The FA Cup known as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world, it is named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2019 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent women's tournament is held, the FA Women's Cup; the competition is open to any eligible club down to Level 10 of the English football league system – all 92 professional clubs in the Premier League and the English Football League, several hundred "non-league" teams in Steps 1 to 6 of the National League System. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12; the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the final. Entrants are not seeded, although a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in rounds – the minimum number of games needed to win, depending on which round a team enters the competition, ranges from six to fourteen.
The first six rounds are the Qualifying Competition, from which 32 teams progress to the first round of the Competition Proper, meeting the first of the 48 professional teams from Leagues One and Two. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper. In the modern era, only one non-league team has reached the quarter-finals, teams below Level 2 have never reached the final; as a result, significant focus is given to those "minnows" who progress furthest if they achieve an unlikely "giant-killing" victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have been five actual cups. Winners qualify for the Europa League and a place in the FA Community Shield match. Chelsea are the current holders. Arsenal are the most successful club with 13 titles. Arsène Wenger is the most successful manager in the history of the competition, having won seven finals as manager of Arsenal. In 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then.
On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the FA Secretary C. W. Alcock proposed to the FA committee that "it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete"; the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, on 16 March 1872. Wanderers retained the trophy the following year; the modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, when qualifying rounds were introduced. Following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, did not resume until 1919–20; the 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Due to the wartime breaks, the competition did not celebrate its centenary year until 1980–81.
Having featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the 2001–2006 finals being played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff; the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria. All clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the next six levels are eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup, FA Trophy or FA Vase competitions in the previous season. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and 2006–07, may not therefore play in the FA Cup in their first season. All clubs entering the competition must have a suitable stadium, it is rare for top clubs to miss the competition, although it can happen in exceptional circumstances.
Manchester United did not defend their title in 1999–2000, as they were in the inaugural Club World Championship. The club stated that entering both tournaments would overload their fixture schedule and make it more difficult to defend their Champions League and Premier League titles; the club claimed. The move benefited United as they received a two-week break and won the 1999–2000 league title by an 18-point margin, although they did not progress past the group stage of the Club World Championship; the withdrawal from the FA Cup, drew considerable criticism as this weakened the tournament's prestige and Sir Alex Ferguson admitted his regret regarding their handling of the situation. Welsh sides that play in English leagues are eligible, although since the creation of the League of Wales there are only six clubs remaining: Cardiff City, Swansea City, Newport County, Merthyr Town and Colwyn Bay. In the early years other teams from Wales, Ireland a
Crystal Palace F.C.
Crystal Palace Football Club is an English professional football club based in Selhurst, South London, that competes in the Premier League, the highest level of English football. They were founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building and played their home games at the FA Cup Final stadium situated inside the historic Palace grounds; the club were forced to leave the Palace in 1915 due to the outbreak of the First World War, played at Herne Hill Velodrome and the Nest until 1924, when they moved to their current home at Selhurst Park. Palace have had several periods competing in the top level of English football, they enjoyed a successful period in the late 1980s and early 1990s, during which the club achieved its highest league finish of third place in the top division in 1990–91, were only denied a place in Europe because of the partial UEFA ban on English clubs at that time following the Heysel Stadium disaster. The club were one of the original founding members of the Premier League.
Palace have reached two FA Cup finals, finishing runners-up to Manchester United on both occasions in 1990 and 2016. The club's traditional kit colours were claret and blue, but in 1973 they decided to change to the red and blue vertical stripes now worn today. Palace have a fierce rivalry with Brighton & Hove Albion, with whom they contest the M23 derby and share rivalries with fellow South London clubs Millwall and Charlton Athletic. In 1895, the Football Association had found a new permanent home for the FA Cup Final at the site of the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building; some years the owners, who were reliant on tourist activity for their income, sought fresh attractions for the venue, decided to form their own football team to play at the Palace stadium. There had been an amateur Crystal Palace team as early as 1861, but they had disappeared from historical records around 1876; the owners of the venue wanted a professional club to play there and tap into the vast crowd potential of the area.
Although the Football Association disliked the idea of the owners of the Cup Final venue possessing their own football team and rejected their proposal, a separate company was established to form and own the club. Crystal Palace Football Club nicknamed "The Glaziers", were founded on 10 September 1905 under the guidance of Aston Villa assistant secretary Edmund Goodman; the club applied to enter the Football League alongside another newly formed London club Chelsea. For Palace, it was Chelsea that were accepted and the club found itself in the Southern League Second Division for the 1905–06 season; the club was successful in its inaugural season and were promoted to the First Division, crowned as champions. Palace played in the mid-week United Counties League, finishing runners-up to Watford, it was in this competition that the club played their first match, winning 3–0 away to New Brompton. Palace remained in the Southern League up until 1914, their one highlight the 1907 shock First Round victory over Newcastle United in the FA Cup.
The outbreak of the First World War led to the Admiralty requisitioning the Crystal Palace and its grounds, which meant the club was forced to leave and they moved to the home of West Norwood F. C. at Herne Hill Velodrome. Three years they moved again to the Nest due to the folding of Croydon Common F. C.. The club joined the Football League Third Division in the 1920–21 season, finishing as champions and gaining promotion to the Second Division. Palace moved to the purpose-built stadium Selhurst Park in 1924, the ground the club still plays at today; the opening fixture at Selhurst Park was against Sheffield Wednesday, Palace losing 0–1 in front of a crowd of 25,000. Finishing in twenty-first position, the club was relegated to the Third Division South. Before the Second World War Palace made good efforts at promotion, never finishing outside the top half of the table and finishing second on three occasions. During the war years, the Football League was suspended, the club won two Wartime Leagues, the South Regional League and the South'D' League.
After the war, the club were less successful in the league, their highest position being seventh, conversely on three occasions the club had to apply for re-election. The club remained in Division Three South until 1957–58. A league reorganisation would see clubs in the bottom half of the table merge with those in the bottom half of Division Three North to form a new Fourth Division. Palace finished fourteenth – just below the cut – and found itself in the basement of English football, their stay proved brief. New chairman Arthur Wait appointed Arthur Rowe as manager, the 1960–61 season saw Palace gain promotion. Palace achieved distinction in 1962 when they played the great Real Madrid team of that era in a friendly match; this was the first time. Although Rowe stepped down for health reasons towards the end of 1962, the promotion proved a turning point in the club's history. Dick Graham and Bert Head guided the club to successive promotions in 1963–64 and 1968–69, taking the club through the Second Division and into the heights of the First Division.
Palace stayed in the top flight from 1969 until 1973, but experienced great disappointment. Under the management of Malcolm Allison the club was relegated in consecutive seasons, finding itself back in Division Three for the 1974–75 season, it was under Allison that the club became nicknamed "The Eagles" and they enjoyed a run to the semi-final of the 1975-76 FA Cup, beating Leeds and Chelsea along the way. Allison was sacked at the end of the 1975–76 campaign, it was under Terry Venables' management that Palace were promoted in 1976–77 and again in 1978–79, th
Watford Football Club is a professional football club based in Watford, England, that plays in the Premier League, the highest level in the English football league system. Founded in 1898 by the amalgamation of West Herts and Watford St. Mary's. After finishing the 1914–15 season as Southern League champions under the management of Harry Kent, Watford joined the Football League in 1920; the club played at several grounds in its early history, before moving to a permanent location at Vicarage Road in 1922, where it remains. Watford spent most of the following half century in the lower divisions of The Football League, changing colours and crest on multiple occasions. England manager Graham Taylor's tenure at the club saw Watford scale new heights. Between Taylor's appointment in 1977 and departure in 1987, Watford rose from the Fourth Division to the First Division; the team finished second in the First Division in the 1982–83 season, competed in the UEFA Cup in 1983–84, reached the 1984 FA Cup Final.
Watford experienced a decade of decline between 1987 and 1997, before Taylor returned as full-time manager, leading the team to successive promotions from the renamed Second Division to the Premier League for one season in 1999–2000. The club experienced a further one season stint in the top division of English football during the 2006–07 season, under Aidy Boothroyd's management. Watford secured promotion in 2014–15, have competed in the Premier League since the 2015–16 season finishing 13th, 17th and 14th respectively. Watford is owned by the Pozzo family, which owns Udinese Calcio in Italy and Granada CF in Spain. Sir Elton John, who owned Watford during both of Graham Taylor's successful periods as manager, served alongside Taylor as the club's joint Honorary Life President until 2008, only to resume the role he shared alongside Graham Taylor until Taylor's death. Watford Football Club was formed on 15 April 1898 by the amalgamation of two strong local clubs, West Herts and Watford St Mary's.
The Watford Observer of 7 May 1898 reported - When three-parts of the season was gone, there were whispers of the advantages of amalgamation of the two clubs. That the principle was right few disputed, the question narrowed itself down to a few minor difficulties, it was ascertained that the executive on both sides regarded the suggestion favourably, joint meetings of the officials were arranged. The proposals took a definite shape, soon amalgamation was a thing accomplished, it was decided, that each club should finish off its fixtures. Next season the Watford club will play on the Cassio-Road ground, one of the chief ideas of the amalgamation is to have a second team of sufficient strength to be an attraction while the first string is engaged elsewhere; the details of the amalgamation scheme we have given in these columns. Speaking the local football season which has just closed has been a most important one, it has witnessed two steps which have marked fresh epochs - the adoption of professionalism and the amalgamation of West Herts and Watford St. Mary's.
The amalgamation was approved by the full F. A. committee on 27 May 1898 as reported by the Lichfield Mercury of 28 May 1898 "permission was given to Watford St. Mary's and West Herts to take the name of Watford Football Club, the two clubs having amalgamated." West Herts were known as Watford Rovers who were formed in 1881 by Henry Grover, who went on to play for the club as a full back. Rovers composed of amateur players, held home games at several locations in the town of Watford; the team first competed in the FA Cup in the 1886–87 season, in 1889 Watford won the County Cup for the first time. The team became the football section of "West Hertfordshire Club and Ground" in 1891, moved to a ground on Cassio Road; as "West Herts" they joined the Southern Football League in 1896. West Herts fortunes slumped at the start of the 1897/98 season and attendances were less than 200, they took the bold step of turning their fortunes revived. Watford St. Mary's were runners up in the Hertfordshire Senior Cup of 1894/95 and attracted crowds of 400 to 500 when West Herts were at home.
The two clubs talked of an amalgamation, which occurred on 15 April 1898. This was reported by the Watford Observer of 7 May 1898, it was agreed. The new club was named Watford Football Club. Following relegation to the Southern League Second Division in 1903, Watford appointed its first manager – former England international and First Division top scorer John Goodall, he led Watford to promotion, kept the team in the division until his departure in 1910. Despite financial constraints, Watford won the Southern League title in the 1914–15 season under his successor, Harry Kent. Watford held the title for five years following the suspension of the Southern League during the First World War – after finishing the 1919–20 season runners-up on goal average, the club resigned from the Southern League to join the new Football League Third Division. From 1921–22, the third tier of The Football League consisted of two parallel sections of 22 clubs, fighting both for promotion to the Second Division and battling to hold on to their league status.
There was a re-election system in place which meant the bottom two teams in each of the two divisions had to apply for re-election to the league. Watford finished outside the top six league positions in every season between 1922 and 1934. Following Kent's departure in 1926, they finished 21st out of 22 clubs in 1926–27, but were unanimously re-elected to the league after a ballot of clubs in the top two divisions of The Football
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Huddersfield Town A.F.C.
Huddersfield Town Association Football Club is a professional football club in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, which competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Huddersfield became the first English club to win three successive English League titles in 1926, a feat which only three other clubs have matched; the first two league titles were won under legendary manager and pioneer Herbert Chapman, who led the club to an FA Cup win in 1922. In the late 1950s the club was managed by featured Denis Law and Ray Wilson. Following relegation from the First Division in 1972, Huddersfield spent 45 years in the second and fourth tiers of English football, before returning to the top flight in 2017. Nicknamed The Terriers, the club plays in white shorts, they play their home games at the Kirklees Stadium. In 1910, just three years after being founded, Huddersfield entered the Football League for the first time. In November 1919 a fund-raising campaign was needed to avoid a move to Leeds.
Citizens of Huddersfield were asked to buy shares in the club for £1 each, the club staved off the proposed merger. The team went on to win promotion to Division One. Huddersfield became the first English team to win three successive English League titles in 1926 – a feat that only three other clubs have been able to match – and was achieved under the leadership of legendary manager and pioneer Herbert Chapman and his successor Cecil Potter. Huddersfield Town won the FA Cup in 1922 and the Charity Shield the same year and have been runners-up on four other occasions in the FA Cup. During the club's heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, they achieved a record attendance of 67,037 on 27 February 1932 during their FA Cup 6th round tie against Arsenal at Leeds Road; this attendance has been bettered by only 13 other clubs in the history of the Football League. After the Second World War, the club began a gradual decline, losing its First Division status in 1952, they were relegated again three seasons later.
Before the start of the 1969–70 season, Huddersfield Town adopted the nickname "The Terriers". They won the Second Division title that season. After that they moved down through the lower three divisions for 45 years. In 1998, the club attracted the attention of local businessman Barry Rubery and, after protracted takeover talks, he took over the running of the club, promising significant investment as the club sought Premiership status. However, the club fell two divisions; the club was sold by Rubery to David Taylor and under Taylor's ownership, slipped into administration. In the summer of 2003, the Terriers came out of administration under the new ownership of Ken Davy. In 2010–11, Huddersfield went 43 games unbeaten, the second-highest in the league after Arsenal's 49-match run of 2003–04. On 26 May 2012, following a penalty shoot-out in the 2012 Football League One play-off Final victory over Sheffield United, Huddersfield were promoted to the Championship; the shoot-out was the longest contested in the current League One play-offs format.
After eleven rounds, the final score was 8–7 to Huddersfield, with the winning goal being scored by goalkeeper Alex Smithies. In November 2015, German-born ex-US international David Wagner was appointed head coach, becoming the first person born outside the British Isles to manage the club in their 107-year history. On 29 May 2017, the club earned promotion to the Premier League for the first time and the English top flight for the first time since 1972, beating Reading 4–3 on penalties following a 0–0 draw after extra time in the Championship play-off Final. On 9 May 2018, the club secured safety from relegation, earning another season in the Premier League, following a 1–1 draw against Chelsea and went on to place 16th. However, the club suffered a poor start to the following season - with them taking just 2 wins in 22 matches. With the team rooted to the bottom of the table with just 11 points on the board, Wagner left the club by mutual consent on 14 January 2019, he was replaced with former Borussia Dortmund II manager Jan Siewert on a 2 year deal.
However, he couldn't prevent Huddersfield suffering relegation from the Premier League on 30 March 2019 following a defeat to Crystal Palace, with the club joining Derby County and Ipswich Town as the only clubs in the league's history to be relegated with six matches left to play. The club spent over five years debating, it ranged from salmon pink to all-blue to white with blue yoke. In 1913, the club adopted the blue-and-white jersey that remains to this day; the club badge is based on the coat of arms of Huddersfield. Town first used a badge on its shirts for the 1920 FA Cup Final based on the local Huddersfield Corporation coat of arms, it appeared again with a Yorkshire Rose for the 1922 FA Cup Final and again for the finals of 1928, 1930 and 1938. The club's main colours are evident throughout the badge both in the mantling and in the shield, in the form of stripes. Two Yorkshire White Roses and Castle Hill form part of the history of the club and the area. Town stuck with the same principal design until 1966, when Scottish manager Tom Johnston introduced all-blue shirts.
The next badge did not feature until the 1966–67 season, when the simple "HTFC" adorned the Town's all-blue shirts. When the club adopted the nickname "The Terriers" for the 1969–70 season, the blue and white stripes returned and with it a red terrier with the words "The Terriers", just in time for their promot
Lambeth is a district in Central London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 1 mile south of Charing Cross; the population of the London Borough of Lambeth was 303,086 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another; the changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings; the area is home to the International Maritime Organization. The origins of the name of Lambeth come from its first record in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning'landing place for lambs', in 1255 as Lambeth. In the Domesday Book, Lambeth is called "Lanchei" in error; the name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped to. It is formed from the Old English'lamb' and'hythe'.
South Lambeth is recorded as Sutlamehethe in 1241 and North Lambeth is recorded in 1319 as North Lamhuth. The manor of Lambeth is recorded as being under ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury from at least 1190; the Archbishops led the development of much of the manor, with Archbishop Hubert Walter creating the residence of Lambeth Palace in 1197. Lambeth and the palace were the site of two important 13th-century international treaties. Edward, the Black Prince lived in Lambeth in the 14th century in an estate that incorporated the land not belonging to the Archbishops, which included Kennington; as such, much of the freehold land of Lambeth to this day remains under Royal ownership as part of the estate of the Duchy of Cornwall. Lambeth was the site of the principal medieval London residence of the Dukes of Norfolk, but by 1680 the large house had been sold and ended up as a pottery manufacturer, creating some of the first examples of English delftware in the country; the road names, Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row reflect the legacy of the house today.
Lambeth Palace lies opposite the southern section of the Palace of Westminster on the Thames. The two were linked by a horse ferry across the river; until the mid-18th century the north of Lambeth was marshland, crossed by a number of roads raised against floods. The marshland in the area, known as Lambeth Marshe, was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name. With the opening of Westminster Bridge in 1750, followed by the Blackfriars Bridge, Vauxhall Bridge and Lambeth Bridge itself, a number of major thoroughfares were developed through Lambeth, such as Westminster Bridge Road, Kennington Road and Camberwell New Road; until the 18th century Lambeth was still rural in nature, being outside the boundaries of central London, although it had experienced growth in the form of taverns and entertainment venues, such as theatres and Bear pits. The subsequent growth in road and marine transport, along with the development of industry in the wake of the industrial revolution brought great change to the area.
The area grew with an ever-increasing population at this time, many of whom were poor. As a result, Lambeth opened a parish workhouse in 1726. In 1777 a parliamentary report recorded a parish workhouse in operation accommodating up to 270 inmates. On 18 December 1835 the Lambeth Poor Law Parish was formed, comprising the parish of St Mary, Lambeth, "including the district attached to the new churches of St John, Kennington, Norwood", its operation was overseen by an elected Board of twenty Guardians. Following in the tradition of earlier delftware manufacturers, the Royal Doulton Pottery company had their principle manufacturing site in Lambeth for several centuries; the Lambeth factory closed in 1956 and production was transferred to Staffordshire. However the Doulton offices, located on Black Prince Road still remain as they are a listed building, which includes the original decorative tiling. Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Lambeth trebled and in ten years alone between 1831 and 1841 it increased from 87,856 in to 105,883.
The railway first came to Lambeth in the 1840s, as construction began which extended the London and South Western Railway from its original station at Nine Elms to the new terminus at London Waterloo via the newly constructed Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct. With the massive urban development of London in the 19th century and with the opening of the large Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station and Lower Marsh became known as Waterloo, becoming an area distinct from Lambeth itself; the Lambeth Ragged school was built in 1851 to help educate the children of destitute facilities, although the widening of the London and South Western Railway in 1904 saw the building reduced in size. Part of the school building still is occupied by the Beaconsfield Gallery; the Beaufoy Institute was built in 1907 to provide technical education for the poor of the area, although this stopped being an educational institution at the end of the 20th century. Lambeth Walk and Lambeth High Street were the two principle commercial streets of Lambeth, but today are predominantly residential in nature.
Lambeth Walk was site of a market for many years, which by 1938 had 159 shops, including 11 butchers. The street and surrounding roads, like most of Lambeth were extensively damaged in the Second World War; this included the complete destruction of the Victorian Swimming Baths in 1945, when a V2 Rocket hit the street resulting in the deaths of 37 peopl
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under