International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
National Endowment for the Arts
The National Endowment for the Arts is an independent agency of the United States federal government that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence. It was created by an act of the U. S. Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government; the NEA has its offices in Washington, D. C, it was awarded Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre in 1995, as well as the Special Tony Award in 2016. The NEA is "dedicated to supporting excellence in the arts, both established. Between 1965 and 2008, the agency has made in excess of 128,000 grants, totaling more than $5 billion. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, Congress granted the NEA an annual funding of between $160 and $180 million. In 1996, Congress cut the NEA funding to $99.5 million as a result of pressure from conservative groups, including the American Family Association, who criticized the agency for using tax dollars to fund controversial artists such as Barbara DeGenevieve, Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe, the performance artists known as the "NEA Four".
Since 1996, the NEA has rebounded with a 2015 budget of $146.21 million. For FY 2010, the budget reached the level it was at during the mid-1990s at $167.5 million but fell again in FY 2011 with a budget of $154 million. The NEA is governed by a Chairman appointed by the President to a four-year term and confirmed by Congress; the NEA's advisory committee, the National Council on the Arts, advises the Chairman on policies and programs, as well as reviewing grant applications, fundraising guidelines, leadership initiative. This body consists of 14 individuals appointed by the President for their expertise and knowledge in the arts, in addition to six ex officio members of Congress who serve in a non-voting capacity. On June 12, 2014, Dr. Jane Chu was confirmed as the 11th Chair of the NEA by the Senate, after having been nominated by President Barack Obama in February of the same year; the NEA offers grants in the categories of: 1) Grants for Arts Projects, 2) National Initiatives, 3) Partnership Agreements.
Grants for Arts Projects support exemplary projects in the discipline categories of artist communities, arts education, design and traditional arts, local arts agencies, media arts, music, musical theater, presenting and visual arts. The NEA grants individual fellowships in literature to creative writers and translators of exceptional talent in the areas of prose and poetry; the NEA has partnerships in the areas of state and regional, international activities, design. The state arts agencies and regional arts organizations are the NEA's primary partners in serving the American people through the arts. Forty percent of all NEA funding goes to regional arts organizations. Additionally, the NEA awards three Lifetime Honors: NEA National Heritage Fellowships to master folk and traditional artists, NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships to jazz musicians and advocates, NEA Opera Honors to individuals who have made extraordinary contributions to opera in the United States; the NEA manages the National Medal of Arts, awarded annually by the President.
Artist William Powhida has noted that "in one single auction, wealthy collectors bought a billion dollars in contemporary art at Christie's in New York." He further commented: "If you had a 2 percent tax just on the auctions in New York you could double the NEA budget in two nights." The NEA is the federal agency responsible for recognizing outstanding achievement in the arts. It does this by awarding three lifetime achievement awards; the NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships is awarded to individuals who have made significant contributions to the art of jazz. The NEA National Heritage Fellowships is awarded for artistic excellence and accomplishments for American's folk and traditional arts; the National Medal of Arts is awarded by the President of the United States and NEA for outstanding contributions to the excellence, growth and availability of the arts in the United States. Upon entering office in 1981, the incoming Ronald Reagan administration intended to push Congress to abolish the NEA over a three-year period.
Reagan's first director of the Office of Management and Budget, David A. Stockman, thought the NEA and the National Endowment for the Humanities were "good to bring to a halt because they went too far, they would be easy to defeat." Another proposal would have halved the arts endowment budget. However, these plans were abandoned when the President's special task force on the arts and humanities, which included close Reagan allies such as conservatives Charlton Heston and Joseph Coors, discovered "the needs involved and benefits of past assistance," concluding that continued federal support was important. Frank Hodsoll became the chairman of the NEA in 1981, while the department's budget decreased from $158.8 million in 1981 to $143.5 million, by 1989 it was $169.1 million, the highest it had been. In 1989, Donald Wildmon of the American Family Association held a press conference attacking what he called "anti-Christian bigotry," in an exhibition by photographer Andres Serrano; the work at the center of the controversy was Piss Christ, a photo of a plastic crucifix submerged in a vial of an amber fluid described by the artist as his own urine.
Republican Senators Jesse Helms and Al D'Amato began to rally against the NEA, expanded the attack to include other artists. Prominent conservative Christian figures including Pat Robertson of the 700 Club and Pat Buchanan joined the attacks. Republican representative Dick Armey, an opponent of federal arts funding, began
True Blood is an American dark fantasy horror television series produced and created by Alan Ball and based on The Southern Vampire Mysteries, a series of novels by Charlaine Harris. The series revolves around Sookie Stackhouse, a telepathic waitress living in the rural town of Bon Temps, Louisiana. Two years after the invention of a synthetic blood branded “Tru Blood,” vampires are able to "come out of the coffin" and allow their presence to be known to mankind. Now they are struggling for equal rights and assimilation, while anti-vampire organizations begin to gain power. Sookie's world is turned upside down when she falls in love with 173-year-old vampire Bill Compton and for the first time must navigate the trials and terrors of intimacy and relationships; the show was broadcast on the premium cable network HBO, in the United States, was produced by HBO in association with Ball's production company, Your Face Goes Here Entertainment. The series premiered on September 7, 2008 and concluded on August 24, 2014, comprising seven seasons and 80 episodes.
The first five seasons received positive reviews, both nominations and wins for several awards, including a Golden Globe and an Emmy. The fictional universe depicted in the series is premised on the notion that vampires exist, unbeknownst to the majority of humans until two years before the series premiere, when the creation of synthetic blood by Japanese scientists, which eliminated vampires' need for human blood to survive, allowed vampires to "come out of the coffin" and reveal their existence to the world. E-1 This so-called "Great Revelation" has split vampires into two camps: those who wish to integrate into human society by campaigning for citizenship and equal rights,E-1 and those who think human-vampire co-existence is impossible, because it conflicts with the inherently predatory and violent nature of vampires, it has caused similar divisions amongst non-vampires. Throughout the series, other supernatural creatures are introduced, among them shapeshifters, faeries, a maenad; the series revolves around a telepathic human-faerie hybrid known as a halfling.
Sookie is a waitress at Merlotte's Bar and Grill, owned by Sam Merlotte in the small Louisiana town of Bon Temps. Sam is a shapeshifter. Other characters include Bill Compton, a 173-year-old vampire who has returned to Bon Temps to take up residence in his former home following the death of his last remaining relative; the show explores several contemporary issues such as the struggle for equal rights and violence against minorities and homosexuals, the problems of drug addiction, the power of faith and religion, the control/influence of the media, the quest for identity, the importance of family. Series creator Alan Ball had worked with the cable channel HBO on Six Feet Under, which ran for five seasons. In October 2005, after Six Feet Under wrapped, Ball signed a two-year agreement with HBO to develop and produce original programming for the network. True Blood became the first project under the deal after Ball became acquainted with Charlaine Harris' Southern Vampire Mystery books. One day, while early for a dental appointment, Ball was browsing through a Barnes & Noble bookshop and came across Dead Until Dark, the first installment in Harris' series.
He read the entries that followed and became interested in "bringing vision to television". However, Harris had two other adaptation options for the books, she said she chose to work with him, because " really'got' me. That's. I just felt that he understood what I was doing with the books." The project's hour-long pilot was ordered concurrently with the finalization of the aforementioned development deal, was written and produced by Ball. Cast members Paquin and Trammell were announced in February 2007 and Moyer on in April; the pilot was shot in the early summer of 2007 and was ordered to series in August, at which point Ball had written several more episodes. Production on the series began that fall, with Brook Kerr, who portrayed Tara Thornton in the original pilot, replaced by Rutina Wesley. Two more episodes of the series had been filmed before the 2007-08 Writers Guild of America strike shut down production of the 12-episode first season until February 2008; that September, after only the first two episodes of the series had aired, HBO placed an order for a second season of 12 episodes, with production scheduled to commence in January 2009 for a summer premiere.
True Blood's Emmy-nominated title sequence is composed of portrayals of the show's Deep South setting, runs to "Bad Things" by Jace Everett, although the original featurette was created around the Jennifer Herrema song "RadTimesXpress". Conceptually, the sequence was constructed around the idea of "the whore in the house of prayer" by intermingling contradictory images of sex and religion and displaying them from the point of view of "a supernatural, predatory creature observing human beings from the shadows..." Ideas o
Weeds (TV series)
Weeds is an American dark comedy-drama television series created by Jenji Kohan for Showtime. Its central character is Nancy Botwin, a widowed mother of two boys who begins selling marijuana to support her family. Over the course of the series and her family become entangled in illegal activity; the first three seasons are set in the fictional town of Agrestic, California. During seasons four and five, the Botwins reside in the fictional town of Ren Mar in San Diego. In the sixth season, the family relocates to Seattle and Dearborn, Michigan. In between seasons six and seven, Nancy serves a prison sentence in Connecticut while her sons and brother-in-law live in Copenhagen, Denmark. At the beginning of season seven, Nancy moves into a halfway house in New York City where she reunites with her family, they live in Manhattan for the duration of the season, but relocate to Connecticut in the season seven finale and throughout season eight. The show debuted on the Showtime cable network on August 7, 2005, earning the channel's highest ratings.
The series ended with the eighth and final season on September 16, 2012. In 2012, TV Guide Network bought the airing rights, providing an edited version of the show free of charge; the show has received numerous awards, including two Satellite Awards, one Golden Globe Award, a Writers Guild of America Award, a Young Artist Award, two Emmy Awards. The show is inspired by crime series such as The Shield and The Sopranos, in the sense of an antihero serving as the protagonist while retaining an individual moral code, which goes against the norms of society; the title, according to Kohan, refers "including marijuana and widow's weeds. The basic premise, as illustrated by the lyrics of the opening song from the first three seasons as well its eighth, satirizes off-color characters struggling with faux suburban reality, in which everything is "all style, no substance". According to Kohan, she first pitched the series to HBO. Robert Greenblatt invested in the show and Showtime commissioned it. Weeds was produced by Tilted Productions in association with Lionsgate Television.
Showrunner and head writer Jenji Kohan, whose credits include Tracey Takes On... Mad About You, Sex and the City, is the executive producer of the series, alongside Roberto Benabib, of Little City fame; when asked who "...runs the writer's room?", Kohan responded by explaining how she and Benabib "tag team". The writer Matthew Salsberg and director Craig Zisk joined as executive producers in seasons. Following Zisk's departure from the series after five seasons, Mark Burley, director Scott Ellis, Lisa Vinnecour were added as executive producers. By season eight, writers Victoria Morrow and Stephen Falk became executive producers. Exterior scenes for the first two seasons were shot exclusively in Stevenson Ranch, a suburban area of Santa Clarita Valley, California; the large fountain and Agrestic sign in the opening credits of the first three seasons was shot at the corner of Stevenson Ranch Parkway and Holmes Place. The name "Stevenson Ranch" was digitally replaced with "Agrestic"; the overhead satellite view in the beginning of the credits in the first three seasons is of Calabasas Hills, a gated community in Calabasas, California.
The shot of the It's A Grind coffee shop in the introduction is of an It's A Grind in Castaic, California. The show was filmed at Red Studios known as Ren-Mar studios; the show moved to Universal Studios in Los Angeles for season 7, where it is noted on the studio tour. A version of this Wikipedia page served as the introduction for the season 5 episode titled "Where the Sidewalk Ends". For the seasonal plots, see Season 1, Season 2, Season 3, Season 4, Season 5, Season 6, Season 7, Season 8. Nancy Botwin is a single mother who lives in Agrestic—a fictional suburb of Los Angeles with her two children and Shane, aged 15 and 10, when the series begins; the pilot opens a few weeks after the untimely death of Nancy's husband Judah, who died of a heart attack while jogging with their younger son. Nancy starts to sell marijuana to maintain her upper middle-class lifestyle provided by her late husband's salary; the series follows Nancy's life as she gets drawn into the criminal system, develops a client base, starts a front to hide her selling, creates her own strain of weed called MILF, relocates her family to stay out of jail and protect her children.
Featured in the ensemble cast are her lazy, wisecracking brother-in-law Andy Botwin. The principal character is Nancy Price Botwin, a housewife from southern California who becomes a pot dealer after her husband Judah dies. Although her drug-dealing career achieves mixed success, she rises to the highest levels of an international drug-smuggling cartel. Nancy remarries three times during the series. First, she has an under-the-radar wedding with Peter Scottson, a DEA agent, killed. In season five, she marries Esteban Reyes, the fictional mayor of Tijuana and leader of a cartel, murdered by the seventh season. While in prison, Nancy establishes a long-term relationship with Zoya, a woman convicted of murdering her own boyfriend. In the series finale, which leaps forward seven years, viewers come to know that Nancy marries Rabbi David Bloom, who dies in a car accident. Throughout most of the show, Nancy shares her house with her brother-in-law Andy Botwin; when Andy arr
Rowan County, Kentucky
Rowan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,333, its county seat is Morehead. The county was created in 1856 from parts of Fleming and Morgan counties, named after John Rowan, who represented Kentucky in the U. S. House and Senate. With regard to the sale of alcohol, it is classified as a moist county—a county in which alcohol sales are prohibited, but containing a "wet" city, in this case Morehead, where package alcohol sales are allowed, it is believed that Rowan County was first explored by those of European descent in 1773 by a party of surveyors from Pennsylvania. The first settlement was established in a town 10 miles west of Morehead, its population increased due its fertile farming land and proximity to water sources. Additional settlers came to Rowan County from Virginia in the late 18th century after being awarded land grants at the end of the American Revolutionary War. Clearfield was the second settlement established in the county, being colonized by a Virginia aristocrat named Dixon Clack in the early 1800s.
It accommodated the first sawmill in the county. In 1854, Morehead became the third community to be settled in the area. Colonel John Hargis founded the city after purchasing land in the county, naming it after governor James Morehead. Rowan County came into existence in May 1856, seceding from Fleming County, it was divided into four districts with Morehead being declared the county seat. In 1896, a tax was levied on Morehead, sourcing it with the revenue needed to construct hard surface roads; the road system was extended to Farmers by 1920. In the summer of 2015, Rowan County attracted national attention when County Clerk Kim Davis refused, on grounds of religion, to follow a court order requiring her to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 286 square miles, of which 280 square miles is land and 6.5 square miles is water. Its highest point is "Limestone Knob" at about 1,409 feet above mean sea level. Lewis County Carter County Elliott County Morgan County Menifee County Bath County Fleming County Daniel Boone National Forest As of the census of 2010, there were 23,333 people, 7,956 households residing in the county.
The population density was 83.4 per square mile. There were 10,102 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.1% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,956 households out of which 19.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.40% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.20% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91. The age distribution was 20.30% under the age of 18, 23.50% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. Both the unusually large portion of the population in the 18-to-24 range and the low median age are because of the presence of Morehead State University.
For every 100 females there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,081. Males had a median income of $26,777 versus $20,104 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,888. About 15.90% of families and 21.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.80% of those under age 18 and 16.20% of those age 65 or over. As of 2014, the county had 14,263 registered voters. Of these, 9,394 were Democrats, 3,929 were Republicans, 626 listed themselves as members of other parties. Rowan County is known as a swing county, it went Republican in 2000, 2012, 2016, Democratic in 2004 and 2008, but in most of those elections the winning candidate won by small margins. This changed in 2016 when Republican Donald Trump won the county with nearly 59% of the vote to Democrat Hillary Clinton's 37%, the largest margin of victory since Jimmy Carter won the county in 1976. Rowan County was one of four counties in Eastern Kentucky to vote for Barack Obama in 2008.
In June and July 2015, the Rowan county clerk refused several residents their right to marry, a right guaranteed by the ruling of the Supreme Court on June 26 2015 that same-sex marriages are legal across the entirety of the United States. Held religious belief was given as the reason for non-compliance with the Court's ruling and with the state governor's executive order of June 26 instructing all state agencies and clerks to comply with it; the Morehead News – local paper WMKY – Morehead State University radio W10BM – TV Rowan Review – local online news The Trail Blazer – Morehead State University newspaper News Center - Morehead State University Television Lakeview Heights Morehead Farmers Kim Davis – Rowan County Clerk, jailed for refusing to comply with a federal court order directing her to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples following the United States Supreme Court decision in Obergefell vs. Hodges. Cora Wilson Stewart First woman to be elected to the position of the president of the Kentucky Education Association.
Opened Moonlight School, first in Rowan County and across the United States, to educate illiterate adults at night in the schools
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County and denoted as Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 60th-largest city in the United States. By land area, Lexington is the 28th largest city in the United States. Known as the "Horse Capital of the World," it is the heart of the state's Bluegrass region, it has a nonpartisan mayor-council form of government, with 12 council districts and three members elected at large, with the highest vote-getter designated vice mayor. In the 2017 U. S. Census Estimate, the city's population was 321,959, anchoring a metropolitan area of 512,650 people and a combined statistical area of 856,849 people. Lexington ranks 10th among US cities in college education rate, with 39.5% of residents having at least a bachelor's degree. It is the location of the Kentucky Horse Park, The Red Mile and Keeneland race courses, Rupp Arena, Transylvania University, the University of Kentucky, Bluegrass Community and Technical College; this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans.
European explorers began to trade with them, but settlers did not come in large numbers until the late 18th century. Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia, 17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs. Upon hearing of the colonists' victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington, it was the first of many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town. The risk of Native American uprisings against colonialism delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and erected a blockhouse, they built a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan's Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginia's newly organized Fayette County.
Colonists defended it against the British Army and allied Shawnee uprising in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly; the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide "The Travelling Church", a group migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County, Virginia to Kentucky in 1781, it is the third-oldest in the United States. In 1806, Lexington was a rising city of the vast territory to the west of the Appalachian Mountains. In the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies; the growing town was devastated by a cholera epidemic in 1833, which had spread throughout the waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys: 500 of 7,000 Lexington residents died within two months, including nearly one-third of the congregation of Christ Church Episcopal.
London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims. Additional cholera outbreaks occurred in the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by people using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years; the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease. Planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked as domestic servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, in a wide variety of trades. Plantations raised commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, thoroughbred horse breeding and racing became established in this part of the state. In 1850, one-fifth of the state's population were slaves, Lexington had the highest concentration of slaves in the entire state, it had a significant population of free blacks, who were of mixed race. By 1850, First African Baptist Church, led by London Ferrill, a free black from Virginia, had a congregation of 1,820 persons, the largest of any, black or white, in the entire state.
Many of 19th-century America's leading political and military figures spent part of their lives in the city, including U. S. President Abraham Lincoln and Confederate President Jefferson Davis. S. Senator and Vice President John C. Breckinridge. S. Senator, Secretary of State Henry Clay, who had a plantation nearby. Lincoln's wife Mary Todd Lincoln was born and raised in Lexington, the couple visited the city several times after their marriage in 1842. During the 19th century, migrants moved from central Kentucky to Missouri, they established their traditional crops and livestock in Middle Tennessee and an area of Missouri along the Missouri River. While Kentucky stayed in the Union during the American Civil War, the residents of different regions of the state had divided loyalties. In 1935 during the Great Depression, the Addiction Research Center was created as a small research unit at the U. S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington. Founded as one of the first drug rehabilitation clinics in the nation, the ARC was affiliated with a federal prison.
Expanded as the first alcohol and drug rehabilitation hospital i
National and University Library in Zagreb
National and University Library in Zagreb is the national library of Croatia and central library of the University of Zagreb. The Library was established in 1607, its primary mission is the preservation of Croatian national written heritage. It holds around 3 million items. Since 1995 the NSK has been located in a purpose-built cubical building in central Zagreb. Services provided include reference services. Exhibitions are mounted, parts of the Library’s premises may be leased; the Library houses 3 million volumes, on 12,900m of shelving in open-access reading rooms and an additional 110,000m of mobile shelving in closed stacks. The net floor area is 36,478m2, the gross floor area 44,432m2. Acquisitions under legal deposit total 18,194 monographic publications and 3,625 serial publications. There are 4,865 foreign books; the holdings in the special collections number 11,430 items. There are 7,281 items of non-book materials, 986 items of electronic materials. In 2011 there were 19,360 registered users and 357,291 visitors to the Library, of whom 22,445 used late hours study services.
In the same year there were 718,850 online visitors. For users, there are 1,100 seats, with an additional 64 seats in the Reading Rooms and 150 seats in the evening hours study room; the Special Collections are provided with 8 audio booths, 7 individual and 2 group work study rooms, there are 10 reading-and-study compartments. There is a 100-seat conference room; some of the principal tasks of the Library are: 1. The assembling and organizing of the Croatian national collection of library materials and the coordination of the acquisition of international scientific works at both the national and the University level, 2; the preservation and restoration of library materials in the context of the international Preservation and Conservation programme, 3. The promotion of Croatian printed and electronic publications, 4; the integration of the Library’s bibliographic activities and information services into international programmes, 5. The organization of the Library as the centre of the library system of the Republic of Croatia and the University of Zagreb, 6.
Scientific research in the field of library and information sciences, 7. Publishing and various promotional activities and the organization of exhibitions. Digitized Heritage Historic Croatian Newspapers Old Croatian Journals Croatian Web Archive Digital Academic Repository The Manuscripts and Old Books CollectionThe Collection assembles, preserves and makes available the items from the richest Croatian collection of national manuscripts and old books, as well as the manuscripts and numerous rare and old books belonging to other cultures; the Manuscripts and Old Books Collection contains a vast legacy of manuscripts – correspondence including nearly 100,000 letters and 3,670 call numbers for individual manuscripts. The Collection includes the photographic collection containing 865 items. In total the Collection contains 9,236 items; the Print CollectionValuable drawings and prints have constituted a significant part of the holdings of the National and University Library in Zagreb since the foundation of the Library four hundred years ago, while the Print Collection, as a separate organizational unit of the Library, was established in 1919.
Apart from being the oldest Croatian collection of this type, the Print Collection of the National and University Library in Zagreb is the largest print collection in Croatia. In addition to the works by many great names of the Croatian visual arts, the holdings of the Collection include works by numerous leading world artists; the collection includes works by the 16th-century artist Andrija Medulić, architectural drawings by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach from the 18th century, many more modern Croatian artists. The Map CollectionThe Collection assembles, preserves and makes available all types of maps and atlases. Special attention is given to older and more valuable cartographic items, national cartographic materials and the control of legal deposit procedures; the members of the Collection supply users with information in the field of cartography and provide professional assistance for researchers and students in the preparation and writing of their papers, articles or theses. The Collection comprises nearly 42,000 maps 1,500 atlases, 600 books in the accompanying reference library.
The Music CollectionThe Collection assembles, processes and makes available sheet music, the rich legacy of Croatian composers as well as a large stock of sound recordings. All materials in the collection are available to the users of the National and University Library in Zagreb and they include nearly 17,000 printed music scores, 3,000 manuscript scores, 23,600 gramophone records, 5,700 cassettes, 7,447 CDs. Reference Collection LIS Collection Doctoral and Master’s Theses Collection Homeland War Book Collection Official Publications Collection In 1607 the Jesuit order established itself in Zagreb. In addition to founding a grammar school, the Jesuits founded a Jesuit College with an accompanying library. By 1645 the library was housed in a special hall, it had a librarian and rules were established regarding the preservation and lending of books. In 1669 the Jesuit College acq