Middlesbrough Football Club is a professional association football club based in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England. They are competing in the EFL Championship, the second tier of English football. Formed in 1876, they have played at the Riverside Stadium since 1995, their third ground since turning professional in 1889, they played at the Linthorpe Road ground from 1882 to 1903 and at Ayresome Park for 92 years, from 1903 to 1995. They were one of the founding members of the Premier League in 1992 and became one of the first clubs to be relegated from it following the 1992–93 season; the club came close to folding in 1986 after experiencing severe financial difficulties before it was saved by a consortium led by board member and chairman Steve Gibson. The club's main rivals are Newcastle United. There is a rivalry with fellow Yorkshire club Leeds United. Middlesbrough won the League Cup in the club's first and only major trophy, they were beaten by Spanish side Sevilla. The club's highest league finish to date was third in the 1913–14 season and they have only spent two seasons outside the Football League's top two divisions.
The League Cup win and the UEFA Cup run was part of an 11-year consecutive stay in the Premier League, before a relegation in 2009. Although the club returned in 2016, instant relegation followed; the club's traditional kit is red with white detailing. The various crests throughout the club's history, the most recent of, adopted in 2007, incorporate a lion rampant, they won the FA Amateur Cup in 1895 and again in 1898. The club turned professional in 1889, but reverted to amateur status in 1892, they turned professional permanently in 1899. After three seasons, they won promotion to the First Division, where they would remain for the next 22 years. In 1903, the club moved to their home for the next 92 years. In 1905, the club sanctioned the transfer of Alf Common for £1,000, a record fee. Over the next few years, their form fluctuated rising to sixth in 1907–08 before dropping to 17th two seasons later; the club rose to their highest league finish to date, third, in 1913–14. World War I soon intervened and football was suspended.
Before league football resumed, Middlesbrough won the Northern Victory League, but the team were unable to maintain their previous form and finished the 1919–20 season in mid-table. They remained in the First Division for the next few seasons, but were relegated in 1923–24 after finishing bottom, 10 points adrift of their nearest rivals. Three seasons they won the Division Two title. During that season, debutant George Camsell, who had signed from Third Division North side Durham City the previous season, finished with a record 59 league goals, which included nine hat-tricks, he would continue as top scorer for each of the next 10 seasons. Their tenure back in the top flight lasted only one season, the club were relegated, they were promoted at the first attempt in 1928–29, winning another Second Division title. The club remained in the First Division until 1954; the decade before the war saw the emergence of Wilf Mannion and George Hardwick, both of whom would go on to become England internationals in the years ahead.
Middlesbrough climbed to fourth in the last full season before World War II and were expected to challenge for the title next season, but the war intervened. After the war, the club was unable to recover the form of the previous seasons and hovered around mid-table and exited in the early rounds of the FA Cup. Soon afterwards, the team began to falter suffering relegation in 1953–54; this was the start of a 20-year spell outside the top division, but saw the emergence of one of the club's top goalscorers, Brian Clough, who scored 204 goals in 222 games, before he left for Sunderland. Over that period, Middlesbrough maintained reasonable progress in the Second Division but were never serious contenders for promotion. After a fourth-place finish in 1962–63, the club endured a steady decline and were relegated to the Third Division for the first time in their history in 1966. New manager Stan Anderson returned the club to the second flight at the first attempt. Middlesbrough would not finish below ninth during the next eight seasons.
By 1974, Jack Charlton had guided the team back to the top flight. They ensured promotion as early as 23 March, with eight games of the season left, they became runaway champions, finishing with a record 65 points. Middlesbrough won their first silverware as a professional side in the 1975–76 season, lifting the Anglo-Scottish Cup in its inaugural season after a two-legged final win over Fulham; the club experienced severe financial difficulties during the mid-1980s. Middlesbrough were dropping down the table, finished 19th in the 1984–85 season. In April 1986, the club had to borrow £30,000 from the Professional Footballers' Association to pay wages; the final game of the season saw Middlesbrough relegated to the Third Division again. That summer, the club called in the Provisional Liquidator and shortly afterwards, the club was wound up and the gates to Ayresome Park were padlocked. Without the £350,000 capital required for Football League registration, a new rule, it seemed inevitable that the club would fold permanently.
Steve Gibson, however, a member of the board at the time, brought together a consortium, with 10 minutes to spare before the deadline they completed their registration with the Football League for the 1986–87 season. Following the registration came both a change of club crest and a change of the official company name to Middlesbrough Football and Athletic Club Ltd. Over the next two seasons, Middlesbrough gained successive promotions into Division Two and into Division One; the nex
New Zealand national football team
The New Zealand national football team represents New Zealand in international association football. The team is controlled by the governing body for football in New Zealand New Zealand Football, a member of the Oceania Football Confederation; the team's official nickname is the All Whites. New Zealand is a five-time OFC champion; the team represented New Zealand at the FIFA World Cup tournaments in 1982 and 2010, the FIFA Confederations Cup tournaments in 1999, 2003, 2009 and 2017. Because most New Zealand football clubs are semi-professional rather than professional, most professional New Zealand footballers play for clubs in English-speaking countries such as England, the United States and Australia. New Zealand's first international football match was played in Dunedin at the old Caledonian Ground on 23 July 1904 against a team representing New South Wales. New Zealand lost by the game's only goal, but drew with the same team 3–3 in a game at Athletic Park, Wellington seven days later; the following year the team played a Wellington representative side on 10 June before embarking on a tour of Australia, during which they played eleven representative sides, including three "test matches" against New South Wales.
Of these three matches they won one, lost one, drew one. A New Zealand national team did not play again until 1921, when New Zealand played three official full internationals against Australia, played at Carisbrook in Dunedin, Athletic Park in Wellington, Auckland Domain; the results were a 1 -- 1 draw in Wellington. Since the 1990s, United States college soccer has played a significant role in the development of New Zealand players; this influence began when former Scotland international Bobby Clark returned to the U. S. after his 1994–96 stint as New Zealand head coach to take the head coaching job at Stanford University. Clark began recruiting in New Zealand, former New Zealand national players Ryan Nelsen and Simon Elliott played for him at Stanford; the trend that Clark started has continued to the present. S. A common next step in these players' career paths is a stint in Major League Soccer. S. squad. However, Latham's speculation did not prove true, as only one MLS player made the New Zealand squad for the World Cup.
New Zealand competed against Australia for top honours in the OFC. However, after Australia left to join the AFC in 2006, New Zealand were left as the only seeded team in the OFC. New Zealand qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup though exited the competition after the first round despite being the only team not to lose a game during the tournament; the tournament featured one of New Zealand's most notable results, a 1–1 draw with the world champions Italy. New Zealand drew their other two pool games with Slovakia and Paraguay and finished above Italy, who placed last, in the group. New Zealand finished third in their group. New Zealand were the only undefeated team in the entire tournament thanks to Spain's defeat to Switzerland. In August 2014, Anthony Hudson was appointed manager of the All Whites. Hudson's first game in charge of the national team was a 3–1 defeat away to Uzbekistan in September 2014; as a result of the All Whites playing “just three matches” in the previous year, “the least of any country in world football”, having “seven months without a match” the All Whites dropped to 161 in the FIFA world rankings.
The All Whites went on to win the 2016 OFC Nations Cup, winning four matches with the final being won via a penalty shootout after a 0–0 draw against Papua New Guinea, conceding only 1 goal, from a penalty, in the process. New Zealand’s victory saw them crowned Oceania champions making New Zealand the most successful national team in the competition's history, having won the tournament five times, saw them qualify for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in Russia; the All Whites moved up 54 places in the world rankings in July and achieved 88th in the FIFA world rankings, the highest ranking in three years, on the back of the OFC Nations Cup victory that qualified them for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. After a disappointing tournament at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup where they finished bottom of their group which featured Russia and Portugal, the national team fell 27 places to 122nd. In September 2017, New Zealand won the OFC Final against the Solomon Islands with an aggregate score of 8–3 to qualify for the inter-continental play-off qualifier against Peru, the fifth-ranked nation from the South America's qualifiers.
After holding Peru off in the first leg, they would go to lose 2-0 in the second leg to be eliminated from competition as Peru became the last team to qualify for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. New Zealand's long time rivals are Trans-Tasman neighbors Australia; the two teams' history dates back to 1922. The rivalry between the Socceroos and the All Whites is part of a wider friendly rivalry between the geographical neighbours Australia and New Zealand, which applies not only to sport but to the culture of the two countries; the rivalry was intensified when Australia and New Zealand were both members of the OFC competing in OFC Nations Cup finals and in FIFA World Cup qualifications, where only one team from the OFC progressed to the World Cup. Since Australia left the OFC to join the AFC in 2006, competition between the two teams has been less frequent. However, the riva
Island Bay, New Zealand
Island Bay is a coastal suburb of Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, situated 5 km south of the city centre. Island Bay lies on the bay which shares its name, one of numerous small bays off Cook Strait and west of Lyall Bay. 500m offshore in Island Bay lies Tapu Te Ranga Island, which forms a natural breakwater and provides a sheltered anchorage for local fishing boats. Noted current Island Bay residents include Minister of Justice Andrew Little MP, Celia Wade-Brown, former Mayor of Wellington. Former residents include Bruce Stewart and dramatist at Tapu Te Ranga Marae. C. and All Whites striker Chris Killen. In pre-European times, Island Bay was home to several pa, including Te Mupunga Kainga, today represented with a pou in Shorland Park. A succession of iwi occupied Island Bay, including Ngati Ira. A famous battle which took place on the beach of Island Bay has been well documented by Elsdon Best. A raiding taua from Muau-poko were making their way to the Ngai Tara stronghold of Te Whetu-Kairangi, a fortified pa on what is now Miramar peninsular.
In the morning, Ngai Tara warriors came down from Uruhau fort and engaged Muau-poko in battle on the beach. Two muaupoko chiefs were killed, cremated in Haewai; this battle is commemorated with a pou on the zig-zag leading from Liffey street to Orchy crescent. During a battle in which Ngati Mutunga drove Ngati Ira from Wellington in 1827, the wife of the Ngati Ira chief, is said to have sought refuge on Tapu te Ranga Island with her children, fleeing by canoe when Tapu te Ranga Island was besieged. In Treaty of Waitangi settlements, both Te Atiawa and Ngati Toa have claimed tangata whenua status over Tapu te Ranga Island. Ngati Toas case was proven in the Maori Land Court In the early days of European settlement George Hunter was the chief proprietor of the Island Bay Estate, where he bred stock on his stud farm; the Island Bay portion was subdivided and auctioned in March 1879. In the late 19th century, Island Bay was settled by Shetlander fishermen. In 1905, Wellington's tramline was extended to Island Bay, increasing the area's popularity, transforming it into a seaside suburb.
Many Island Bay villas and shops date from the 1920s, a period of rapid development for the area. This included the subdivision of the Island Bay Racecourse, once bounded by Clyde Street on the East and Ribble Street on the West. Many streets in Island Bay were named after European rivers. Designed by John Sydney Swan and built in 1904-6, The Convent of the Sacred Heart, a Catholic girls' boarding school, was renamed Erskine College in the late 1960s after the former Superior General Mother Janet Erskine Stuart; the adjacent Erskine Chapel of the Sacred Heart designed by John Sydney Swan, was built in 1930 in the French Gothic style. Erskine Chapel is considered to have one of the finest chapel interiors in New Zealand, is listed as Category I in New Zealand's Historic Places Trust; the school closed in 1985 and today the complex is owned. Erskine College was used as a location in Peter Jackson's 1996 film The Frighteners; the chapel was refurbished in 2003, is now a popular venue for weddings and concerts.
The Island Bay Marine Education Centre on the foreshore has a small aquarium and touch tank, is open to the public on alternate Sundays. There are five churches in Island Bay; the oldest is the Anglican church, over 100 years old. It has a traditional brick front design, some stained glass windows honouring the early settlers, it is named after St Hilda of Whitby, as the early settlers felt the coastline resembled Northumbria. The Baptist, Serbian Orthodox and Presbyterian churches are younger; the churches have facilities. Church activities include a full range of programmes for all ages, including the annual Teddy Bears' Picnic for children which forms part of the Island Bay festival. Many local streets are named after rivers around the world, including the following: Great Britain: Avon, Dee, Dover, Foyle, Liddel, Mersey, Tamar, Trent, Tyne and Wye. Ireland: Liffey. Europe: Volga, Rhine, Seine and Don New Zealand: Waikato Australia: Erskine and Carlisle. North America: Hudson Two diving companies operate in Island Bay, offer trips within the local Taputeranga Marine Reserve and to the wreck of HMNZS Wellington, a decommissioned Royal New Zealand Navy frigate, sunk off the coast of Island Bay in November 2005 to create an artificial reef.
Shorland Park is a small public park at Island Bay Beach. The playground is a favourite for children's birthday parties. Shorland Park contains a Band Rotunda near the waterfront. Plaques record the 152 local soldiers who died in World War I and World War II, the loss of American submarines and their crew in the Pacific. In the 1930s, local brass bands and the Salvation Army played in the rotunda; the rotunda is now used for occasional concerts, notably during the annual Island Bay Festival. Situated in 50 acres of replanted native forest on a hill near Rhine Street, Tapu Te Ranga Marae is a living Marae and was the home of Bruce Stewart; the 2500 square metre wooden house extends over 10 levels, was built with recycled materials. The waters surrounding Island Bay are under th
Leonida Christos Bertos is a New Zealand international footballer who plays as a midfielder for Hamilton Olympic in the Australian National Premier Leagues. A New Zealand international from 2003 to 2013, he represented his country at the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Bertos was born in Wellington, to George and a New Zealand Māori mother, Gayle, he attended Holy Cross primary school and Wellington College where he played for the school's first XI. Bertos played for Wellington Olympic in the New Zealand domestic league between 1997 and 2000. Bertos started his career in England, he made his debut for the Barnsley reserve team against Rotherham United in October 2000. and his first-team debut for Barnsley in a 0–4 defeat to Preston North End on 16 April 2001. Bertos signed a professional contract for the club a day later, he picked up a knee injury whilst playing in Tenerife, the results of which required a second opinion. These results were delayed, when received, it was confirmed that no meniscus was present to his tendon.
He scored once for Barnsley. He had a reasonably successful two-year spell at Rochdale scoring the goal in a 1–0 win at Kidderminster that secured the team's League status in 2003–04, but fell out of favour the following year and was released. After failing to impress in a short spell at Chester City Bertos played non-league football for Barrow, York City and Worksop Town. Bertos signed for A-League franchise Perth Glory for the start of the 2006–07 season on a two-year contract. Bertos' signing was an attempt to add depth to a Perth midfield that lacked consistency and strength in 2005–06. Bertos replaced star midfield player Nick Ward. Starting all 21 matches of the regular season, Bertos' pace, ability to beat his man, dangerous crosses from wide areas, resulted in nine assists in his debut season, making him the highest assisting player in the league. Fans bemoaned the fact he failed to find the back of the net given the number of good scoring opportunities. Bertos explored new opportunities during the A-League off-season.
Glory manager Ron Smith allowed him to trial with Greek club Skoda Xanthi, however the trial was unsuccessful and Bertos returned to Perth in time for the start of the 2007–08 season. During the 2007–08 season Bertos made fourteen appearances for the club and scored one goal and had two assists. On 24 January 2008, Bertos was signed on a free transfer by his hometown club Wellington Phoenix on a two-year contract, he made his club debut in the opening game of the 2008–09 season against Brisbane Roar. Bertos scored his first goal for Wellington against Sydney on 7 November 2008, he played in 16 of the 21 regular season matches making 14 starts with 4 assists. Bertos was named Wellington Phoenix Player of the Year for 2008–09; the 2009–10 season was successful for Bertos and the Phoenix. Bertos played a central role during the regular season to ensure a first finals appearance for the club, he played every game of the season, starting 23 of the 28 matches, scoring 2 goals and providing 8 assists.
He holds the all-time leading assists record for the club with 12. On 1 October 2009 he signed a three-year contract extension. On 13 April 2014, the Phoenix announced. On 19 July 2014, he signed for Indian club East Bengal for a two-year contract. On the virtue of playing in 2010 FIFA World Cup, he qualifies as the marquee player of the club, he was issued the number 11 jersey. He made his debut in a CFL match against Techno Aryan on 23 August 2014, coming as a substitute for Mehtab Hussain; as the Indian Super League started, Bertos joined the competition by going on loan to NorthEast United. There he reunited with his former coach at national team Ricki Herbert. Bertos signed for Australian National Premier Leagues side Hamilton Olympic for the 2016 season after training for several weeks with Newcastle Jets. Bertos made his international debut against Iran on 13 October 2003 and has represented New Zealand over 50 times since, he has represented New Zealand at under-23 level. Bertos is known for his quality skills on the ball.
This was shown in the New Zealand vs Brazil game in which he dribbled around two defenders to win a corner. He played many one-twos and did a drag-back once in the second half. In the first game of the New Zealand vs Malaysia series, Bertos received the Man of the Match award for his magnificent dribbling performance and domination of the Malaysian defence, he represented New Zealand at the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup in South Africa. He provided the assist for New Zealand's first two goals against World Champions Italy in a 3–4 friendly loss in Pretoria prior to the Confederations Cup. In Wellington on 14 November 2009, Bertos provided the assist and delivered the corner from which Rory Fallon headed a thumping game winner against Bahrain to give New Zealand the two-legged aggregate win needed to secure a spot at the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Bertos was on hand to see the World Cup trophy unveiled on New Zealand soil for the first time, when it made an eight-hour stop-over in Auckland on 27 April 2010 on its worldwide tour before the 2010 World Cup in South Africa.
On 10 May 2010 Bertos was named as one of eight midfielders in the final 23-man squad to travel to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in June. The squad played several official warm-up internationals against Australia, Serbia and Chile before the World Cup. Bertos played in all three games at the World Cup, putting in gritty performances to earn New Zealand a 1–1 draw with Slovakia, a 1–1 draw with reigning world champions Italy, their final 0–0 draw with Paraguay. Bertos was named in the New Zealand Futsal squad to play Austr
Oldham Athletic A.F.C.
Oldham Athletic Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England. The team compete in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system, play home matches at Boundary Park. Known as the "Latics", they traditionally play in blue shirts; the club has a rivalry known as the A62 derby with nearby Huddersfield Town. The history of Oldham Athletic began with the founding of Pine Villa F. C. in 1895, a team that played in the Manchester and Lancashire leagues. When rivals Oldham County folded in 1899, Pine Villa moved into their stadium and changed their name to Oldham Athletic, they were elected into the Football League. They won promotion out of the Second Division in 1909–10 and went on to finish second in the First Division in 1914–15, before being relegated in 1923. Another relegation in 1935 left them in the Third Division North, which they won at the end of the 1952–53 campaign, only to be relegated back into the following year.
Placed in the Fourth Division, they secured promotion in 1962–63, again in 1970–71 after another relegation in 1969. Jimmy Frizzell managed the cub from 1970 to 1982 and under his leadership Oldham won the Third Division title in 1973–74, he was succeeded by Joe Royle, who had a 12-year spell in charge, during which time Oldham reached the League Cup final in 1990, before winning the Second Division title in 1990–91, which took them back into the top-flight for the first time in 68 years. Oldham were founder members of the Premier League in 1992, but were relegated two years and fell to the third tier by 1997; the club ended a 21 season long stay in the third tier – which encompassed numerous financial crises – with relegation out of League One in 2018. Pine Villa Football Club was formed in 1895, though the club changed its appearance and name in 1899 to Oldham Athletic Football Club; the club gained professional status and played in both the Lancashire Combination and Lancashire League. Unlike many clubs, Oldham Athletic gained quick success and gained acceptance into the Football League in 1907–08.
After three years in the Second Division, Latics gained promotion to the First Division. Within a couple of seasons, Oldham had announced themselves serious contenders, finishing 4th in the league in 1912–13, reaching the F. A. Cup semi-finals the same season. In 1914–15, Latics reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup but were knocked out once again after a 0–3 replay against Sheffield United. In the league that season they won it all. Latics early success was only halted by the First World War. Following the return of competitive football after the First World War, Oldham Athletic struggled to find their early success before they returned to the Second Division in 1923 – it would be another 68 years before they played top division football again. Many of the players from their former squads had either retired from football or had been killed in the war, their highest success came in the 1929–30 season as they finished in 3rd, missing out on promotion by finishing two points behind Chelsea F. C.
From on they but fell down the league table, until a final placing of 21st at the end of the 1934–35 season saw them relegated to the Third Division North. They found life in this new division much more to their liking, coming 7th in their first season and following this with three seasons in the top five. Promotion back to the Second Division looked like it might just be a possibility, but the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 brought an end to League Football. Players' contracts were terminated, relying on guest players, the club was to play in the war-time Northern League until August 1946. Following the return of competitive football there was to be no immediate success for Oldham Athletic, they finished 19th in the first league season after manager Frank Womack resigned. In spite of reaching a more respectable 6th place under his successor Billy Wooton in 1949, it wasn't until the appointment of George Hardwick as player-manager in November 1950 that the club found any real form.
Hardwick's appointment came with a £ 15,000 transfer fee paid to Middlesbrough. This was a huge amount at the time for a third division club, but it was to stir up the town and its fans, who now looked forward to seeing a man, captain of England only two years in charge of its club's fortunes. In Hardwick's first full season in charge they finished 4th after topping the table for a considerable time. Home gates stayed high, with an amazing 33,450 watching a 1–0 win over local rivals Stockport County in March 1952, after a January game in the snow had established a new club scoring record when Chester were beaten 11–2. Eric Gemmell scored seven of these to establish an individual club record for one game which still stands to date; the season after, Oldham Athletic proudly finished champions of the division and won promotion to the Second Division. With an ageing squad and little money to recruit however, the season that followed was a massive disappointment. Only eight games were won, Oldham finished in last place and returned to the Third Division North, where a first disappointing season saw them finish no higher than 10th.
Hardwick resigned in 1955 and between and 1960, they continued to struggle, finishing below the top 20 on three occasions. With a 15th-place finish in 1958–59, Oldham became a founding member of a newly formed Fourth Division. In the following season they finished in the 23rd position – their lowest position in the entire League, had to apply for r
Wrexham Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in Wrexham, Wales that plays in the English football league system. Based on the club's recorded formation date of 1864, they are the oldest club in Wales and the third oldest professional football team in the world. Since August 2011 Wrexham have been a supporter-owned football club; the club has competed in the National League, the fifth tier of English football, since being relegated from Football League Two at the end of the 2007–08 season, after 87 years of consecutive membership of the Football League. In 1992, Wrexham upset the reigning English Champions Arsenal in the FA Cup, they scored a 1–0 victory over FC Porto in 1984 in the European Cup Winners' Cup. Wrexham were eligible for the European Cup Winners' Cup due to winning the Welsh Cup. Wrexham's honours include winning the Third Division title in 1977–78, the Welsh Cup a record 23 times, the Football League Trophy in 2005 at the Millennium Stadium and the FA Trophy in 2013 at Wembley Stadium.
Wrexham are record winners of the short-lived FAW Premier Cup, winning it five times out of the 11 years of its tenure, participating against fellow Welsh clubs such as Cardiff City, Swansea City and Newport County. Wrexham's home stadium, the Racecourse Ground, is the world's oldest international stadium that still continues to host international games; the record attendance at the ground was set in 1957, when Wrexham hosted a match against Manchester United in front of 36,445 spectators. The club was formed in 1864 by members of the Wrexham Cricket Club, who wanted a sporting activity for the winter months, which makes them the sixth oldest football team, third oldest professional club and the oldest in Wales, their first game was played on 22 October 1864 at the Denbigh County Cricket Ground against the Prince of Wales Fire Brigade. As the rules of football were still somewhat fluid at the time, early matches featured teams with up to 17 players on each side. In these early years Wrexham were leaders of the campaign to restrict teams to having just 11 players on the pitch at any one time.
In 1876, the newly formed Football Association of Wales saw Wales play their first international match, against Scotland at The West of Scotland Cricket Club, featuring Edwin Cross and Alfred Davies as the first of many Wrexham F. C. players to play for Wales. In the 1877–78 season the FAW inaugurated the Welsh Cup competition, to run on similar lines to the English FA Cup; the first Welsh Cup Final was played at Acton Park. Wrexham got to the final of the inaugural competition, where they defeated Druids F. C. 1–0, with James Davies being credited with the goal. Because of a lack of money at the fledgling FAW, Wrexham did not receive their trophy until the next year. For their first decade, Wrexham played friendly matches against both Welsh and English opposition, with the Welsh Cup providing most of their competitive football, Wrexham winning it again in 1883. 1883 saw Wrexham's first appearance in the FA Cup, when after receiving a bye to the second round of the competition they were defeated 3–4 at home by Oswestry.
Crowd trouble at the game led to the club being expelled from the Football Association, leading to the club being reformed in 1884 as Wrexham Olympic. Olympic was dropped from this club's name in 1888. Thanks to a dispute with their landlords, who had raised the rent of the Racecourse Ground to £10 a year, Wrexham played their home games in the 1881–82 and 1882–83 seasons at Rhosddu Recreation Ground, before moving back to the Racecourse Ground for the 1883–84 season, where the club have played their home games since. In 1890 Wrexham joined The Combination league, playing their first game against Gorton Villa on 6 September 1890, with Arthur Lea scoring Wrexham's only goal in a 5–1 defeat. Lea played for the club despite only having one arm. Wrexham finished the season second from bottom in eighth place in the first season. Wrexham played in the Combination for four years before a rapid increase in costs resulted in the club joining the Welsh League in the 1894–95 season. Wrexham won the Welsh League both years that they were in it, but they decided to return to the Combination, as despite the reduced support they received, the savings made on their travelling expenses outweighed the reduction in gate revenue.
The club remained in the Combination league until 1905, by which time they had managed to win the league four times. After several unsuccessful attempts Wrexham were elected to the Birmingham and District League in time for the beginning of the 1905–06 season. Wrexham's first match in this league was at home against Kidderminster Harriers at the Racecourse, two thousand spectators witnessed Wrexham win the match 2–1. Wrexham finished sixth in their first season in this league. During their time in the Birmingham and District League, Wrexham won the Welsh Cup six times, in 1908–09, 1909–10, 1910–11, 1913–14, 1914–15, 1920–21, they reached the First Round proper of the FA Cup for a second time in the 1908–09 season before losing a replay 1–2 to Exeter City after extra time. In 1921 Wrexham were elected to the newly formed Third Division North of the Football League, their first League game was against Hartlepool United at the Racecourse in front of 8,000 spectators. Playing in blue shirts, Wrexham were defeated 0–
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under