the Hamilton Tigers 15–8 for the Ontario championship defeated Toronto Varsity, the Intercollegiate champions 7–3 and defeated Ottawa College 11–1 to win the Canadian championship. In those days, Ottawa athletes played in multiple sports and the Riders had athletes famous in other sports, such as Harvey Pulford and Frank McGee.
The Riders and Ottawa College were the Canadian champions for the next several years, with the Riders defeating Brockville 17–10 in 1900, defeating Ottawa College 5–0 in 1902, College being the 1901 Canadian champions. The Riders moved back to the Quebec Union, winning the 1903 Quebec championship, in a year where there was no playoff for the Canadian title. In 1905, Ottawa won the Quebec title, only to lose to the Toronto Varsity team 11–9 in the Canadian championship; the club absorbed the Ottawa St. Pats when the Riders helped found the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union in 1907; the Riders would win the IRFU championship in 1909 over the Hamilton Tigers, but lost in the Canadian final in Toronto to Toronto Varsity. The Riders declined and became uncompetitive during the 1910s, attributed to the First World War, the lure of salaries in professional ice hockey meaning athletes chose hockey over football in Ottawa. During the decline of the Riders, another Ottawa team, Ottawa St. Brigids, was on an ascent.
St. Brigids, which played in the Ottawa City league, the Ontario league, was developing top talent. In 1923, St. Brigids and the Riders merged, with St. Brigids manager Jim McCaffery becoming the manager of the Riders. McCaffery would be a member of the Riders executive for several decades; the team won a time when they were known as the Ottawa Senators. In 1925, Ottawa defeated three-time defending champion. Ottawa defeated Winnipeg 24–1 in the championship, held in Ottawa, defeated Toronto Varsity 10–7 in Toronto in 1926; the team was led by top players such as Eddie Emerson, Joe Tubman, Joe Miller, Jess Ketchum, Jack Pritchard, Harold Starr and Don Young. The Riders went back into a decline after the championships. Again, another Ottawa team, the Ottawa Rangers, was developing talent and enjoying success, winning the Quebec title; the Riders absorbed the Rangers in 1933, getting Rangers stars Andy Tommy, Arnie Morrison and "Fat Quinn'. That same year the Riders added more talent, bringing in American imports "Windy" O'Neil and Lorne Johnson.
In 1935, the Riders added Roy Berry, who would be mysterious about his origins. The Riders defeated the Toronto Argonauts in the final two games of the Big Four schedule to deny Toronto the Big Four championship, the Argonauts protested that Berry was not who he said he was. In fact, it turned out that Berry was Bohn Hilliard who had played professional baseball, making him ineligible for Canadian football, he had kept his identity a secret from Ottawa officials. In 1936, the Riders won the Big Four title defeating the Hamilton Tigers 3–2; the team progressed to the Eastern final against the Sarnia Imperials. The Imperials won the game 26–20 in a frozen battle held at Toronto's Varsity Stadium. Since there was no western challenge that year, the Imperials became Canadian champions; the highlight of Rough R
Roy Kidd is a former collegiate football league player and coach. He served as the head coach at Eastern Kentucky University from 1964 to 2002, compiling a record of 314–124–8. Kidd's Eastern Kentucky Colonels won NCAA Division I-AA Football Championships in 1979 and 1982 and were runners-up in 1980 and 1981, his 314 career victories are second-most in NCAA Division I-AA/FCS history, trailing only those of Grambling State's Eddie Robinson. Kidd was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 2003. Kidd was a star football and baseball player at Corbin High School in the Whitley County portion of Corbin, Kentucky. At Corbin, Kidd was a basketball teammate of college All-American Frank Selvy. There is Roy Kidd Ave. named in his honor in Corbin. He graduated from Corbin in 1950 after being chosen as a first team All-State football player for the 1949 season by The Courier-Journal of Louisville. Kidd was signed to a football scholarship by Eastern Kentucky State College and played quarterback at the Richmond school from 1950 to 1953.
Kidd turned down a scholarship to play for Bear Bryant at the University of Kentucky because his favorite sport was baseball and the football coaches at Eastern Kentucky were willing to let him play both sports. Kidd received four varsity letters in baseball at Eastern, he established a dozen records as quarterback of the Maroons, was an All-Ohio Valley Conference selection, was honored as a "Little All-American" choice in 1953. Kidd was a star center fielder for Eastern, bettering the.300 mark four consecutive seasons. Kidd served as a student assistant on the staff of Glenn Presnell's 1954 Eastern team which went undefeated, won the OVC and lost 7–6 to Omaha in the Tangerine Bowl. In 1955, Kidd was hired as the assistant basketball and head baseball coach at Madison Central High School in Richmond, Kentucky. In August 1956, A. L. Lassiter, the superintendent of Richmond city schools, offered Kidd the position of head football coach at Madison-Model High School. Kidd spent the next six years as coach of the Royal Purples.
Model discontinued its partnership with Madison after the 1960–61 school year and Kidd coached Madison for one season, 1961–62 school year, before moving to the college level. Kidd took over a Madison-Model program that produced a 23–36–12 record from 1947 to 1955, he led the Purples to a 54–11–1 record from 1956 to 1961. His 54 wins rank him as the third winningest coach in Madison football history behind Lassiter and Monty Joe Lovell. Kidd's.818 winning percentage is the best in Richmond Madison football history. His first team reeled off nine wins to finish the regular season undefeated and collected the most wins of any Madison team since the sport was initiated at the Richmond high school in 1921. Under his tutelage, Madison-Model put together a 27-game winning streak and was not scored upon in 15 consecutive regular season games during that span, they captured three Central Kentucky Conference titles, in 1956, 1960 and 1961. The Royal Purples were Recreation Bowl champions in 1957 and 1961.
Madison-Model went 11–0 in 1960, under a controversial point system, was not awarded a berth in the state playoffs. Kidd was chosen Kentucky High School Coach of the Year in his last season as his Purples went 13–1. Madison finished as the Class AA state runner-up to Fort Thomas' Highlands High School that season as Kidd's squad fell to the Bluebirds 12–0. Future college and NFL coach, Homer Rice, coached Highlands. In 1962, he was hired as an assistant coach at Morehead State College; the next year, he ventured back to Richmond to serve as an assistant coach at his alma mater and served under his mentor, Glenn Presnell. After the 1963 season, Presnell retired and Kidd was hired as Eastern's head football coach 1964. In 1967, Kidd led the Colonels to the first of 16 Ohio Valley Conference titles during his tenure, as well as a victory in the Grantland Rice Bowl over Ball State. After being classified in the new Division I-AA in 1978, EKU and Kidd made appearances in four straight national championship games, winning in 1979 and 1982, finishing as runner-up in 1980 and 1981.
Following the national championships, Kidd's teams never suffered a losing campaign. He led the school to 18 playoff appearances, including a stretch of making the postseason in 16 out of 17 seasons. All told, Kidd led the Colonels to 16 Ohio Valley Conference titles and a national record 17 NCAA Division I-AA playoff appearances, he won the OVC Coach of the Year honor ten times and was twice honored as the NCAA Division I-AA national coach of the year. Over the course of his career, Kidd had a record of 314 -- a. 713 winning percentage. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2003. At retirement, Kidd was the sixth all-time winningest coach in NCAA history with 314 victories. To this day, Kidd still has more Division I FCS wins than any other coach in history, with 223, he recorded 37 non-losing seasons, including a streak of 25 straight seasons with a winning record. Kidd coached 55 All-Americans, 202 First Team All-OVC selections and 41 student-athletes who signed National Football League contracts.
A member of the OVC and Kentucky Athletics Hall of Fame, the Colonels' stadium was named Roy Kidd Stadium in his honor. The street that fronts the stadium has been renamed "Roy and Sue Kidd Way" in honor of Kidd and his wife, Susan Purcell Kidd. List of college football coaches with 200 wins List of college football coaches with 150 NCAA Division I FCS wins List of college football coaches who coached games in stadiums named after themselves Eastern Kentucky profile Roy Kidd at the Colleg
Bethune–Cookman University Bethune–Cookman College, is a private, co-ed black university located in Daytona Beach, United States. The primary administration building, White Hall, the Mary McLeod Bethune Home have been added to the National Register of Historic Places. Although accredited, in June 2018 the university was put on probation by its regional accreditor. Mary McLeod Bethune founded the Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls in 1904; the first students met in the home of John Henry and Alice Smith Williams. The school underwent several stages of development through the years. In 1923, it merged with the Cookman Institute of Jacksonville and became a co-ed high school. A year in 1924, it became affiliated with the United Methodist Church. By 1931 the school had become a junior college; the school became a four-year college in 1941 when the Florida Department of Education approved a 4-year baccalaureate program in Liberal Arts and Teacher Education. The name was changed to Bethune–Cookman College.
On February 14, 2007, the Board of Trustees approved the name Bethune–Cookman University. In May 2017, Bethune–Cookman University faced criticism when it invited Betsy DeVos to speak at the commencement. Students and public outcry created a petition on change.org titled "Stop Betsy DeVos from delivering the commencement address at Bethune-Cookman University". Many have been questioning the school's decision on social media and beyond, accusing Betsy DeVos of undermining HBCUs; the incident led including alerts on the school's website on allowed bags. The university homepage states, "Commencement Bag Policy: All bags will be searched prior to entry into the Ocean Center...". During her address, a majority of the crowd booed DeVos, with many students standing up and turning their backs to her; the university was placed on probation by its regional accreditor, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, in the summer of 2018. The accreditor cited failings in multiple areas, including integrity, governing board characteristics, financial resources, financial responsibility, control of finances.
The accreditation action followed significant financial losses by the university - $28 million over the previous two years - and multiple lawsuits, including one filed by the university against a former president alleging fraud and bribery related to a $306 million construction deal. The nursing program had been placed on probation by its accreditor a few months earlier, related to academic issues. Bethune retired in 1942. In 1946 Bethune resumed the presidency for a year. Richard V. Moore, Sr. became president in 1947. Under his tenure the college was accredited in 1970 by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, it joined other academic and professional organizations. The curriculum expanded, student enrollment increased, new buildings were constructed for residential housing and classrooms. Oswald P. Bronson, Sr. a B–CU alumnus, served as the fourth president of the college from 1975 to 2004. During his tenure increased student enrollment led to construction of more student housing, classroom buildings, the Mary Mcleod Bethune Auditorium.
Major fields of study increased from 12 in 1975 to 37 by 2004. In addition, seven continuing education centers were established throughout the state. While maintaining accreditation, the Florida Board of Education added new accreditation in the Nursing and the Teacher Education programs. In August 2004, Trudie K. Reed was appointed to the presidency, she was the first woman president since Bethune. Campus improvements have included construction of the Center for Civic Engagement, the L. Gale Lemerand School of Nursing, the creation of the Alexis Pugh and Eugene Zimmerman Scholarship houses, the provision of a university-owned house as an alumni center during her tenure. Edison O. Jackson was appointed as the university's interim president in May 2012. Jackson was committed to serve a 6-year term. In July 2017, Jackson announced his resignation and the Board of Trustees appointed retired judge Hubert L. Grimes as the Interim President. In January 2018, the university sued Jackson and others involved in a $306 million construction deal alleging fraud and bribery.
Bethune–Cookman University offers 39 bachelor's degrees and six master's degrees through one of the following schools and colleges: The Harrison Rhodes Memorial Library was the original library of Bethune–Cookman College, a tribute to author Harrison Rhodes of the wealthy Rhodes family. Harrison, along with his sister Margaret, championed the Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Negro Girls. Upon Margaret's death, the balance of the Rhodes estate, some $560,000, was given to Bethune–Cookman College; the Harrison Rhodes Memorial building still exists as a campus hall after having been replaced by the Carl S. Swisher Library in 1941, financed by the wealthy tobacco industrialist and philanthropist Carl S. Swisher; the library contains 140,000 volumes with a two-story building complete with group study rooms, conference rooms, a computer center, bibliographic instruction lab as well as the archives/special collections. There are some 21 databases and four special collections: The Mary McLeod Bethune, Florence Roane, Attica Collection, the Black Collection.
Bethune–Cookman University is a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference and participates in NCAA Division I FCS. The school sponsors basketball, baseball, cross country, football and field and volleyball; the Wildcats joined the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference in 1979. The Wildcat
J. C. Watts
Julius Caesar Watts Jr. is an American politician and athlete. Watts was a college football quarterback for the Oklahoma Sooners and played professionally in the Canadian Football League, he served in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1995 to 2003 as a Republican, representing Oklahoma's 4th Congressional District. Watts was raised in Eufaula, Oklahoma, in a rural impoverished neighborhood. After being one of the first children to attend an integrated elementary school, he became a high school quarterback and gained a football scholarship to the University of Oklahoma, he graduated from college in 1981 with a degree in journalism and became a football player in the Canadian Football League until his retirement in 1986. Watts became a Baptist minister and was elected in 1990 to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission as the first African-American in Oklahoma to win statewide office, he ran for Congress in 1994 and was re-elected to three additional terms with increasing vote margins. Watts delivered the Republican response to Bill Clinton's 1997 State of the Union address and was elected Chair of the House Republican Conference in 1998.
He retired in 2003 and turned to lobbying and business work occasionally serving as a political commentator. Watts was born in Eufaula in McIntosh County, Oklahoma to J. C. "Buddy" Watts Helen Watts. His father was a Baptist minister, cattle trader, the first black police officer in Eufaula, a member of the Eufaula City Council, his mother was a homemaker. Watts grew up in a poor rural African-American neighborhood, he was one of two black children who integrated the Jefferson Davis Elementary School in Eufaula and the first black quarterback at Eufaula High School. While in high school, Watts fathered a daughter with a white woman, their families decided against an interracial marriage because of contemporary racial attitudes and Watts' family provided for the child until she could be adopted by Watts' uncle, Wade Watts, a Baptist minister, civil rights leader and head of the Oklahoma division of the NAACP. He graduated from high school in 1976 and attended the University of Oklahoma on a football scholarship.
In 1977, Watts married Frankie Jones, an African-American woman with whom he had fathered a second daughter during high school. Watts began his college football career as the second-string quarterback and left college twice, but his father convinced him to return, Watts became starting quarterback of the Sooners in 1979 and led them to consecutive Orange Bowl victories. Watts graduated from college in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts in journalism. Watts sought entrance in the National Football League through the New York Jets, but instead entered the Canadian Football League and played for the Ottawa Rough Riders, whom he helped reach the 1981 Grey Cup game, he stayed with the team from 1981 to 1985 and played a season for the Toronto Argonauts before retiring in 1986. Watts returned to Oklahoma and became a youth minister in Del City and was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1993, he is a teetotaler. Watts opened a highway construction company and cited discontent with government regulation of his business as reason to become a candidate for public office.
Watts' family was affiliated with the Democratic Party and his father and uncle Wade Watts were active in the party, but it did not help Watts when he ran for public office and he changed his party affiliation in 1989, months before his first statewide race. Watts stated he had first considered changing parties when he covered the 1980 U. S. Senate campaign of Republican Don Nickles. Watts' father and uncle continued to oppose the Republican party, but supported him. Watts won election to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission in November 1990 for a six-year term as the first African-American elected to statewide office in Oklahoma, he served as a member of the Commission from 1990 to 1995 and as its chairman from 1993 to 1995. Watts ran for Congress in 1994 to succeed Dave McCurdy, who had announced his retirement from the House of Representatives to run for the Senate, he positioned himself as both a fiscal and social conservative, favoring the death penalty, school prayer, a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform, opposing abortion, gay rights, reduced defense spending.
After a hard-fought primary campaign against state representative Ed Apple, Watts won 49 percent to Apple's 48 percent of the vote in August 1994, 52 percent in the resulting run-off election in September 1994 with the support of Representative Jack Kemp and actor and National Rifle Association president Charlton Heston. Watts started his race against the Democratic nominee, David Perryman, a white lawyer from Chickasha, with a wide lead in several early polls and 92 percent name recognition in one poll. Watts hosted former President George H. W. Bush, U. S. Senator Bob Dole, Minority Whip Newt Gingrich and focused on welfare reform and the necessity of capital formation and capital gains, as well as a reduction in the capital gains tax as beneficial for urban blacks; some voters were expected to not vote for Watts because of race, but the editor of a local political newspaper argued Watts' established Christian conservative image and his popularity as a football player would help him win. On November 8, 1994, Watts was elected with 52 percent of the vote as the first African-American Republican U.
S. Representative from south of the Mason–Dixon line since Reconstruction, he and Gary Franks of Connecticut were the only two African-American Republicans in the House. Oklahoma's Fourth District at the time was 90 percent white and had been represented by Democrats since 1922; as Congressman, Watts was assigned to the Armed Services Committee and the Fina
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport